*Encephalitozoon cuniculi

The spore extrudes its polar tubule and infects the host cell. The spore injects the infective sporoplasm into the eukaryotic ... Head tilt, for example, has many causes other than E. cuniculi, including bacterial or viral infections, trauma and toxicity. A ... Approximately one month after the rabbit is infected it begins to shed E. cuniculi spores via its urine. Spores continue to be ... the cell membrane is disrupted and releases the spores to the surroundings. These free mature spores can infect new cells thus ...

*Anthrax toxin

Anthrax is a disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, a spore-forming, Gram positive, rod-shaped bacterium (Fig. 1). The lethality ... The PA requirement observed in animal-model experiments demonstrates a common paradigm for bacterial toxins, called the A / B ...

*Endospore

Exosporium Spore coat Spore cortex Core wall The position of the endospore differs among bacterial species and is useful in ... The spore is sometimes surrounded by a thin covering known as the exosporium, which overlies the spore coat. The spore coat, ... In 1995, Raul Cano of California Polytechnic State University found bacterial spores in the gut of a fossilized bee trapped in ... Astrophysicist Steinn Sigurdsson said "There are viable bacterial spores that have been found that are 40 million years old on ...

*Streptomyces humidus

Bacterial spores : current research and applications. Norfolk: Caister Academic Press. ISBN 1-908230-00-2. CS1 maint: Extra ... ISBN 0-8493-7765-X. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Type strain of Streptomyces humidus at BacDive - the Bacterial ...

*List of microorganisms tested in outer space

Horneck, G.; Bücker, H.; Reitz, G. (1994). "Long-term survival of bacterial spores in space". Advances in Space Research. 14 ( ... Because of their ubiquity and resistance to spacecraft decontamination, bacterial spores are considered likely potential ... NASA - Spaceflight Alters Bacterial Social Networks (2013) Rothschild, L. J.; Mancinelli, R. L. (2001). "Life in extreme ... Niger Spores". Applied Microbiology. 15 (2): 285-291. PMC 546892 . PMID 4961769. Hawrylewicz, E.; Gowdy, B.; Ehrlich, R. (1962 ...

*Panspermia

Dehel, T. (2006-07-23). "Uplift and Outflow of Bacterial Spores via Electric Field". 36th COSPAR Scientific Assembly. Held 16- ... Wayne L. Nicholson; Andrew C. Schuerger; Peter Setlow (21 January 2005). "The solar UV environment and bacterial spore UV ... "Protection of Bacterial Spores in Space, a Contribution to the Discussion on Panspermia". Origins of life and evolution of the ... such as single bacterial spores. The main criticism of radiopanspermia hypothesis came from Iosif Shklovsky and Carl Sagan, who ...

*Sourdough

Flour naturally contains a variety of yeasts and bacterial spores. When wheat flour comes into contact with water, the ... Manufacturers of non-sourdough breads make up for the lack of yeast and bacterial culture by introducing into their dough an ... Conversely, a wetter and warmer starter has more bacterial activity and less yeast growth, with more lactic acid relative to ... 4% salt inhibits L. sanfranciscensis, while C. milleri can withstand 8%. A drier and cooler starter has less bacterial activity ...

*Benzododecinium bromide

It is not effective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and bacterial spores. Longer expositions may inactivate some viruses. ...

*Anthrax

These agents destroy bacterial spores. All of the aforementioned anthrax decontamination technologies have been demonstrated to ... One spore forms per one vegetative bacterium. The triggers for spore formation are not yet known, though oxygen tension and ... a Gram-negative bacterial species would appear pink. (The other cells are white blood cells.) The spores are able to survive in ... Such spores can be found on all continents, including Antarctica. Disturbed grave sites of infected animals have been known to ...

*Disinfectant

"High-level disinfection kills all organisms, except high levels of bacterial spores" and is done with a chemical germicide ... Disinfection does not necessarily kill all microorganisms, especially resistant bacterial spores; it is less effective than ... It is also known to bind to bacterial DNA, alter its transcription, and cause lethal DNA damage. It has very low toxicity to ... Bacterial endospores are most resistant to disinfectants, but some viruses and bacteria also possess some tolerance. In ...

*Hygiene

All disinfectants kill bacteria (called bactericidal). Some also kill fungi (fungicidal), bacterial spores (sporicidal) or ... Respiratory viruses and fungal spores are spread via the air. Good home hygiene means engaging in hygiene practices at critical ...

*Clostridium difficile infection

... is spread by bacterial spores found within feces. Surfaces may become contaminated with the ... It involves infusion of bacterial flora acquired from the feces of a healthy donor to reverse the bacterial imbalance ... Common hospital disinfectants are ineffective against C. difficile spores and, in fact, may promote spore formation, however, ... Thus, these spores survive in clinical environments for long periods. Because of this, the bacteria may be cultured from almost ...

*Hydrogen peroxide

H2O2 demonstrates broad-spectrum efficacy against viruses, bacteria, yeasts, and bacterial spores. In general, greater activity ...

*Chlorine base compound

They are effective against a wide variety of microorganisms including bacterial spores. Chlorine base compounds first came into ...

*John Tyndall

He discovered the broths had been contaminated with dry bacterial spores from hay in the lab. All bacteria are killed by simple ... Tyndall found a way to eradicate the bacterial spores that came to be known as "Tyndallization". Tyndallization historically ... From this Tyndall was led to find viable bacterial spores (endospores) in supposedly heat-sterilized broths. ... was the earliest known effective way to destroy bacterial spores. At the time, it affirmed the "germ theory" against a number ...

*Dipicolinic acid

... of the dry weight of bacterial spores. It is implicated as responsible for the heat resistance of the endospore. However, ... "Bacterial Spore Detection and Determination by Use of Terbium Dipicolinate Photoluminescence". Analytical Chemistry. 69 (6): ... Two genera of bacterial pathogens are known to produce endospores: the aerobic Bacillus and anaerobic Clostridium. The high ... This complex binds free water molecules, causing dehydration of the spore. As a result, the heat resistance of macromolecules ...

*Terbium

Rosen, D. L.; Sharpless, C.; McGown, L. B. (1997). "Bacterial Spore Detection and Determination by Use of Terbium Dipicolinate ...

*Botulism

The bacterial spores which cause it are common in both soil and water. They produce the botulinum toxin when exposed to low ... In this situation, spores enter a wound, and in the absence of oxygen, release the toxin. It is not passed directly between ... The spores can survive in their inert form for many years. Toxin is produced by the bacteria when environmental conditions are ... The spores require warm temperatures, a protein source, an anaerobic environment, and moisture in order to become active and ...

*Adrian Ponce

Bacterial spore detection by [Tb3+(macrocycle)(dipicolinate)] luminescence Cable, M.L., Kirby, J.P., Sorasaenee, K., Gray, H.B ... An Anthrax Smoke Detector: Online Detection of Aerosolized Bacterial Spores Lester, E.D.; Ponce, A., IEEE Engineering in ... A Second-Generation Anthrax "Smoke Detector": An Inexpensive Front-End Monitor that Detects Airborne Bacterial Spores Lester, E ... A Rapid Single Spore Enumeration Assay Yung, P.T., Kempf, M.J., Ponce, A., IEEE Aerospace Conference 2006. Towards an In-Situ ...

*Betalain

Furthermore, a betanin-europium(III) complex has been used to detect calcium dipicolinate in bacterial spores, including ... "Beetroot-pigment-derived colorimetric sensor for detection of calcium dipicolinate in bacterial spores". PloS One. 8 (9): ...

*Carl Woese

Then he became a postdoctoral researcher in biophysics at Yale University investigating bacterial spores. From 1960-63, he ... Archaea Bacterial phyla, the major lineages of Bacteria George E. Fox Karl Stetter Norman R. Pace Otto Kandler Phylogenetics ... ISBN 978-0-199-73438-2. Woese, C. R. (1960). "Phage induction in germinating spores of Bacillus megaterium". Radiation research ... Woese, Carl R. (1987-06-01). "Bacterial evolution". Microbiological Reviews. 51 (2): 221-271. PMC 373105 . PMID 2439888. Woese ...

*Exosporium

doi:10.1099/mic.0.26681-0. Stewart, George C. (December 1, 2015). "The exosporium layer of bacterial spores: a connection to ... The exosporium is the outer surface layer of mature spores. In plant spores it is also referred to as the exine. Some bacteria ... The exosporium is the portion of the spore that interacts with the environment or host organism, and may contain spore antigens ... ΔywdL spores have abnormal germination properties, such as the inability to respond to standard chemical means of inducing ...

*List of longest-living organisms

Various claims have been made about reviving bacterial spores to active metabolism after millions of years. Claims have been ... Cano, RJ; Borucki, MK (19 May 1995). "Revival and identification of bacterial spores in 25- to 40-million-year-old Dominican ... made of spores from amber being revived after 40 million years, and spores from salt deposits in New Mexico being revived after ...

*Thermization

Cooling thermized milk before reheating is necessary to delay/prevent the outgrowth of bacterial spores. When the milk is first ... Germinated spores are sensitive to subsequent heating, however since germination is not a homogeneous process, not all spores ... heated, spores can begin to germinate, but their growth can be halted or delayed when the milk is refrigerated, depending on ...

*Spore photoproduct lyase

This repair mechanism is one of the reasons for the resilience of certain bacterial spores. Through a series of radical ... Spore photoproduct lyase (EC 4.1.99.14, SAM, SP lyase, SPL, SplB, SplG) is a radical SAM enzyme that repairs a particular kind ... Spore photoproduct lyase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular Biology ... "Characterization of an Active Spore Photoproduct Lyase, a DNA Repair Enzyme in the Radical S-Adenosylmethionine Superfamily". ...

*Myxobacteria

These myxospores, analogous to spores in other organisms, are more likely to survive until nutrients are more plentiful. The ... One of the myxobacteria, Minicystis rosea, has the largest bacterial genome with over 16 million nucleotides. The second ... "Insights from 20 years of bacterial genome sequencing". Functional & Integrative Genomics. 15 (2): 141-161. doi:10.1007/s10142- ...

*Bacillus coagulans

The use of bacterial spore formers as probiotics" FEMS Microbiology Reviews 29, 813-835. US National Library of Medicine Type ... Spores are activated in the acidic environment of the stomach and begin germinating and proliferating in the intestine. ... B. coagulans is a Gram-positive rod (0.9 by 3.0 to 5.0 μm in size), catalase positive, spore-forming, motile, and a facultative ... Bacillus coagulans is a lactic acid-forming bacterial species. The organism was first isolated and described as Bacillus ...