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*  Inferior colliculus
Sound location data thus becomes fully integrated by the inferior colliculus. IC are large auditory nuclei on the right and ... In addition, spatial localization by binaural hearing is a related function of IC as well. The inferior colliculus has a ... Thereby, the receptive fields in inferior colliculus can be seen as well adapted to handling natural sound transformations (see ... This multisensory integration may underlie a filtering of self-effected sounds from vocalization, chewing, or respiration ...
*  Sound localization
... is the process of determining the location of a sound source. Objectively speaking, the major goal of sound ... for sound localization, but not the reflected sound, which is arriving later (law of the first wave front). So sound ... Localisation for Indoor Environments" by CMR at UNSW An introduction to sound localization Sound and Room An introduction to ... For sound localization in the median plane (elevation of the sound) also two detectors can be used, which are positioned at ...
*  3D sound localization
Sonar uses sound source localization techniques to identify the location of a target. 3D sound localization is also used for ... Localization cues are features that help localize sound. Cues for sound localization include binaural and monoaural cues. ... Applications of sound source localization include sound source separation, sound source tracking, and speech enhancement. ... 3D sound localization refers to an acoustic technology that is used to locate the source of a sound in a three-dimensional ...
*  Sound localization in owls
When the sound source is directly in front of the owl, there is no ITD, i.e. the ITD is zero. In sound localization, ITDs are ... Ear asymmetry allows for sound originating from below the eye level to sound louder in the left ear, while sound originating ... ITDs tend to be utilized for localization of lower frequency sounds, while ILDs tend to be used for higher frequency sounds. ... horizontal angle to the sound). This bi-coordinate sound localization is accomplished through two binaural cues: the interaural ...
*  Perceptual-based 3D sound localization
... is the application of knowledge of the human auditory system to develop 3D sound ... The precedence effect is the observation that sound localization can be dominated by the components of a complex sound that are ... Furthermore, by understanding and exploiting biological mechanisms of sound localization, virtual sound scenes may be rendered ... while ILDs are used in the localisation of high frequency sound. The ILD arises from the fact that,a sound coming from a source ...
*  Auricle (anatomy)
... see sound localization, vertical sound localization, head-related transfer function, pinna notch). In various species, the ... This aids in vertical sound localization. In animals the function of the pinna is to collect sound, and perform spectral ... It collects sound by acting as a funnel, amplifying the sound and directing it to the auditory canal. While reflecting from the ... The auricle collects sound and, like a funnel, amplifies the sound and directs it to the auditory canal. The filtering effect ...
*  Spatial hearing loss
At A, Spierer L, Clarke S; The role of the right parietal cortex in sound localization: a chronometric single pulse ... Different notches/peaks are added to sounds coming from below compared to sounds coming from above, and compared to sounds ... A sound straight in front of the head is heard at the same time by both ears. A sound to the side of the head is heard ... The right hemisphere is more specialized for sound localization, while auditory space representation in the brain requires the ...
*  Coincidence detection in neurobiology
Coincidence detection has been shown to be a major factor in sound localization along the azimuth plane in several organisms. ... When a sound is heard, sound waves may reach the ears at different times. This is referred to as the interaural time difference ... Neurobiology Sound localization Long-term potentiation Long-term depression Hebbian theory Coincidence circuit Neuroethology ... Jeffress, L. A. (1948). "A place theory of sound localization". Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 41 (1): 35 ...
*  Jens Blauert
The Psychophysics of Human Sound Localization. The MIT Press, USA-Cambridge MA 1. Auflage, 1983, ISBN 0-262-02190-0 Revised ... Blauert, Jens (1997). Spatial hearing: the psychophysics of human sound localization. MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-02413-6. ... the Psychophysics of Human Sound Localization (1983), a standard in this field. He has provided his professional expertise to ... Rumsey, Francis; McCormick, Tim (28 September 2009). Sound and Recording. Focal Press. p. 564. ISBN 978-0-240-52163-3. ...
*  Models of neural computation
Delay Line Models of Sound Localization in the Barn Owl "American Zoologist" Vol. 33, No. 1 79-85 Borst A, Egelhaaf M., 1989. ... Jeffress, L.A. (1948). "A place theory of sound localization". Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 41: 35-39. ... A computational model of sound localization in the barn owl Neurocomputing 58-60 (2004) 1007-1012 Catherine E. Carr, 1993. ... Slow in the timescales of biologically-relevant events dictated by the speed of sound or the force of gravity, the nervous ...
*  Computational auditory scene analysis
Since CASA is modeling human auditory pathways, binaural CASA systems better the human model by providing sound localization, ... Jeffress, L.A. (1948). "A place theory of sound localization". Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 41 35-39. ... To segregate the sound source, CASA systems mask the cochleagram. This mask, sometimes a Wiener filter, weighs the target ... The outer ear, like an acoustic funnel, helps locating the sound source. The ear canal acts as a resonant tube (like an organ ...
*  Just-noticeable difference
Sound Localization by Human Listeners. Annual Review of Psychology, February 1991, volume 42, pp 135-159, DOI: 10.1146/annurev. ... a single change in a property of sound which is below the JND does not affect perception of the sound. For amplitude, the JND ... B. Kollmeier; T. Brand; B. Meyer (2008). "Perception of Speech and Sound". In Jacob Benesty; M. Mohan Sondhi; Yiteng Huang. ... and the intensity and the pitch of sounds. It is not true, however, of the wavelength of light. Stanley Smith Stevens argued ...
*  Lloyd A. Jeffress
... especially the mechanisms underlying sound localization. His most cited article, "A Place Theory of Sound Localization", was in ... In teaching about sound localization, Jeffress was known to ask his students: "What are the three most important aspects of ... McFadden, Young & McKinney 1986, p. 3. Jeffress, L.A. (1948). "A Place Theory of Sound Localization". Journal of Comparative ... "A place theory of sound localization," Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 41: 35, DOI 10.1037/h0061495, WOS: ...
*  Binaural fusion
Sound localization is the ability to correctly identify the directional location of sounds. A sound stimulus localized in the ... sound localization), and it is important for sound segregation. Sound segregation refers the ability to identify acoustic ... and spectral differences in the sound arriving at the two ears are used in localization. Localization of low frequency sounds ... and spatial localization of the sound source. Once a sound source has been identified, the cells of lower auditory pathways are ...
*  Masakazu Konishi
Neural mechanisms of sound localization in owls. Russ. J. Physiol. 86:884-897 (in Russian). Konishi, M. (2000) Study of sound ... Konishi, M. (1999) Sound localization in owls. Elsevvier's Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, Eds G. Adelman and B. H. Smith. pp. ... Konishi, M. (2000) Study of sound localization by owls and its relevance to humans. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 126: 459-469. ... has elucidated the role of sound frequency and spatial characteristics in auditory localization by barn owl, and has discovered ...
*  Evolution of mammalian auditory ossicles
ISBN 0-226-31571-1. Köppl C (11 August 2009). "Evolution of sound localization in land vertebrates". Current Biology. 19 (15): ... This series of three bones acts as an impedance matching system to improve sound transmission and allow enhanced hearing. The ... Lombard RE, Hetherington TE (1993). "Structural Basis of Hearing and Sound Transmission". In Hall BK, Hanken J. The Skull ( ... In modern amniotes (including mammals), the middle ear collects airborne sounds through an ear drum and transmits the ...
*  Hans Wallach
... and his work on sound localization elucidated the perceptual processing that underlies stereophonic sound. He was a member of ... Binaural sound cues, including the phasing or time of the sound's arrival at each ear and the sound's relative intensity at the ... Wallach, H. (1940). The role of head movements and vestibular and visual cues in sound localization. Journal of Experimental ... Wallach, H., Newman, E. B., & Rosenzweig, M. R. (1949). The precedence effect in sound localization. The American Journal of ...
*  Olivocochlear system
... sound localisation (May et al., 2004), and intensity discrimination (May and McQuone, 1995). All of these studies were ... 1997) concluded that OCB-mediated suppression of sounds in the cochlea was responsible for the suppression of unexpected sounds ... protection from loud sounds, was challenged by Kirk and Smith (2003), who argued that the intensity of sounds used in the ... cochlear protection against loud sounds, (ii) development of cochlea function, and (iii) detection and discrimination of sounds ...
*  Directional siren
siren (alarm) sound localization more information Withington, Deborah. (2000). "The Use of Directional Sound to Improve the ... Generally, sound localization accuracy is within 5 degrees, but enabling improved accuracy, for example in an ambulance siren, ... to a siren with a bandwidth broader than 500 Hz-1.8 kHz that enables listeners to more quickly locate the source of the sound. ...
*  Auditory processing disorder
This can include problems with: "...sound localization and lateralization (see also binaural fusion); auditory discrimination; ... An analogy may be drawn with trying to listen to sounds in a foreign language. It is much harder to distinguish between sounds ... localization, or ordering of speech sounds. It does not solely result from a deficit in general attention, language or other ... which leads to difficulties in recognizing and interpreting sounds, especially the sounds composing speech. It is thought that ...
*  Selective auditory attention
A sound localization task centered on the cocktail party effect was utilized in their study. The male and female participants ... Zündorf, I., Karnath H., & Lewald, J. (2010). "Male advantage in sound localization at cocktail parties". Cortex. 47 (6): 741- ... Rather, it is the selectivity of an individual to attend audibly to a sound message. The whole sound message is physically ... 11 year old children became as adept as adults at paying attention only to the target sound and filtering out the masking sound ...
*  Physiology of underwater diving
Some sound localisation is possible, though difficult. This bypassing of the middle ear also affects the frequency sensitivity ... "Underwater hearing and sound localization with and without an air interface". Otology and Neurotology. 26 (1): 127-30. PMID ... Sound travels about 4.5 times faster in water than in air, and at a similarly higher speed in body tissues, and therefore the ... Sound from an underwater source can propagate relatively freely through body tissues where there is contact with the water as ...
*  Kappa effect
Advances in Sound Localization, 95-104 Suto, Y (1952). "The effect of space on time estimation (S-effect) in tactual space". ... 2011) found that, opposite to the prediction of the kappa effect, "Increasing the distance between sound sources marking time ...
*  Sensory maps and brain development
Jeffress, L. A. "A place theory of sound localization." J. Comp.Physiol. Psychol. 41(1948): pp. 35-39. Print. Jeffress, L. A. " ... which stated that the computation of sound localization was dependent upon timing differences of sensory input. Since the ... "A place theory of sound localization." J. Comp.Physiol. Psychol. 41(1948): pp. 35-39. Print. Joris, P. "Coincidence Detection ... of the neurons found in the midbrain auditory nucleus had receptive fields independent of nature and intensity of the sound. ...
*  Edward Arthur Milne
Later Milne became an expert on sound localisation. In 1917 he became a Lieutenant in the Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve. He was ...
*  My Horse Prince
TouchArcade gave the game 3.5 stars out of 5, commenting that it had a "strong localization" while criticizing it for its empty ... Pugachevsky, Julia (2016-12-20). "I Played a Game Where I Dated a Horse and It's as Weird as It Sounds". Cosmopolitan. ...
*  American barn owl
91-95 Knudsen, Eric I.; Konishi, Masakazu (1979). "Mechanisms of sound localization in the barn owl (Tyto alba)". Journal of ... It has an effortless wavering flight as it quarters the ground, alert to the sounds made by potential prey. Like most owls, the ... This improves detection of sound position and distance and the bird does not require sight to hunt. The facial disc plays a ... Initially these make a "chittering" sound but this soon changes into a food-demanding "snore". By two weeks old they are ...