Solvents and debonders[edit]. Acetone, commonly found in nail polish remover, is a widely available solvent capable of ... softening cured cyanoacrylate.[31] Other solvents include nitromethane, dimethyl sulfoxide, and methylene chloride.[32] gamma- ...
Solvent. 40-43% Solvent extraction[edit]. The processing of vegetable oil in commercial applications is commonly done by ... The most common solvent is petroleum-derived hexane. This technique is used for most of the "newer" industrial oils such as ... After extraction, the solvent is evaporated out by heating the mixture to about 300 °F (149 °C).[17] ... This can be done via mechanical extraction using an oil mill or chemical extraction using a solvent. The extracted oil can then ...
It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" [18][19] and the "solvent of life". ... Because water is such a good solvent, it almost always has some solute dissolved in it, often a salt. If water has even a tiny ... Water is an excellent solvent due to its high dielectric constant.[62] Substances that mix well and dissolve in water are known ... See also: List of water-miscible solvents. Water is miscible with many liquids, including ethanol in all proportions. Water and ...
Solvent/detergent (S/D) inactivation[edit]. This process, developed by the New York Blood Center,[6] is the most widely used ... The solvent creates an environment in which the aggregation reaction between the lipid coat and the detergent happen more ...
Solvent-aided[edit]. Dispersing graphite in a proper liquid medium can produce graphene by sonication. Graphene is separated ... The graphene remained at the interface even when exposed to force in excess of 300,000 g. The solvents may then be evaporated. ... Adding a surfactant to a solvent prior to sonication prevents restacking by adsorbing to the graphene's surface. This produces ... The process begins by bathing the graphite in a solvent for intercalation. The process can be tracked by monitoring the ...
Deuterated solvents[edit]. The vast majority of molecules in a solution are solvent molecules, and most regular solvents are ... In order to avoid detecting only signals from solvent hydrogen atoms, deuterated solvents are used where 99+% of the protons ... The chemical shifts of a molecule will change slightly between solvents, and the solvent used will almost always be reported ... Deuterium oxide (D2O) and deuterated DMSO (DMSO-d6) are often used when CDCl3 doesn't work, and other deuterated solvents can ...
Solvent over-enthusiasm?[edit]. Hi there. My guess is that others chem editors are wondering the same thing: I am a little ... Now in principle, virtually anything is a a solvent (I have used molten NaCl, for example). So I am kind of wondering where you ... Now I was splitting the solvents by chemical structure, and the cat sorta stuck there. Sorry, correcting. --Shaddack 08:07, 11 ... There is probably a tacit understanding that this category would be reserved for common solvents in the lab or industry. ...
As a reagent and solvent in the laboratory[edit]. Sulfur dioxide is a versatile inert solvent widely used for dissolving highly ... As a result of its very low Lewis basicity, it is often used as a low-temperature solvent/diluent for superacids like Magic ... This reaction is exploited on an industrial scale for the synthesis of sulfolane, which is an important solvent in the ... and even less reactive solvents like SO2ClF must be used at these higher temperatures).[36] ...
The solvent 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane has been used for extraction of natural products such as taxol, evening primrose oil, and ... 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol is an oxidation-resistant polar solvent.[28] Organofluorine reagents[edit]. The development of ... Solvents[edit]. Fluorinated compounds often display distinct solubility properties. Dichlorodifluoromethane and ... The development of fluorous technologies (see below, under solvents) is leading to the development of reagents for the ...
... compared to alternative solvents. Thus, it is used widely as a solvent and as a cleaning fluid, especially for dissolving oils ... Solvent[edit]. Isopropyl alcohol dissolves a wide range of non-polar compounds. It also evaporates quickly, leaves nearly zero ... Doolittle, Arthur K. (1954). The Technology of Solvents and Plasticizers. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 628.. ... Isopropyl alcohol can also be used similarly to ether as a solvent[24] or as an anesthetic by inhaling the fumes or orally. ...
Drying of solvents[edit]. Toluene is heated under reflux with sodium and benzophenone to produce dry, oxygen-free toluene. The ... Desiccants are also used to remove water from solvents, typically required by chemical reactions that do not tolerate water, e. ... The method generally, though not always, involves mixing the solvent with the solid desiccant. Studies show that molecular ... Williams, D. Bradley G.; Lawton, Michelle (2010). "Drying of Organic Solvents: Quantitative Evaluation of the Efficiency of ...
Further manifestations of solvent hydrogen bonding[edit]. *Increase in the melting point, boiling point, solubility, and ... Pentamer formation of water and alcohols in apolar solvents.. Hydrogen bonds in polymers[edit]. Hydrogen bonding plays an ...
Solvent[edit]. In the Chevron Phillips slurry process for making high-density polyethylene, isobutane is used as a diluent. As ...
Wax solvents[edit]. Wax can be dissolved by non-polar solvents like mineral spirits.[24] However, some commercial wax solvents ... Klister: a sticky ointment, which may contain a combination of rosins, waxes, solvents and fats[24]-with the formulation ...
As a solvent[edit]. The other main application of THF is as an industrial solvent for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and in varnishes ... 5] It is an aprotic solvent with a dielectric constant of 7.6. It is a moderately polar solvent and can dissolve a wide range ... It is mainly used as a precursor to polymers.[5] Being polar and having a wide liquid range, THF is a versatile solvent. ... THF is used as a solvent in 3D printing when using PLA plastics. It can be used to clean clogged 3D printer parts, as well as ...
Solvent types[edit]. Perfume oils are often diluted with a solvent, though this is not always the case, and its necessity is ... Commonly used solvents for maceration/solvent extraction include ethane, hexane, and dimethyl ether. The product of this ... Maceration/Solvent extraction: The most used and economically important technique for extracting aromatics in the modern ... By far the most common solvent for perfume oil dilution is an alcohol solution typically a mixture of ethanol and water or a ...
solvent) + AgCl. (salt). Because the solvent system definition depends on the solute as well as on the solvent itself, a ... 2, formulated the solvent-based theory in 1925, thereby generalizing the Arrhenius definition to cover aprotic solvents.[21] ... The unique strength of this definition shows in describing the reactions in aprotic solvents; for example, in liquid N. 2O. 4: ... Solvent system definition[edit]. One of the limitations of the Arrhenius definition is its reliance on water solutions. Edward ...
Water as both reactant and solvent[edit]. For reactions in aqueous solution, such as an acid dissociation reaction ... However, reaction parameters like temperature, solvent, and ionic strength may all influence the value of the equilibrium ... from a weak aqueous acid to a solvent molecule: HA + H2O = H3O+ + A− or DA + D2O ⇌ D3O+ + A−. The deuterated acid is studied in ... heavy water, since if it were dissolved in ordinary water the deuterium would rapidly exchange with hydrogen in the solvent.[16 ...
Caffeine is a stimulant compound belonging to the xanthine class of chemicals naturally found in coffee, tea, and (to a lesser degree) cocoa or chocolate. It is included in many soft drinks, as well as a larger amount in energy drinks. Caffeine is the world's most widely used psychoactive drug and by far the most common stimulant. In North America, 90% of adults consume caffeine daily.[63] A few jurisdictions restrict its sale and use. Caffeine is also included in some medications, usually for the purpose of enhancing the effect of the primary ingredient, or reducing one of its side-effects (especially drowsiness). Tablets containing standardized doses of caffeine are also widely available. Caffeine's mechanism of action differs from many stimulants, as it produces stimulant effects by inhibiting adenosine receptors.[64] Adenosine receptors are thought to be a large driver of drowsiness and sleep, and their action increases with extended wakefulness.[65] Caffeine has been found to increase ...
Certain opioid medications such as methadone and more recently buprenorphine (In America, "Subutex" and "Suboxone") are widely used to treat addiction and dependence on other opioids such as heroin, morphine or oxycodone. Methadone and buprenorphine are maintenance therapies intended to reduce cravings for opiates, thereby reducing illegal drug use, and the risks associated with it, such as disease, arrest, incarceration, and death, in line with the philosophy of harm reduction. Both drugs may be used as maintenance medications (taken for an indefinite period of time), or used as detoxification aids.[9] All available studies collected in the 2005 Australian National Evaluation of Pharmacotherapies for Opioid Dependence suggest that maintenance treatment is preferable,[9] with very high rates (79-100%)[9] of relapse within three months of detoxification from LAAM, buprenorphine, and methadone.[9][10] According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), patients stabilized on adequate, ...
Some subtle forms of color blindness may be associated with chronic solvent-induced encephalopathy (CSE), caused by long-time ... exposure to solvent vapors.[35] Red-green color blindness can be caused by ethambutol,[36] a drug used in the treatment of ... "Solvent neurotoxicity". Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 63 (3): 221-226. doi:10.1136/oem.2005.022400. PMC 2078137 ...
Leading proponents of the 1960s psychedelic art movement were San Francisco poster artists such as: Rick Griffin, Victor Moscoso, Bonnie MacLean, Stanley Mouse & Alton Kelley, and Wes Wilson. Their psychedelic rock concert posters were inspired by Art Nouveau, Victoriana, Dada, and Pop Art. The "Fillmore Posters" were among the most notable of the time. Richly saturated colors in glaring contrast, elaborately ornate lettering, strongly symmetrical composition, collage elements, rubber-like distortions, and bizarre iconography are all hallmarks of the San Francisco psychedelic poster art style. The style flourished from about 1966 to 1972. Their work was immediately influential to vinyl record album cover art, and indeed all of the aforementioned artists also created album covers. Although San Francisco remained the hub of psychedelic art into the early 1970s, the style also developed internationally: British artist Bridget Riley became famous for her op-art paintings of psychedelic patterns ...
... also binds to and blocks α2δ subunit-containing VDCCs, similarly to gabapentin and pregabalin, and hence is a gabapentinoid.[9][16] Both (R)-phenibut and (S)-phenibut display this action with similar affinity (Ki = 23 and 39 μM, respectively).[9] Moreover, (R)-phenibut possesses 4-fold greater affinity for this site than for the GABAB receptor (Ki = 92 μM), while (S)-phenibut does not bind significantly to the GABAB receptor (Ki , 1 mM).[9] As such, based on the results of this study, phenibut would appear to have much greater potency in its interactions with α2δ subunit-containing VDCCs than with the GABAB receptor (between 5- to 10-fold).[9] For this reason, the actions of phenibut as a α2δ subunit-containing voltage-gated calcium channel blocker or gabapentinoid may be its true primary mechanism of action, and this may explain the differences between phenibut and its close relative baclofen (which, in contrast, has essentially insignificant activity as a gabapentinoid; Ki = 6 ...
Sweat patches are opened and the sweat collection component is removed and soaked in a solvent to dissolve any drugs present. ...
The effects of dissociatives can include sensory dissociation, hallucinations, mania, catalepsy, analgesia and amnesia.[5][6][7] The characteristic features of dissociative anesthesia were described as catalepsy, amnesia and analgesia.[5] According to Pender (1972), "the state has been designated as dissociative anesthesia since the patient truly seems disassociated from his environment."[8] Bonta (2004) described dissociative anaesthesia as "... a peculiar anaesthetic state in which marked sensory loss and analgesia as well as amnesia is not accompanied by actual loss of consciousness."[9] Both Pender (1970) and Johnstone et al. (1959) reported that patients under anaesthesia due to either ketamine or phencyclidine were prone to purposeless movements and had hallucinations (or "dreams"[10]) during and after anaesthesia. Some patients found the hallucinations euphoric while others found them disturbing. At sub-anesthetic doses, dissociatives alter many of the same cognitive and perceptual ...