species myosin isoform or muscle type assay type IC50 Dictyostelium discoideum myosin II motor domain basal ATPase 2.96 ± 0.45 ... Myosin specificity[edit]. Blebbistatin is a potent inhibitor of nonmuscle myosin IIA and IIB, cardiac myosin, skeletal myosin ... Limouze J, Straight AF, Mitchison T, Sellers JR (2004-01-01). "Specificity of blebbistatin, an inhibitor of myosin II". Journal ... The blebbistatin scaffold has been modified in several ways to optimize myosin isoform specificity or to improve the inhibitory ...
They infect many species, but with some specificity. The Brucella belongs to the Rhizobiales group, in the Alphaproteobacteria ... The different species of Brucella are genetically very similar, although each has a slightly different host specificity. Hence ... Brucella species have been found primarily in mammals: Pathogenic Brucella species can cause abortion in female animals by ... The specificity was >99%. In a study including 75 patients with brucellosis, five patients with positive ELISA had a negative ...
There are three steps to fertilisation that ensure species-specificity: *Chemotaxis. *Sperm activation/acrosomal reaction ... In some species, self-fertilisation has persisted over many generations. Capsella rubella is a self-fertilisating species that ... One primitive species of flowering plant, Nuphar polysepala, has endosperm that is diploid, resulting from the fusion of a ... A fern is a member of a group of roughly 12,000 species of vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor ...
Host specificity. *Interactions between factors. Symmetric and asymmetric cleavage[edit]. In the molecular chain between the ... Species of carotene. *Molecular linkage. *Amount in the meal. *Matrix properties. *Effectors ...
Million M, Raoult D (February 2013). "Species and strain specificity of Lactobacillus probiotics effect on weight regulation". ... bulgaricus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lactococcus lactis, and Leuconostoc species.[32][33] ... If the strain under evaluation belongs to a species known to produce toxins in mammals, it must be tested for toxin production ... Third, the probiotic candidate must be a taxonomically defined microbe or combination of microbes (genus, species, and strain ...
These encompass two (gastric and enterohepatic) groups, showing different organ specificity. Importantly, some species, such as ... Species H. acinonychis. H. ailurogastricus[1]. H. anseris. H. aurati. H. apri[1]. H. baculiformis. H. bilis. H. bizzozeronii. H ... Enterohepatic species e.g., H. hepaticus, H. bilis, and H. ganmani, have been detected by PCR, but still are not isolated from ... Gastric species such as H. suis (most often), H. felis, H. bizzozeronii, and H. salomonis have been associated with chronic ...
Million M, Raoult D (February 2013). "Species and strain specificity of Lactobacillus probiotics effect on weight regulation". ... If the strain under evaluation belongs to a species that is a known mammalian toxin producer, it must be tested for toxin ... Thirdly, the probiotic candidate must be a taxonomically defined microbe or combination of microbes (genus, species, and strain ... In Europe, the EFSA has adopted a premarket system for safety assessment of microbial species used in food and feed productions ...
Other fungal species hydrolyze tomatine to the less toxic aglycon tomatidine by removing all the sugar residues. Tomatidine can ... Keukens, Erik AJ, et al; Dual specificity of sterol-mediated glycoalkaloid induced membrane disruption; Biochimica et ... "Bioactivities of glycoalkaloids and their aglycones from Solanum species." Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 59.8 ( ... Andersson, Christer.; Glycoalkaloids in tomatoes, eggplants, pepper and two Solanum species growing wild in the Nordic ...
Depending on the species, one or several types can appear simultaneously on the organism. The specific representation of cnidae ... Such specificity has been used to create new medicines and bioinsecticides, and biopesticides. ... Venom from animals such as cnidarians, scorpions and spiders may be species-specific. A substance that is weakly toxic for ... Despite being morphologically simple, lacking a skeleton and many species being sessile, cnidarians prey on fish and ...
Nonconservative substitution in the large subunit alters species specificity of protein interaction.. „The Journal of ...
Immunoblots with adult worm microsomal antigens are species-specific, so a positive reaction indicates the infecting species. ... Specificity of this assay for detecting schistosome infection is 99%. Because test sensitivity with the FAST-ELISA is reduced ... The long-term manifestations are dependent on the species of schistosome, as the adult worms of different species migrate to ... Tissue biopsy (rectal biopsy for all species and biopsy of the bladder for S. haematobium) may demonstrate eggs when stool or ...
This species contains antioxidants and may partially inhibit the enzyme cyclooxygenase.[13] An extract of maitake inhibited ... Lys-N is used for proteomics experiments because of its protein cleavage specificity.[16] ... water extract inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis through inhibition of reactive oxygen species ...
Host Specificity of Five Species of Eugregarinida Among Six Species of Cockroaches (Insecta:Blattodea). Comparative ... The presence of arginine, however, is species-specific to B. giganteus. George Beccaloni, David C. Eades. Blattodea Species ... Some of the organic compounds are free amino acids, and the contents vary by species in terms of which amino acids are present ... better source needed] This species is endemic to Central America and northern South America, and can be found in the ...
... and clinical significance of haemophilus and aggregatibacter species with host specificity for humans". Clinical Microbiology ... However, taxonomic rearrangements have changed the A to Aggregatibacter species and the H to Haemophilus species to reflect the ... Most common species in the Kingella genus. Kingella denitrificans All of these organisms are part of the normal oropharyngeal ... Most common species in the Cardiobacterium genus. Cardiobacterium valvarum Eikenella Eikenella corrodens Kingella Kingella ...
... species were originally classified into subgenera based on their morphology, location, and host specificity. However ... Plasmodium species have been reported from over 3200 species of lizard and 29 species of snake. Only three species - P. pessoai ... In general each species of Plasmodium infects one to a few species of birds. Each species is also generally transmitted by a ... Different species of Plasmdodium generally infect different species of mosquito, although some mosquito species can carry ...
It is now known that isomerases have broad substrate specificity. Most pentoses and some hexoses are all substrates for D- ... The isomerase has now been observed in nearly a hundred species of bacteria. Xylose-isomerases are also commonly called ...
... which includes varying degrees of specificity in regards to the species.[10]:2 Linnaean nomenclature (Linnaean taxonomy) is ... what species) and where on that species the remain is from.[12] The types of fauna that leave behind these remains will depend ... With ZooMS analysis (Zooarchaeology by Mass Spectrometry), the animal species behind a bone fragment or bone artefact can be ... A reference collection of shinbones (Tibia) of different animal species helps determining old bones. Dutch Heritage Agency. ...
Many species within the order are also human pathogens. Species within the Stenotrophomonas genus are multidrug resistant ... 2002). "Comparison of the genomes of two Xanthomonas pathogens with differing host specificities". Nature. 417 (6887): 459-463 ... These species are thus currently labelled as incartae sedis. The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the National Center ... All other species were transferred to Nevskiales, which did not share CSIs with Xanthomonadales, but remain close relatives ...
Mixotricha also has three other species of symbionts that live on the surface of the cell. Paramecium bursaria, a species of ... In some cases, there is specificity between host and Symbiodinium clade. More often, however, there is an ecological ... A variety of corals, clams, snails, and one species of Paramecium permanently host algae in their cells. Many of the insect ... Previously thought to be a single species, molecular phylogenetic evidence over the past couple decades has shown there to be ...
Species Profile- New Zealand Mud Snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum), National Invasive Species Information Center, United States ... Food choice behaviour may promote habitat specificity in mixed populations of clonal and sexual Potamopyrgus antipodarum. ... The parasites of this species include at least 11 species of Trematoda.[6][56] Common parasites of this snail include ... Invasive species of New Zealand origin. References[edit]. *^ Van Damme, D. (2013). "Potamopyrgus antipodarum". The IUCN Red ...
... species vary in their host specificity. This can lead to non-target hosts being parasitized. This in turn can ... Currently the number of Trichogramma species is over 200, but as of 1960 only some 40 species of Trichogramma had been ... Transmission of the bacterium through horizontal transfer has been observed within the same species and among different species ... Trichogramma minutum is one of the most commonly found species in Europe and was first mass reared in 1926 on eggs of Sitotroga ...
Most pathogens instead exhibit a high degree of host-specificity. Non-host plant species are often said to express non-host ... Studied R genes usually confer specificity for particular strains of a pathogen species (those that express the recognized ... The term host resistance is used when a pathogen species can be pathogenic on the host species but certain strains of that ... In a small number of cases, plant genes are effective against an entire pathogen species, even though that species that is ...
Preference towards a particular method usually depends on convenience, economics, and required specificity (some species have ... Results are compared to the literature on staphylococcal species[18] API ID 32 Staph (bioMe´rieux). A bacterial suspension is ... Results are compared to the literature on staphylococcal species[18] PCR and electrophoresis. Uses gene specific degenerate ... S. haemolyticus can be identified on the species level using a variety of manual and automated methods. The most frequently ...
1999). "Diversity and host specificity of ectomycorrhizal fungiforest sites by five host species". Canadian Journal of Botany. ... Many species of ectomycorrhizal fungi are capable of forming mycorrhizas with other plant species where this penetration is the ... Thus, the same species of fungi can be categorized as ecto- or ectendomycorrhizas depending on the host species. ... Species richness declined dramatically with increasing nitrogen inputs, with over 30 species represented at low nitrogen sites ...
Trade-offs between specificity and regional generality in habitat association models: a case study of two species of African ... Trade-offs between specificity and regional generality in habitat association models: a case study of two species of African ... "Recently recategorised species". Birdlife International (2012). Retrieved 15 June 2012.. *^ Bamford, et.al. ... Vultures are slow breeders, and losing over 400 on a week is a devastating blow for the species.[10][11][12][13] ...
A species is a monophyletic group of viruses whose properties can be distinguished from those of other species by multiple ... This specificity determines the host range of a virus. For example, HIV infects a limited range of human leucocytes. This is ... Infection in other species. Viruses infect all cellular life and, although viruses occur universally, each cellular species has ... Species (-virus). In the current (2013) ICTV taxonomy, 7 orders have been established, the Caudovirales, Herpesvirales, ...
In the kelp species Alaria marginata, phenolics act as chemical defence against herbivores.[80] In tropical Sargassum and ... These reactions are catalysed by a large group of broad-specificity transferases. UGT1A6 is a human gene encoding a phenol UDP ... Juglone is an example of such a molecule inhibiting the growth of other plant species around walnut trees.[citation needed] The ... The Arabidopsis regulatory gene for production of Anthocyanin Pigment 1 (AtPAP1) can be expressed in other plant species.[42] ...
The correlation of group carbohydrate specificity with the proposed species S.dysgalactiae and S.equisimilis, however, were not ... Several different animal species are susceptible to infection by S.dysgalactiae, but bovine mastitis and infectious arthritis ... However, the above characteristics are not unique to S.dysgalactiae, and further testing is required to confirm the species ... In 1980, they were even removed from the List of Approved Bacterial species. Three years later, though, DNA hybridization ...
Effects on nontarget species[edit]. Btk is generally regarded as environmentally safe, as its toxicity is essentially limited ... is one of the most widely used biological pesticides due to its high specificity; it is effective against lepidopterans, and it ... Trichogramma is a species of parasitic wasp whose females lay their eggs in the eggs of their hosts; after killing the host, an ... The authors of the study noted that even though Btk is considered non-toxic to nontarget species, the accumulation and ...
High specificity: which may require an exact identification of the pest/pathogen and the use of multiple products to be used; ... Plant-incorporated protectants (PIPs) have genetic material from other species incorporated into their genetic material (i.e. ... They can be made with enough precision to kill some insect species, while not harming others. Monsanto is also developing an ... The RNA could be modified to maintain its effectiveness as target species evolve tolerance to the original. RNA is a relatively ...
Cholic acid, 3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid, the most abundant bile acid in humans and many other species, was ... Thistle JL, Hofmann AF (September 1973). "Efficacy and specificity of chenodeoxycholic acid therapy for dissolving gallstones ... Synthesis of bile acids is a major route of cholesterol metabolism in most species other than humans. The body produces about ... Chenodeoxycholic acid is made by many species, and is the prototypic functional bile acid.[2][3] ...
Bears are an exception to this rule; species in the family Ursidae are famous for their ability to survive unfavorable ... specificity is gained by coupling targeted proteins to an "E3 ubiquitin ligase". Each E3 ubiquitin ligase binds to a particular ...
PET technology can be used to trace the biologic pathway of any compound in living humans (and many other species as well), ... indirectly by competition studies between unlabeled drug and radiolabeled compounds known apriori to bind with specificity to ...
A particularly telling case of this effect is host specificity in pathogenic ascomycetes and specifically, in venturia, the ... By imitating the traits of all-infertile hybridized species, they noticed that the fertilization of eggs was prevented in all ...
Tanahashi H, Tabira T (February 1999). "Isolation of human delta-catenin and its binding specificity with presenilin 1". ...
Precursor proteins also have an effect on VPg-CRE specificity and stability. The upper RNA stem loop, to which VPg binds, has a ... For example, poliovirus receptor is glycoprotein CD155 which is special receptor for human and some other primate species. For ... MP and VPg interact to provide specificity for the transport of viral RNA from cell to cell. To fulfill energy requirements, MP ... "Interaction of Sesbania Mosaic Virus Movement Protein with VPg and P10: Implication to Specificity of Genome Recognition". PLoS ...
Ebner S, Sharon N, Ben-Tal N (October 2003). "Evolutionary analysis reveals collective properties and specificity in the C-type ...
Many different organisms are used as models for studying ALS, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae (a species of yeast),[79] ... both sets of criteria had a specificity of about 98%.[83] The El Escorial criteria were designed to standardize patient groups ...
These variations in specificity are the result of interatomic contacts with local residues near the active sites of each ... "Regulation of late G1/S phase transition and APC Cdh1 by reactive oxygen species". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 26 (12): ... The specific response to ARF derepression is thought to be mediated by specificity in the pairing of individual ARF and Aux/IAA ... The proteasome assembled with these alternative subunits is known as the immunoproteasome, whose substrate specificity is ...
7 Pathogen-specificity. *8 Immune evasion *8.1 Viruses. *9 In other species *9.1 Prokaryotes ... Pathogen-specificity[edit]. The parts of the innate immune system have different specificity for different pathogens. ... Elements of the complement cascade can be found in many non-mammalian species including plants, birds, fish, and some species ... Although the exact pathogenic species vary with the infected species, bacteria, fungi, viruses, nematodes, and insects can all ...
de Queiroz K (2007) Species concepts and species delimitation. Syst Bio. 56:879-86 ... Santos SR, Shearer TL, Hannes AR, Coffroth MA (2004) Fine scale diversity and specificity in the most prevalent lineage of ... 33,0 33,1 33,2 LaJeunesse TC, Thornhill DJ (2011) Improved resolution of reef-coral endosymbiont (Symbiodinium) species ... 32,0 32,1 Sampayo E, Dove S, LaJeunesse TC (2009) Cohesive molecular genetic data delineate species diversity in the ...
"CD30 contains two binding sites with different specificities for members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated ...
... only parasitise species with low immune responses. In general, host specificity decreases as the size of the host species ... Each species of flea is more or less a specialist with respect to its host animal species: many species never breed on any ... Fleas normally specialise in one host species or group of species, but can often feed but not reproduce on other species. ... Some 600 species (a quarter of the total) are known from a single record from a single host. Over 94% of species are associated ...
New species of insects are continually being found.[9] Estimates of the total number of species range from 2 million to 30 ... "Low host specificity of herbivorous insects in a tropical forest". Nature. 416 (6883): 841-844. Bibcode:2002Natur.416..841N. ... They are more than half of all known living species.[4][4][5][6][7] They may be over 90% of animal species on Earth.[8] ... The most species live in tropical areas. Some people call all insects "bugs", but this is not correct. Only some insects are ...
This leads to specificity of downstream signaling. It has been shown that the sis oncogene is derived from the PDGF B-chain ... through the PI3K pathway or through reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated activation of the STAT3 pathway.[11] Downstream ... receptors define three immunoglobulin-like domains of the alpha-PDGF receptor that determine PDGF-AA binding specificity". J. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This protein is highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28 and S. pombe cdc2. It is a catalytic subunit of the protein kinase complex that is important for cell cycle G1 phase progression. The activity of this kinase is restricted to the G1-S phase, which is controlled by the regulatory subunits D-type cyclins and CDK inhibitor p16INK4a. This kinase was shown to be responsible for the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma gene product (Rb).[5] Ser/Thr-kinase component of cyclin D-CDK4 (DC) complexes that phosphorylate and inhibit members of the retinoblastoma (RB) protein family including RB1 and regulate the cell-cycle during G1/S transition. Phosphorylation of RB1 allows dissociation of the transcription factor E2F from the RB/E2F complexes and the subsequent transcription of E2F target genes which are responsible for the progression through the G1 phase. Hypophosphorylates RB1 in early G1 phase. ...
Spiny forest at Ifaty, Madagascar, featuring various Adansonia (baobab) species, Alluaudia procera (Madagascar ocotillo) and ... Forests can be classified in different ways and to different degrees of specificity. One such way is in terms of the biome in ... As a general rule, forests dominated by angiosperms (broadleaf forests) are more species-rich than those dominated by ... Forests sometimes contain many tree species within a small area (as in tropical rain and temperate deciduous forests), or ...
2005). Lysobacter species have also been isolated from soils suppressive to Rhizoctonia solani. Clay soils with natural ... Purification, bacteriolytic activity, and specificity of β-lytic protease from Lysobacter sp. IB-9374. Journal of Bioscience ... Two novel species, Lysobacter daejeonensis sp. nov. and Lysobacter yangpyeongensis sp. nov., isolated from Korean greenhouse ... in the rhizosphere of two coastal sand dune plant species, Calystegia soldanella and Elymus mollis. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 90: ...
The chemical theory applies only for species that have formed a chemical bond with the surface, so it cannot explain the ... Using antibodies and gold particles this approach can quantify proteins in serum with high sensitivity and specificity.[43] ... In 1977, two groups independently noted that the concentration of scattering species could not account for the enhanced signal ... This chemical mechanism involves charge transfer between the chemisorbed species and the metal surface. The chemical mechanism ...
Because of this specificity, medical microbiologists must consider the effectiveness of certain antimicrobial drugs when making ... Not all medical microbiologists study microbial pathology; some study common, non-pathogenic species to determine whether their ... some drugs are specific to a certain genus or species of organism, and will not work on other organisms. ... even when it is typically effective against the species. These strains, termed resistant strains, present a serious public ...
... infects many animal species, and transfer of viral strains between species can occur. Birds are thought to be the ... and specificity of 90-95% when compared with viral culture.[30] ... As influenza is caused by a variety of species and strains of ... A fourth family of influenza viruses was identified in 2016 - Influenza D.[39][40][41][42][43][44][45] The type species for ... This genus has only one species, influenza D virus, which infects pigs and cattle. The virus has the potential to infect humans ...
It also differs between species. Orthologues of the 4 loci have been mapped in various species.[3][4] Each locus can produce a ... TCRs have very high degree of antigen specificity, despite of fact that the affinity to the peptide/MHC ligand is in the ... Each recombined TCR possess unique antigen specificity, determined by the structure of the antigen-binding site formed by the α ... Extracellularly, the TCR co-receptor defines the specificity of the TCR to MHC class I or II molecule, and increases binding ...
A CAP-RAST has greater specificity than RAST; it can show the amount of IgE present to each allergen.[48] Researchers have been ... These include: Is the donor species known to be allergenic? Does the amino acid sequence of the transferred proteins resemble ... milk of all species of mammalians, almonds, hazelnuts, cashew nuts, Brazil nuts, macadamia nuts, walnuts, pecan nuts, ... Another concern is that genes transferred from one species to another could introduce an allergen in a food not thought of as ...
2-oleoyl species of PS were used.[23] Thus it seems that, though PA and DAG are interconvertible, the different species of ... Whatever the mechanism is, such specificity is possible. It is seen in the pig testes DAGK that is specific for polyunsaturated ... However, it is worth noting that in vitro, the various acyltransferases exhibit different substrate specificities with respect ... DAG[21] and in two rat hepatocyte LPPs that dephosphorylate different PA species with different activities.[22] Moreover, the ...
... is produced by a wide range of species throughout the plant and animal kingdoms, including humans;[13][15][16] ... "The unique substrate specificity of human AOC2, a semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 66 (16): 2743-57 ... examination of enzymes in brain and liver mitochondria of eight species". J. Neurochem. 36 (3): 1298-301. doi:10.1111/j.1471- ...
Anopheles cracens has also been reported as a vector of P. knowlesi. Both species of mosquitoes have been shown to contain as ... Rapid diagnostic tests kits may or may not recognize P. knowlesi because of their specificity. ... In 1957, it was suggested by Garnham et al.[8] that P. knowlesi could be the fifth species capable of causing endemic malaria ... Garnham, PCC (1963) A new sub-species of Plasmodium knowlesi in the long-tailed macaque. J Trop Med & Hyg 66 : 156-158 ...
... is spread through bites from Aedes mosquitoes, and the species A. aegypti was identified as the most common vector ... "A single mutation in chikungunya virus affects vector specificity and epidemic potential". PLOS Pathogens. 3 (12): e201. doi ... Other species potentially able to transmit Chikungunya virus include Ae. furcifer-taylori, Ae. africanus, and Ae. luteocephalus ... an invasive species) as a vector in addition to the more strictly tropical main vector, Aedes aegypti.[75] Enhanced ...
"The ligand specificity of the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR34". The Biochemical Journal. 443 (3): 841-50. doi:10.1042/ ...
Most of the aaRSs of a given specificity are evolutionarily closer to one another than to aaRSs of another specificity. However ... In addition, aaRS paralogs within the same species show a high degree of divergence between them. These are clear indications ... Most of the aaRSs of a given specificity also belong to a single class. However, there are two distinct versions of the LysRS ...