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*  Nanopillar
Solar collector surfaces coated with nanopillars are three times as efficient as nanowire solar cells. Less material is needed ... This shape in combination with nanopillars' ability to be grouped together exhibits many useful properties. Nanopillars have ... A surface covered with nanopillars would immediately kill off all soft membrane bacteria. More rigid bacteria will be more ... nanopillars could reduce much of the risk of transmitting diseases through touching infected surfaces. Another use of ...
*  Chemical force microscopy
For similarly functionalized tip and surface, at tip detachment JKR theory also predicts a contact radius of (2) r = ( 3 π γ R ... with the substrate knowing tube diameter and number of walls which helps in determining single moiety tensile properties. ... Choice chemistry is typically gold-coated tip and surface with R-SH thiols attached, R being the functional groups of interest ... 1000) is exploited to image surfaces with deep features. The use of the carbon material broadens the functionalization ...
*  Molecular self-assembly
Non-surface active molecules can assemble into ordered structures as well. Early direct proofs showing that non-surface active ... DNA nanotechnology uses the unique molecular recognition properties of DNA and other nucleic acids to create self-assembling ... the gecko's foot is able to intimately conform to the surface and generate significant attraction using van der Waals forces. ... branched DNA complexes with useful properties. DNA is thus used as a structural material rather than as a carrier of biological ...
*  Plasma polymerization
Van Os, M. (2000). Surface Modification by Plasma Polymerization: Film Deposition, Tailoring of Surface Properties, and ... These polymers are known to form nearly uniform surface deposition, which is one of their desirable properties. Polymers formed ... The ability for them to build off of electrode surfaces is likely to be an electrostatic interaction, while on other surfaces ... While both types are dependent on the chemical properties of the monomer, the properties of plasma polymers depend more greatly ...
*  Polymer adsorption
The covalently bonded subunits form a surface with differing properties as compared to non-polymer surfaces. Some examples of ... Polymer surfaces differ from non-polymer surfaces in that the subunits that make up the surface are covalently bonded to one ... Because the polymer surfaces are solid surfaces, surface tension cannot be measured in a traditional way such as using a ... ISBN 978-3-527-40629-6. quest@surface-tension.de. "Solid surface energy data (SFE) for common polymers". www.surface-tension.de ...
*  Dielectric barrier discharge
The treatment can be used to modify the surface properties of the textile to improve wettability, improve the absorption of ... The plasma itself is used to modify or clean (plasma cleaning) surfaces of materials (e.g. polymers, semiconductor surfaces), ... "Cleaning properties of atomic oxygen excited to metastable state 2s[sup 2]2p[sup 4]([sup 1]S[sub 0])". Journal of Applied ... Depending on the geometry, DBD can be generated in a volume (VDBD) or on a surface (SDBD). For VDBD the plasma is generated ...
*  Field electron emission
For sharply curved surfaces, J may also depend on the parameter(s) used to describe the surface curvature. Owing to the ... The device field-emits because its microstructure/nanostructure has field-enhancing properties. This material had a potential ... It is adequate for smooth, classical curved surfaces of radii down to about 10 to 20 nm. It can be adapted to surfaces of ... 30) below]. The adsorption of layers of gas atoms (such as oxygen) onto the emitter surface, or part of it, can create surface ...
*  Surface properties of transition metal oxides
An example of a polar surface is the rocksalt (111) surface. In general, a polar surface is less stable than a nonpolar surface ... Examples of nonpolar surfaces include the rocksalt (100) surface, the rutile (100), (110) and (001) surfaces and the pervoskite ... the surface will be dipoleless and is considered a nonpolar surface. If the structures are different, the surface will have a ... to obtain the most thermodynamically stable surface. The stability of these surface structures are evaluated by surface ...
*  Walter Houser Brattain
Brattain spoke on Surface Properties of Semiconductors, Bardeen on Semiconductor Research Leading to the Point Contact ... He continued to study the surface properties of solids and the "transistor effect", so as to better understand the various ... doi:10.1002/j.1538-7305.1956.tb03829.x. Brattain, Walter H. (December 11, 1956). "Surface Properties of Semiconductors". Nobel ... The gold contacts were pressed down on the bare surface. Both gold contacts to the surface rectified nicely... One point was ...
*  Graphene
These intrinsic properties could lead to applications such as NEMS as pressure sensors and resonators. Due to its large surface ... Boehm, H. P.; Clauss, A.; Fischer, G.; Hofmann, U. (1962). "Surface Properties of Extremely Thin Graphite Lamellae". ... A graphene gyroid has five percent of the density of steel, yet is ten times as strong with an enormous surface area to volume ... Graphene's unique optical properties produce an unexpectedly high opacity for an atomic monolayer in vacuum, absorbing πα ≈ 2.3 ...
*  Optical fiber
"Optical and surface properties of oxyfluoride glass". Proceedings of SPIE. Inorganic Optical Materials II. 4102: 122. doi: ... since any defects of the preform surface affect the optical and mechanical properties of the resulting fiber. In particular, ... Because of the surface tension, the shape is smoothed during the drawing process, and the shape of the resulting fiber does not ... The properties of the fiber can be tailored to a wide variety of applications. Attenuation in fiber optics, also known as ...
*  Radar astronomy
Rotation period, gross surface properties. The Magellan mission mapped the entire planet using a radar altimeter. Jupiter ... Radar images provide information about the shapes and surface properties of solid bodies, which cannot be obtained by other ... Measurements included surface roughness and later mapping of shadowed regions near the poles. The next easiest target is Venus ... The following is a list of planetary bodies that have been observed by this means: Mars - Mapping of surface roughness from ...
*  Ceres (dwarf planet)
"Ceres surface properties by high-resolution imaging from Earth". Icarus. 105 (2): 271-281. Bibcode:1993Icar..105..271S. doi: ... Its surface area is approximately the same as the land area of India or Argentina. The surface composition of Ceres is broadly ... Ceres's relatively warm surface temperature implies that any of the resulting ice on its surface would have gradually ... Material left behind by the sublimation of surface ice could explain the dark surface of Ceres compared to the icy moons of the ...
*  Impact structure
"Surface Properties, Regolith, and Landscape Degradation". In Pappalardo, Robert T. Europa. The University of Arizona space ... On the other hand, geologically inactive bodies with old surfaces, such as Earth's Moon or Callisto, are covered with impact ... has been found on its surface to date. The Earth has about 150 recognized craters, but many have been geologically modified and ... unlike the ancient pristine craters preserved on the Moon and other geologically inactive rocky bodies with old surfaces in the ...
*  History of graphene
Boehm, H. P.; Clauss, A.; Fischer, G.; Hofmann, U. (1962). "Surface Properties of Extremely Thin Graphite Lamellae". ... It was studied in detail by Kohlschütter and Haenni in 1918, who described the properties of graphite oxide paper. Its ... Oshima, C.; Nagashima, A. (1997). "Ultra-thin epitaxial films of graphite and hexagonal boron nitride on solid surfaces". J. ... Following discussions with colleagues, Andre and Kostya adopted a method that researchers in surface science were using -using ...
*  Walden Pond
... its mirror-like surface properties. Thoreau contemplates the source of the pristine water body in the woods. He observes that ... I have spent many an hour, when I was younger, floating over its surface as the zephyr willed, having paddled my boat to the ... Judge David A. Rose, sitting in the Massachusetts Superior Court, ruled that Walden's deed donating the property to the ... In "The Ponds" section of Walden, published in 1854, Thoreau extols the water's physical properties. He details its ...
*  Asteroid spectral types
Chapman, C. R.; Morrison, D.; Zellner, B. (1975). "Surface properties of asteroids: A synthesis of polarimetry, radiometry, and ... For small bodies that are not internally differentiated, the surface and internal compositions are presumably similar, while ... ISBN 0-8165-2281-2. Cellino, A.; Bus, S. J.; Doressoundiram, A.; Lazzaro, D. (March 2002). "Spectroscopic Properties of ... and as such may have younger less-altered surfaces or be composed of a less varied mix of minerals.[citation needed] In a ...
*  Fluoride glass
2, p. 566 (1984) Nee, S.F., et al., Optical and surface properties of oxyfluoride glasses, Proc. SPIE, Vol. 4102, p. 122 (2000 ... Characterization of optical constants for transparent materials, in Properties and Characteristics of Optical Glass, Ed. A.J. ... NASA-supported researchers have discovered that glass formed in space has remarkable properties. April 14, 2003, Author: Karen ...
*  Geology of solar terrestrial planets
Altimetry and surface properties". Journal of Geophysical Research. The SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System. 85: 8261. Bibcode: ... Much of the surface is deeply covered by dust as fine as talcum powder. The red/orange appearance of Mars' surface is caused by ... The planetary surface undergoes reshaping over geological time periods due to the effects of tectonics and erosion. The surface ... About 70.8% of the surface is covered by water, with much of the continental shelf below sea level. The submerged surface has ...
*  List of gravitationally rounded objects of the Solar System
O. Saint-Pé; N. Combes; F. Rigaut (1993). "Ceres surface properties by high-resolution imaging from Earth". Icarus. 105 (2): ... Derived from density ^ Surface area was calculated using the formula for a scalene ellipsoid: 2 π ( c 2 + b a 2 − c 2 E ( α , m ... Surface gravity derived from the mass m, the gravitational constant G and the radius r: G*m/r2 . ^ Escape velocity derived from ... Surface area A derived from the radius using A = 4 π r 2 {\displaystyle {\begin{smallmatrix}A=4\pi r^{2}\end{smallmatrix}}} , ...
*  Emulsion stabilization using polyelectrolytes
ISBN 978-0-471-24247-5. Luthy, Richard G; Selleck, Robert E; Galloway, Terry R (1977). "Surface Properties of Petroleum ... The surface charge density of these surfaces, at low surface potentials, can be modeled using a simplified version of the ... h {\displaystyle h} = the surface to surface distance of the spherical particles. T {\displaystyle T} = the thermodynamic ... surface potential. Examples of polymers and their surface charge densities can be found in the table below. Depending on the ...
*  Activated carbon
doi:10.1016/0008-6223(93)90009-y. Youssef A.M.; Abdelbary E.M.; Samra S.E.; Dowidar A.M. (1991). "Surface-properties of carbons ... Evans, M. J. B.; Halliop, E.; Liang, S.; MacDonald, J. A. F. (1998). "The effect of chlorination on surface properties of ... Some of the chemical properties of activated carbon have been attributed to presence of the surface active carbon double bond. ... Pradhan B.K.; Sandle N.K. (1999). "Effect of different oxidizing agent treatments on the surface properties of activated ...
*  Cord factor
Surface properties and development of a model system". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 256 (15): 8208-16. PMID 7263645. ... As the monolayer surface area of cord factor increases, so does its toxicity. The length of the carbon chain on cord factor has ... On a hydrophobic surface, they spontaneously form a crystalline monolayer. This crystalline monolayer is extremely durable and ... Cord factor remains on the surface of M. tuberculosis cells until it associates with a lipid droplet, where it forms a ...
*  Ascraeus Mons
Bibcode:2007LPI....38.1363G. Zimbleman, J.R. (1985). "Surface Properties of Ascraeus Mons: Dust Deposits on a Tharsis Volcano ... See the Martian Surface.) The dust forms a mantle over the surface that obscures or mutes much of the fine-scale topography and ... The volcano was originally called North Spot because it was the northernmost of only four spots visible on the surface due to a ... These rimless pit craters are believed to form by collapse of surface material into a subsurface void created either by a dike ...
*  Pavonis Mons
Zimbleman, J.R. (1985). "Surface Properties of Ascraeus Mons: Dust Deposits on a Tharsis Volcano" (PDF). Lunar and Planetary ... see Martian surface). The dust forms a mantle over the surface that obscures or mutes much of the fine-scale topography and ... The bulk of the volcano's surface consists of lava flows of the early Amazonian age. The northern flanks of the volcano are ... The summit experiences an atmospheric pressure of around 130 Pa (1.3 mbar), about 21% of Mars' mean surface pressure. The ...
*  Gunnies
The term is also used when this space breaks the surface of the ground, but it can then be known as a coffin or goffen. It can ... "The Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape World Heritage Site nomination, Section 3a - Description of the Property" (PDF). ... The breach occurred at the 65-fathom level (390 feet below the surface). Marsh, Peter (21 April 1983). "Shaft of light for ... used to describe the deep trenches that were dug by early miners in following the ore-bearing lode downwards from the surface ...
*  Geology of Ceres
"Ceres surface properties by high-resolution imaging from earth". Icarus. 105: 271. doi:10.1006/icar.1993.1125. ISSN 0019-1035. ... The surface of Ceres is comparable to the surfaces of Saturn's moon Rhea and Tethys, and Uranus's moon Umbriel and Oberon. With ... Surface of Ceres has a large number of craters with low relief, indicating that they lie over a relatively soft surface, ... Material left behind by the sublimation of surface ice could explain the dark surface of Ceres compared to the icy moons of the ...