*  Somatic hypermutation
... involves a programmed process of mutation affecting the variable regions of immunoglobulin genes. Unlike ... Immunoglobulin somatic hypermutation at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... Teng, G.; Papavasiliou, F.N. (2007). "Immunoglobulin Somatic Hypermutation". Annu. Rev. Genet. 41: 107-120. doi:10.1146/annurev ... "DNA polymerase-eta is an A-T mutator in somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin variable genes". Nat. Immunol. 2: 537-541. doi: ...
*  Affinity maturation
Teng, G.; Papavasiliou, F.N. (2007). "Immunoglobulin Somatic Hypermutation". Annu. Rev. Genet. 41: 107-120. doi:10.1146/annurev ... primarily occurs on surface immunoglobulin of germinal center B cells and as a direct result of somatic hypermutation (SHM) and ... Somatic hypermutation: Mutations in the variable, antigen-binding coding sequences (known as complementarity-determining ... regions (CDR)) of the immunoglobulin genes. The mutation rate is up to 1,000,000 times higher than in cell lines outside the ...
*  Heavy chain disease
The defect in the immunoglobulins presumably arises during somatic hypermutation. Deletion of the N-terminal part of the heavy ... Goossens T, Klein U, Küppers R (1998). "Frequent occurrence of deletions and duplications during somatic hypermutation: ... "Immunoglobulin aggregation leading to Russell body formation is prevented by the antibody light chain". Blood. 115 (2): 282-8. ... is a form of paraproteinemia and plasma cell dyscrasia that involves the proliferation of cells producing immunoglobulin heavy ...
*  Mammaglobin-A
"Somatic hypermutation introduces insertions and deletions into immunoglobulin V genes". J. Exp. Med. 187 (1): 59-70. doi: ...
*  J. Donald Capra
"Somatic hypermutation introduces insertions and deletions into immunoglobulin V genes". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. ... Sanz, I.; Capra, J. D. (1987). "V kappa and J kappa gene segments of A/J Ars-A antibodies: Somatic recombination generates the ... Pascual, V.; Liu, Y. J.; Magalski, A.; De Bouteiller, O.; Banchereau, J.; Capra, J. D. (1994). "Analysis of somatic mutation in ... Wilson, P. C.; Wilson, K.; Liu, Y. J.; Banchereau, J.; Pascual, V.; Capra, J. D. (2000). "Receptor revision of immunoglobulin ...
*  POLI
2002). "Induction of somatic hypermutation in immunoglobulin genes is dependent on DNA polymerase iota". Nature. 419 (6910): ...
*  Paolo Casali
The translation DNA polymerase plays a dominant role in immunoglobulin gene somatic hypermutation. EMBO J. 24:3757-3769. PMID ... in the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus: Concurrent upregulation of somatic hypermutation and class switch DNA recombination. ... immunoglobulin class-switch DNA recombination, and somatic hypermutation. J. Biol. Chem. 285: 37797-37810. PMID 20855884; PMCID ... DNA recombination and somatic hypermutation in the immune system. In: Lewin's GENES XII, J.E. Krebs, E.S. Goldstein, S.T. ...
*  [email protected]
Boursier L, Su W, Spencer J (2003). "Imprint of somatic hypermutation differs in human immunoglobulin heavy and lambda chain ... "Entrez Gene: [email protected] immunoglobulin heavy variable group". Forconi F, Sozzi E, Cencini E, et al. (November 2009). "Hairy cell ... IGHV is the immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region genes; in B-cell neoplasms like chronic lymphocytic leukemia, mutations ... [email protected] Walter MA, Dosch HM, Cox DW (Aug 1991). "A deletion map of the human immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region". J Exp ...
*  POLQ
2005). "The translesion DNA polymerase θ plays a dominant role in immunoglobulin gene somatic hypermutation". EMBO J. 24 (21): ...
*  César Milstein
He demonstrated the importance of somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin V genes in antibody affinity maturation. In this ... process, localised mutation of the immunoglobulin genes allows the production of improved antibodies which make a major ...
*  DNA polymerase eta
"DNA polymerase eta is an A-T mutator in somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin variable genes". Nat. Immunol. 2 (6): 537-41. ... Yavuz S, Yavuz AS, Kraemer KH, Lipsky PE (2002). "The role of polymerase eta in somatic hypermutation determined by analysis of ... This polymerase is thought to be involved in hypermutation during immunoglobulin class switch recombination. During DNA ...
*  [email protected]
Boursier L, Su W, Spencer J (2003). "Imprint of somatic hypermutation differs in human immunoglobulin heavy and lambda chain ... immunoglobulin lambda constant 1 (Mcg marker) IGLC2 - immunoglobulin lambda constant 2 (Kern-Oz- marker) IGLC3 - immunoglobulin ... and by somatic hypermutation, which occurs during B cell maturation in the spleen and lymph nodes. Several V segments and three ... immunoglobulin lambda joining n IGLJ1, IGLJ2, IGLJ3, IGLJ6, IGLJ7 [email protected] - variable group IGLVm-n - immunoglobulin lambda ...
*  Small Maf
... knockout mice studies have demonstrated that Bach2 is required for class switching and somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin ... Certain cancers contain somatic mutations in NRF2(NFE2L2) or KEAP1 that cause constitutive activation of Nrf2 and promote cell ... "Identification of Bach2 as a B-cell-specific partner for small maf proteins that negatively regulate the immunoglobulin heavy ...
*  Antibody
Diaz M, Casali P (2002). "Somatic immunoglobulin hypermutation". Curr Opin Immunol. 14 (2): 235-240. doi:10.1016/S0952-7915(02) ... Somatic recombination of immunoglobulins, also known as V(D)J recombination, involves the generation of a unique immunoglobulin ... Hozumi N, Tonegawa S (1976). "Evidence for somatic rearrangement of immunoglobulin genes coding for variable and constant ... Durandy A (2003). "Activation-induced cytidine deaminase: a dual role in class-switch recombination and somatic hypermutation ...
*  Germinal center B-cell like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
B-cells within the germinal center proliferate and undergo immunoglobulin somatic hypermutation (SHM) of IgV region genes to ... The SHM that occurs in the germinal center can also target non-immunoglobulin loci and may be responsible for translocation of ... Clonal B-cells spontaneously mutate the idiotypic region of their immunoglobulin. This high mutation rate makes them prone to ... A large fraction of germinal center B-cells acquire somatic mutations that prohibit antigen binding and these undergo apoptosis ...
*  APOBEC4
Other AID/APOBEC family members are involved in mRNA editing, somatic hypermutation and recombination of immunoglobulin genes, ...
*  B cell
... immunoglobulin class switching, and somatic hypermutation as well as sustains T cell growth and differentiation. T cell-derived ... immunoglobulin class switching, and affinity maturation directed by somatic hypermutation. These processes are facilitated by ... and somatic hypermutation as well as guide differentiation. After B cells receive these signals, they are considered activated ... During this step activated B cells proliferate, may undergo immunoglobulin class switching, and differentiate into plasmablasts ...
*  List of MeSH codes (G04)
... somatic hypermutation, immunoglobulin MeSH G04.742.675.700 --- plant tumors MeSH G04.742.800.400 --- gravitropism MeSH G04.742. ... immunoglobulin MeSH G04.610.626.454 --- immunoglobulin allotypes MeSH G04.610.626.454.586 --- immunoglobulin gm allotypes MeSH ... G04.610.626.454.587 --- immunoglobulin km allotypes MeSH G04.610.626.510 --- immunoglobulin idiotypes MeSH G04.610.626.580 --- ... immunoglobulin class switching MeSH G04.610.626.320.601 --- gene rearrangement, b-lymphocyte, light chain MeSH G04.610.626.325 ...
*  List of MeSH codes (G05)
... somatic hypermutation, immunoglobulin MeSH G05.600.835 --- suppression, genetic MeSH G05.600.860 --- translocation, genetic ... immunoglobulin class switching MeSH G05.330.401.601 --- gene rearrangement, b-lymphocyte, light chain MeSH G05.330.801 --- gene ...
*  Marginal zone B-cell
In humans the splenic marginal zone B cells have evidence of somatic hypermutation in their immunoglobulin genes, indicating ... Dunn-Walters, DK; Isaacson, PG; Spencer, J (1995). "Analysis of mutations in immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region genes ...
*  T-cell receptor
Unlike immunoglobulins, however, TCR genes do not undergo somatic hypermutation, and T cells do not express Activation-Induced ... It arises mainly from genetic recombination of the DNA encoded segments in individual somatic T cells by somatic V(D)J ... In this way the MHC-TCR-CD3 interaction for T cells is functionally similar to the antigen(Ag)-immunoglobulin(Ig)-FcR ... The TCR is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, a large group of proteins involved in binding, recognition, and adhesion ...
*  Activation-induced cytidine deaminase
The protein is involved in somatic hypermutation, gene conversion, and class-switch recombination of immunoglobulin genes in B ... It is involved in the initiation of three separate immunoglobulin (Ig) diversification processes: Somatic hypermutation (SHM), ... Martin A, Scharff MD (2002). "Somatic hypermutation of the AID transgene in B and non-B cells". Proceedings of the National ... relevance to somatic hypermutation and class switch DNA recombination". Critical Reviews in Immunology. 27 (4): 367-97. doi: ...
*  Hyper-IgM syndrome type 2
... the absence of immunoglobulin class switch recombination the lack of immunoglobulin somatic hypermutations, and lymph node ...
*  Immunoglobulin class switching
Durandy A (2003). "Activation-induced cytidine deaminase: a dual role in class-switch recombination and somatic hypermutation ... Immunoglobulin genes undergo legitimate repair in human B cells not only after cis- but also frequent trans-class switch ... Naïve mature B cells produce both IgM and IgD, which are the first two heavy chain segments in the immunoglobulin locus. After ... Immunoglobulin class switching, also known as isotype switching, isotypic commutation or class-switch recombination (CSR), is a ...
*  Hypergammaglobulinemia
... and thus somatic hypermutation, class switch recombination, and immunoglobulin gene conversion cannot occur, which creates an ... and functions as a DNA-editing deaminase that induces somatic hypermutation, class switch recombination, and immunoglobulin ... and is necessary to induce immunoglobulin class switching from IgM to the other immunoglobulin types. It does this by binding ... Most hypergammaglobulinemias are caused by an excess of immunoglobulin M (IgM), because this is the default immunoglobulin type ...
*  Organization and expression of immunoglobulin genes
... mutations accumulate at the variable regions through a process called somatic hypermutation. The high concentrations of these ... Antibody (or immunoglobulin) structure is made up of two heavy-chains and two light-chains. These chains are held together by ... 1979). Cloned pairs of variable region genes for immunoglobulin heavy-chains isolated from a clone library of the entire mouse ... During the development of B cells, the immunoglobulin gene undergoes sequences of rearrangements that lead to formation of the ...