Loading...
*  CTL-mediated cytotoxicity
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are generated by immune activation of cytotoxic T cells (Tc cells). They are generally CD8+, ... One pathway is the cytotoxic protein pathway. In this pathway perforins and granzymes are taken up by the target cell. In this ... After a precursor cell has been activated, it can then differentiate into a functional CTL with cytotoxic activity. There are ... These pathways are the cytotoxic protein pathway and the Fas ligand pathway. Apoptosis is the primary mechanism for both of ...
*  Reactive lymphocyte
Reactive lymphocytes or variant lymphocytes are cytotoxic (CD8+) lymphocytes that become large as a result of antigen ... Reactive lymphocytes are usually associated with viral illnesses, but they can also be present as a result of drug reactions ( ... The nucleus of a reactive lymphocyte can be round, elliptic, indented, cleft, or folded. The cytoplasm is often abundant and ... Review Article: The Atypical Lymphocyte- International Pediatrics Volume 18, No. 1; Michael W. Simon. Educational Commentary: ...
*  Natural killer cell
"Cytotoxic lymphocytes from normal donors. A functional marker of human non-T lymphocytes". Clin. Exp. Immunol. 21 (2): 226-35. ... Natural killer cells or NK cells are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune system. The role NK cells ... "Natural cytotoxic reactivity of human lymphocytes against a myeloid cell line: characterization of effector cells". Journal of ... granular lymphocytes known today as NK cells. The demonstration that density gradient-isolated large granular lymphocytes were ...
*  GZMA
Masson D, Zamai M, Tschopp J (Dec 1986). "Identification of granzyme A isolated from cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-granules as one of ... 1988). "Human cytotoxic lymphocyte tryptase. Its purification from granules and the characterization of inhibitor and substrate ... Baetz K, Isaaz S, Griffiths GM (1995). "Loss of cytotoxic T lymphocyte function in Chediak-Higashi syndrome arises from a ... 1988). "Characterization of granzymes A and B isolated from granules of cloned human cytotoxic T lymphocytes". J. Immunol. 141 ...
*  GPR56
Lin and Hamann's group show all human cytotoxic lymphocytes, including CD56dull NK cells and CD27-CD45RA+ effector-type CD8+ T ... "Specific expression of GPR56 by human cytotoxic lymphocytes". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 90 (4): 735-40. doi:10.1189/jlb. ... "Specific expression of GPR56 by human cytotoxic lymphocytes". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 90 (4): 735-40. doi:10.1189/jlb. ... More recently it has been shown to be a marker for cytotoxic T cells and a subgroup of Natural killer cells. GPR56 binds ...
*  Adhesion G protein-coupled receptor
GPR56 has been shown to a marker for inflammatory NK cell subsets and to be expressed by cytotoxic lymphocytes. GPR126 is ... "Specific expression of GPR56 by human cytotoxic lymphocytes". Journal of leukocyte biology. 90 (4): 735-40. doi:10.1189/jlb. ...
*  Calcineurin
In this way, it governs the action of cytotoxic lymphocytes. The amount of IL-2 being produced by the T-helper cells is ... IL-2 activates T-helper lymphocytes and induces the production of other cytokines. ...
*  Ribavirin
... controlling nitric oxide helps generate cytotoxic lymphocyte" (PDF). Cancer Biology & Therapy. 1 (6): 626-30. doi:10.4161/cbt. ...
*  Granzyme B
Wowk ME (2004). "Cytotoxic activity of the lymphocyte toxin granzyme B". Microbes Infect. 6 (8): 752-8. doi:10.1016/j.micinf. ... In the granules of cytotoxic lymphocytes the enzyme can exist in two glycosylated forms. The high mannose form weighs 32kDa and ... Granzyme B is a serine protease most commonly found in the granules of cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTLs), natural killer cells (NK ... "Cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic roles of the CTL/NK protease granzyme B". Immunol. Rev. 235 (1): 105-16. doi:10.1111/j.0105- ...
*  STX11
"Defective cytotoxic lymphocyte degranulation in syntaxin-11 deficient familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis 4 (FHL4) ... syntaxin 11 regulates lymphocyte-mediated secretion and cytotoxicity". Journal of Immunology. 179 (6): 3397-401. doi:10.4049/ ...
*  Perforin
... is a pore forming cytolytic protein found in the granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and NK cells. Upon ... Ambach A, Bonnekoh B, Gollnick H (2001). "Perforin granule release from cytotoxic lymphocytes ex vivo is inhibited by ... and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-mediated cytolysis". Nature. 322 (6082): 831-4. doi:10.1038/322831a0. PMID 2427956. Rosado CJ, ... Trapani JA (1996). "Target cell apoptosis induced by cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells involves synergy between the ...
*  Interleukin-12 subunit beta
Subunit beta of interleukin 12 (also known as IL-12B, natural killer cell stimulatory factor 2, cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation ... cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation factor 2, p40)". Oppmann B, Lesley R, Blom B, Timans JC, Xu Y, Hunte B, Vega F, Yu N, Wang J, ... "Coexpression of two distinct genes is required to generate secreted bioactive cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation factor". Proc. ... "Purification to homogeneity and partial characterization of cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation factor from human B-lymphoblastoid ...
*  IL12A
"Entrez Gene: IL12A interleukin 12A (natural killer cell stimulatory factor 1, cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation factor 1, p35)". ... "Coexpression of two distinct genes is required to generate secreted bioactive cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation factor". Proc. ... The responses of lymphocytes to this cytokine are mediated by the activator of transcription protein STAT4. Nitric oxide ... "The interleukin-12 and interleukin-12 receptor system in normal and transformed human B lymphocytes". Haematologica. 87 (4): ...
*  HLA-DP
Alternatively, macrophages and other cytotoxic lymphocytes consume or destroy cells by apoptotic signaling and present self- ... and B-lymphocytes). Normally, these APC 'present' class II receptor/antigens to a great many T-cells, each with unique T-cell ...
*  CD8
Marker for cytotoxic T lymphocytes "CD8 alpha - Marker for cytotoxic T lymphocytes". ... "CD8 alpha - Marker for cytotoxic T Lymphocytes". Retrieved 11 January 2016. T-cell Group - Cardiff University Mouse CD Antigen ... Cytotoxic T cells with CD8 surface protein are called CD8+ T cells. The main recognition site is a flexible loop at the α3 ... In addition to aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions the CD8 co-receptor also plays a role in T cell signaling. The ...
*  GZMH
Klein JL, Selvakumar A, Trapani JA, Dupont B (1990). "Characterization of a novel, human cytotoxic lymphocyte-specific serine ... Edwards KM, Kam CM, Powers JC, Trapani JA (1999). "The human cytotoxic T cell granule serine protease granzyme H has ... 1990). "Cloning of a gene that encodes a new member of the human cytotoxic cell protease family". Biochemistry. 29 (17): 4042-9 ... 2004). "Discordant regulation of granzyme H and granzyme B expression in human lymphocytes". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (25): 26581-7. ...
*  FGL2
This shows that sFGL2 largely inhibits the Th1 type response needed to activate cytotoxic lymphocytes to clear HCV infections. ... Rüegg C, Pytela R (1995). "Sequence of a human transcript expressed in T-lymphocytes and encoding a fibrinogen-like protein". ... 1998). "Characterization of human fibroleukin, a fibrinogen-like protein secreted by T lymphocytes". J. Immunol. 161 (1): 138- ... HCV's core protein has been found to increase the levels of expression of sFGL2 and cause virus-specific CD4+ T lymphocytes to ...
*  Carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester
Another novel application of CFSE is its use for the in vitro and in vivo determination of cytotoxic lymphocytes. Detailed ... Subsequent studies revealed that the dye can be used to monitor lymphocyte proliferation, both in vitro and in vivo, due to the ... CFSE was originally developed as a fluorescent dye that could be used to stably label lymphocytes and track their migration ... By the use of fluorescent antibodies against different lymphocyte cell surface markers it is also possible to follow the ...
*  Cytotoxic T cell
A cytotoxic T cell (also known as TC, cytotoxic T lymphocyte, CTL, T-killer cell, cytolytic T cell, CD8+ T-cell or killer T ... Subramanian S and Ramalingam K (2005). "Electron microscopic evidence on the participation Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes and ... Platelets have been shown to facilitate the accumulation of virus-specific cytotoxic T cells into the infected liver. Cytotoxic ... "Platelets mediate cytotoxic T lymphocyte-induced liver damage". Nature Medicine. 11 (11): 1167-9. doi:10.1038/nm1317. PMC ...
*  Hepatitis B
"Platelets mediate cytotoxic T lymphocyte-induced liver damage". Nat. Med. 11 (11): 1167-9. doi:10.1038/nm1317. PMC 2908083 . ... in particular virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes(CTLs), contributes to most of the liver injury associated with HBV ... Immunosuppressive drugs favor increased HBV replication while inhibiting cytotoxic T cell function in the liver. The risk of ...
*  Serpin
... the cytotoxic lymphocyte serpin proteinase inhibitor 9 protects against granzyme B-mediated apoptosis without perturbing the ... "Serine protease inhibitor 6 protects cytotoxic T cells from self-inflicted injury by ensuring the integrity of cytotoxic ... granzyme B inhibitor related to the viral apoptotic regulator cytokine response modifier A is present in cytotoxic lymphocytes ... For example, one of the best-characterised human intracellular serpins is Serpin B9, which inhibits the cytotoxic granule ...
*  GZMK
This gene product is a member of a group of related serine proteases from the cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic lymphocytes. ... 1993). "Purification of three cytotoxic lymphocyte granule serine proteases that induce apoptosis through distinct substrate ... both map to chromosome 5q11-q12 and define a new locus for cytotoxic lymphocyte granule tryptases". Immunogenetics. 40 (3): 235 ... Cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells share the remarkable ability to recognize, bind, and lyse specific ...
*  Antonio Siccardi
"Adoptive immunotherapy by avidin-driven cytotoxic T lymphocyte-tumor bridging". Cancer research. 60 (15): 4211-5. PMID 10945632 ...
*  Ipilimumab
That signal binds to a receptor, cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), on the CTL and turns off the cytotoxic ... Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) can recognize and destroy cancer cells. However, an inhibitory mechanism interrupts this ... These antigens are recognized by dendritic cells that present the antigens to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in the lymph nodes ... Robert C, Ghiringhelli F (August 2009). "What is the role of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 blockade in patients ...
*  Tremelimumab
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) can recognize and destroy cancer cells. However, there is also an inhibitory mechanism (immune ... Tremelimumab binds to the protein CTLA-4, which is expressed on the surface of activated T lymphocytes and inhibits the killing ...
*  GNLY
Granulysin is present in cytolytic granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells. Granulysin is made ... Granulysin is a protein present in cytotoxic granules of cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells. Granulysin is a member of ... Donlon TA, Krensky AM, Clayberger C (1990). "Localization of the human T lymphocyte activation gene 519 (D2S69E) to chromosome ... 9kD granulysin is also a chemoattractant for T lymphocytes, monocytes, and other inflammatory cells and activates the ...
*  Platelet
2005). "Platelets mediate cytotoxic T lymphocyte-induced liver damage". Nat. Med. 11 (11): 1167-69. doi:10.1038/nm1317. PMC ... 1996). "Platelet-mediated lymphocyte delivery to high endothelial venules". Science. 273 (5272): 252-55. Bibcode:1996Sci...273 ... which have a nucleus and resemble B lymphocytes in morphology. They aggregate in response to thrombin, but not to ADP, ...