*  Pentose
Phosphorylated pentoses are important products of the pentose phosphate pathway, most importantly ribose 5-phosphate (R5P), ... A polymer composed of pentose sugars is called a pentosan. The most important tests for pentoses rely on converting the pentose ... In Tollens' test for pentoses (not to be confused with Tollens' silver-mirror test for reducing sugars) the furfural ring ... which is used in the synthesis of nucleotides and nucleic acids, and erythrose 4-phosphate (E4P), which is used in the ...
*  Sugar phosphates
... (sugars that have added or substituted phosphate groups) are often used in biological systems to store or ... Dihydroxyacetonephosphate Glucose-6-phosphate Phytic acid Teichoic acid Sugar Phosphates at the US National Library of Medicine ... They also form the backbone for DNA and RNA (DNA having two sugar molecules, and RNA having just one). Examples include: ...
*  Sugar-phosphatase
... sugar + phosphate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are sugar phosphate and H2O, whereas its two products are sugar and ... In enzymology, a sugar-phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.23) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction sugar phosphate + H2O ⇌ {\ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is sugar-phosphate phosphohydrolase. As of late 2007, only one structure has been ... GET Better Stuff Lee YP, Sowokinos JR (1967). "Sugar phosphate phosphohydrolase. I. Substrate specificity, intracellular ...
*  SLC37A2
Bartoloni L, Antonarakis SE (February 2004). "The human sugar-phosphate/phosphate exchanger family SLC37". Pflugers Archiv. 447 ... "SLC37A1 and SLC37A2 are phosphate-linked, glucose-6-phosphate antiporters". PLoS One. 6 (9): e23157. doi:10.1371/journal.pone. ... Solute carrier family 37 (glucose-6-phosphate transporter), member 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC37A2 gene ... glucose-6-phosphate transporter), member 2". Pan CJ, Chen SY, Jun HS, Lin SR, Mansfield BC, Chou JY (2011). " ...
*  Solute carrier family
Bartoloni L, Antonarakis SE (2004). "The human sugar-phosphate/phosphate exchanger family SLC37". Pflugers Arch. 447 (5): 780- ... sugar-phosphate/phosphate exchanger(SLC37A1, SLC37A2, SLC37A3, SLC37A4) (38) System A & N, sodium-coupled neutral amino acid ... type II Na+-phosphate cotransporter(SLC34A1, SLC34A2, SLC34A3) (35) nucleoside-sugar transportersubfamily A (SLC35A1, SLC35A2, ... Reimer RJ, Edwards RH (2004). "Organic anion transport is the primary function of the SLC17/type I phosphate transporter family ...
*  Restriction digest
Net charge in DNA is produced by the sugar-phosphate backbone. This is in contrast to proteins, in which there is no "backbone ...
*  Phosphatase
Each cleaves a phosphate group from a six-carbon sugar phosphate intermediate. Within the larger class of phosphatase, the ... Whereas phosphatases remove phosphate groups from molecules, kinases catalyze the transfer of phosphate groups to molecules ... which catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group from hydrogen phosphate to an acceptor. Due to their prevalence in cellular ... A phosphatase is an enzyme that uses water to cleave a phosphoric acid monoester into a phosphate ion and an alcohol. Because a ...
*  Glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase (isomerizing)
"The mechanism of sugar phosphate isomerization by glucosamine 6-phosphate synthase". Protein Sci. 8 (3): 596-602. doi:10.1110/ ... D-glucosamine 6-phosphate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are L-glutamine and D-fructose 6-phosphate, whereas its two ... GRYDER RM, POGELL BM (1960). "Further studies on glucosamine 6-phosphate synthesis by rat liver enzymes". J. Biol. Chem. 235: ... In enzymology, a glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase (isomerizing) (EC 2.6.1.16) is an enzyme that catalyzes the ...
*  Robert K. Crane
1. An intracellular locus of disaccharide and sugar phosphate ester hydrolysis". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 52, 1961, pp. ... "The relationship of mitochondrial phosphate to aerobic phosphate bond generation". Journal of Biological Chemistry 201, 1953, ... "Water with sugar and salt". Lancet 2, August 5, 1978, pp. 300-301. "High Rider Reaches Agreement in Principal(sic) with French ... "Dinitrocresol and phosphate stimulation of the oxygen consumption of a cell-free oxidative system obtained from sea urchin eggs ...
*  Sugar-terminal-phosphatase
The systematic name of this enzyme class is sugar-omega-phosphate phosphohydrolase. This enzyme is also called xylitol-5- ... London J, Hausman SZ, Thompson J (1985). "Characterization of a membrane-regulated sugar phosphate phosphohydrolase from ... phosphate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are D-glucose 6-phosphate and H2O, whereas its two products are D-glucose and ... In enzymology, a sugar-terminal-phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.58) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction D-glucose 6- ...
*  RNA world
They consist of a nitrogenous base attached to a sugar-phosphate backbone. RNA is made of long stretches of specific ... cyclic phosphates. A potential weakness of these routes is the generation of enantioenriched glyceraldehyde, or its 3-phosphate ... The major difference between RNA and DNA is the presence of a hydroxyl group at the 2'-position of the ribose sugar in RNA ( ... The hydroxyl group also forces the ribose into the C3'-endo sugar conformation unlike the C2'-endo conformation of the ...
*  OGT (gene)
The oxygen ion then attacks the sugar-phosphate bond between the glucosamine and UDP. This results in the splitting of UDP-N- ... Also, there is competitive regulation between OGT and kinase for the protein to attach to a phosphate group or O-GlcNAc, which ... Proton transfers take place at the phosphate and Histidine 498. This mechanism is spurred by OGT gene containing O-linked N- ... OGT catalyzes attachment of the O-GlcNAc group to serine and threonine, while O-GlcNAcase spurs sugar removal. This regulation ...
*  Timeline of biology and organic chemistry
1952 - Rosalind Franklin concluded that DNA is a double helix with a diameter of 2 nm and the sugar-phosphate backbones on the ... She suspected the two sugar-phosphate backbones have a peculiar relationship to each other. 1953 - After examining Franklin's ... with one sugar-phosphate backbone running in the opposite direction to the other. They further suggested a mechanism by which ... 1884 - Emil Fischer began his detailed analysis of the compositions and structures of sugars. 1892 - Hans Driesch separated the ...
*  SgrS RNA
Rice JB; Vanderpool CK (2011). "The small RNA SgrS controls sugar-phosphate accumulation by regulating multiple PTS genes". ... but is correlated with intracellular accumulation of glucose-6-phosphate. SgrS helps cells recover from glucose-phosphate ... SgrS (sugar transport-related sRNA, previously named ryaA) is a 227 nucleotide small RNA that is activated by SgrR in ... Papenfort, K; Sun, Y; Miyakoshi, M; Vanderpool, CK; Vogel, J (Apr 11, 2013). "Small RNA-mediated activation of sugar ...
*  Fructosephosphates
... are sugar phosphates based upon fructose, and are common in the biochemistry of cells. Fructosephosphates ... Fructose 1-phosphate Fructose 2-phosphate Fructose 3-phosphate Fructose 6-phosphate Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate Fructose 2,6- ... play integral roles in many metabolic pathways, particularly glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and the pentose phosphate pathway. The ...
*  Aminocyclitol
2-epi-5-epi-valiolone synthase (EEVS), one of the sugar phosphate cyclase family enzyme and which is a homolog of 3- ... myo-inositol 1-phosphate derived aminoglycosides This class includes streptomycin, spectinomycin. sedoheptulose 7-phosphate ... "A Comparative Analysis of the Sugar Phosphate Cyclase Superfamily Involved in Primary and Secondary Metabolism". ChemBioChem. 8 ... kirkamide Sedoheptulose 7-phosphate, a pentose phosphate pathway intermediate, is a common precursor of C7N aminocyclitol ...
*  Transcription (biology)
... sugar where DNA has deoxyribose (one fewer oxygen atom) in its sugar-phosphate backbone).[citation needed] mRNA transcription ... RNA polymerase adds RNA nucleotides (which are complementary to the nucleotides of one DNA strand). RNA sugar-phosphate ...
*  Triple-stranded DNA
In peptide nucleic acid (PNA), the sugar-phosphate backbone is replaced with a protein-like backbone. PNAs form P-loops while ... Fraser's model differed from Pauling and Corey's in that in his model the phosphates are on the outside and the bases are on ... However, Watson and Crick soon identified several problems with these models: Negatively charged phosphates near the axis repel ...
*  Carbon fixation
The Calvin cycle converts carbon dioxide into sugar, as triose phosphate (TP), which is glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAP) ... Ljungdahl L, Wood HG (1965). "Incorporation of C-14 from carbon dioxide into sugar phosphates, carboxylic acids, and amino ... Tropical grasses, such as sugar cane and maize are C4 plants, but there are many broadleaf plants that are C4. Overall, 7600 ... together with dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP): 3 CO2 + 12 e− + 12 H+ + Pi → TP + 4 H2O An alternative perspective accounts ...
*  Ada (protein)
Ada transfers the alkyl group from DNA bases and sugar-phosphate backbone to a cysteine residue, inactivating itself. ...
*  Chimeric RNA
DNA forms a double helix structure and is a composed of a sugar-phosphate backbone and nitrogenous bases. This can be thought ... It's made of a base, a molecule of sugar and a molecule of phosphoric acid. The double helix structure of DNA is composed of ... of as a ladder structure where the sides of the ladder are constructed of deoxyribose sugar and phosphate while the rungs of ...
*  DNA polymerase III holoenzyme
DNA , <--deoxyribose (sugar)-phosphate backbone G U A U C G T A G G, Pol , <--RNA primer * * * * * * * * * *,_III_ _, <-- ... sugar)-phosphate backbone G U A U , Pol , <--RNA primer * * * * ,_III_ _, <--hydrogen bonding C A T A G C A T C C <--template ... sugar)-phosphate backbone G U A U , Pol , <--RNA primer * * * * ,_ _ _ _, <--hydrogen bonding C A T A G C A T C C <--template ... ssDNA (single-stranded DNA) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ <--deoxyribose (sugar)-phosphate backbone $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ As replication ...
*  Transketolase
In mammals, transketolase connects the pentose phosphate pathway to glycolysis, feeding excess sugar phosphates into the main ... The phosphate group of the substrate also plays an important role in stabilizing the substrate upon its entrance into the ... The ionic nature is found in the salt bridge formed from Arg359 to the phosphate group. The catalysis of this mechanism is ... Transketolase is an enzyme of both the pentose phosphate pathway in all organisms and the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis. It ...
*  Glycolysis
Hexokinase responds to the glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) level in the cell, or, in the case of glucokinase, to the blood sugar ... Glucose Hexokinase ATP ADP Glucose 6-phosphate Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase Fructose 6-phosphate phosphofructokinase-1 ATP ADP ... Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate Triosephosphate isomerase 2 × Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate 2 × Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate ... which then is converted into glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. The dihydroxyacetone phosphate can be ...
*  XDNA
Duplexes formed from xDNA are similar to natural duplexes aside from the distance between the two sugar-phosphate backbones. ... By increasing the separation between the nitrogenous bases and either sugar-phosphate backbone, the helix's stacking energy is ... Stability is highly dependent on the bases' rotation about the link between the base and the sugar of the backbone. yDNA's ... endo sugar pucker. Helices created from xDNA are more likely to take a B-helix over an A-helix conformation, and have an ...
*  List of food additives
Sweeteners other than sugar are added to keep the food energy (calories) low, or because they have beneficial effects for ... Phosphated distarch phosphate - thickener, vegetable gum Phosphoric acid - food acid Phytic acid - preservative Pigment Rubine ... Caffeine and other GRAS (generally recognized as safe) additives such as sugar and salt are not required to go through the ... Bone phosphate - anti-caking agent Borage (Borago officinalis) - Borage seed oil - similar to blackcurrant seed oil - used ...
*  DNA-binding metallo-intercalators
This activation causes the metallo-intercalator's photooxidative properties to induce a cleavage of the sugar phosphate ... the metallo-intercalator strengthen DNA-binding because of electrostatic attraction to the negatively charged sugar-phosphate ... metallo-insertors induce an untwist of the double helix and an opening of the phosphate backbone while metallo-intercalators ...