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*  Hypersomnia
... "lack of interest and decreased energy inherent in the depressed condition rather than an increase in sleep or REM sleep ... Sleep Med. 11 (1): 93-5. doi:10.1016/j.sleep.2009.02.009. PMID 19699146. "International classification of sleep disorders, ... Moldofsky H, Scarisbrick P, England R, Smythe H (1 July-August 1975). "Musculosketal symptoms and non-REM sleep disturbance in ... Just as other sleep disorders (like narcolepsy) can coexist with sleep apnea, the same is true for UARS. There are many cases ...
*  Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder
"REM Sleep Behavior Disorder". yoursleep.aasmnet.org. American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Retrieved 1 October 2011. "REM Sleep ... during otherwise intact REM sleep (during which paralysis is not only normal but necessary). REM sleep is the stage of sleep in ... "REM Behavior Disorder and Sleep". Coeytaux, A; Wong, K; Grunstein, R; Lewis, SJ (Nov 2013). "REM sleep behaviour disorder - ... March 2013). "Treatment Outcomes in REM Sleep Behavior Disorder". Sleep Medicine. 14 (3): 237-242. doi:10.1016/j.sleep.2012.09. ...
*  Obstructive sleep apnea
The normal sleep/wake cycle in adults is divided into REM (rapid eye movement) sleep, non-REM (NREM) sleep, and consciousness. ... This sleep interruption in stage 3 (also called slow-wave sleep), and in REM sleep, can interfere with normal growth patterns, ... February 2011). "Management of obstructive sleep apnea in Europe". Sleep Med. 12 (2): 190-7. doi:10.1016/j.sleep.2010.10.003. ... of an average person's total sleep time, are more associated with mental recovery and maintenance. During REM sleep, in ...
*  Sleep and breathing
So breathing during REM sleep is somewhat discordant. In a study of 19 healthy adults, the minute ventilation in REM sleep was ... Intercostal muscle activity decreases in REM sleep and contribution of rib cage to respiration decreases during REM sleep. This ... Hypoxemia due to hypoventilation is noted in REM sleep but this is less well studied than NREM sleep. These changes are equal ... Sleep onset in normal subjects is not immediate, but oscillates between arousal, stage I and II sleep before steady NREM sleep ...
*  Sleep medicine
... including the growth of the research field chronobiology from about 1960 and the discoveries of REM sleep (1952-53) and sleep ... the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, SLEEP and Sleep and Biological Rhythms and promotes both sleep research and physician ... A sleep diary, also called sleep log or sleep journal, kept by a patient at home for at least two weeks, while subjective, may ... Polysomnography is performed in a sleep laboratory while the patient sleeps, preferably at his or her usual sleeping time. The ...
*  Hypnogram
... of their sleep in REM sleep. During rest following a sleep-deprived state, there is a period of rebound sleep which has longer ... rapid eye movement sleep (REM) and non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) to be identified during the sleep cycle. NREM sleep can ... Cycles of REM and non-REM stages make up sleep. A normal healthy adult requires 7-9 hours of sleep per night. The number of ... The second half of the sleeping period contains most REM sleep and little or no SWS and may contain brief periods of ...
*  REM Sleep Behavior Disorder Screening Questionnaire
"REM sleep behavior disorder in Japanese patients with Parkinson's disease: a multicenter study using the REM sleep behavior ... "The REM sleep behavior disorder screening questionnaire: Validation study of a Japanese version". Sleep Medicine. 10 (10): 1151 ... "Utility of the REM sleep behavior disorder screening questionnaire (RBDSQ) in Parkinson's disease patients". Sleep Medicine. 12 ... "REM Behavior Disorder and Sleep". Retrieved 23 April 2014. Gagnon, JF; Postuma, RB; Mazza, S; Doyon, J; Montplaisir, J (May ...
*  Hippocampus
The theta mode appears during states of active, alert behavior (especially locomotion), and also during REM (dreaming) sleep. ... during REM sleep. The function of theta has not yet been convincingly explained although numerous theories have been proposed. ... During sleep or during resting, when an animal is not engaged with its surroundings, the hippocampal EEG shows a pattern of ... Sharp waves are most frequent during sleep when they occur at an average rate of around 1 per second (in rats) but in a very ...
*  Clonazepam
While benzodiazepines induce sleep, they tend to reduce the quality of sleep by suppressing or disrupting REM sleep. After ... Ferini-Strambi, L.; Zucconi, M. (Sep 2000). "REM sleep behavior disorder". Clin Neurophysiol. 111 Suppl 2: S136-40. doi:10.1016 ... Jun 2007). "Sleep and Sex: What Can Go Wrong? A Review of the Literature on Sleep Related Disorders and Abnormal Sexual ... Wolkove, N.; Elkholy, O.; Baltzan, M.; Palayew, M. (May 2007). "Sleep and aging: 2. Management of sleep disorders in older ...
*  Reverse learning
... the forebrain synthesizes dreams during REM sleep. Suppose one did not have REM, then one would mix things up. That is not ... During REM sleep, these unwanted connections in cortical networks are wiped out or damped down by the Crick-Mitchison process ... Brown (1996). "Autism, Asperger's syndrome and the Crick-Mitchison theory of the biological function of REM sleep". Medical ... Brown (1993). "Crick and Mitchison's theory of REM sleep and neural networks". Medical Hypotheses. 40 (6): 329-31. doi:10.1016/ ...
*  Cetacean intelligence
All sleeping mammals, including dolphins, experience a stage known as REM sleep. Unlike terrestrial mammals, dolphin brains ... Lydic, R and Baghdoyan (Eds.); Siegel, J.M. (1999). "The evolution of REM sleep". Handbook of Behavioral State Control. CRC ... Ridgway reports that EEGs show alternating hemispheric asymmetry in slow waves during sleep, with occasional sleep-like waves ... 3 (85). Mukhametov, L. M. (1995). "Paradoxical sleep peculiarities in aquatic mammals". Sleep Research. 24A (202). Gary West, ...
*  Michel Jouvet
... during REM sleep. Jouvet demonstrated that the generation of REM sleep depends on an intact pontine tegmentum and that REM ... sleep and rhombencephalic sleep (paradoxical sleep, known as REM sleep in English-language writings on the subject). In The ... Cats with lesions around the locus coeruleus have less restricted muscle movement during REM sleep, and show a variety of ... Eugene Aserinsky William C. Dement dream Nathaniel Kleitman sleep sleep medicine neuroscience neurobiology Daniel E. Slotnik ( ...
*  Wynn Schwartz
Advances in Descriptive Psychology R Greenberg, C Pearlman, W Schwartz (1983) Memory, emotion, and REM sleep. J Abnorm ... 1983). Memory, emotion, and rem sleep . Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 92(3), 378-381. The Helix Center's Roundtable on ... Conscious Mind, Sleeping Brain: Perspectives on Lucid Dreams Schwartz, W. (1984)The two concepts of action and responsibility ...
*  Etizolam
During tests, there were no substantial changes in deep sleep; however, it may reduce REM sleep. In EEG tests of healthy ... Etizolam produces, especially at higher dosages, a reduction in time taken to fall asleep, an increase in total sleep time, and ... Hirase M, Ishida T, Kamei C (November 2008). "Rebound insomnia induced by abrupt withdrawal of hypnotics in sleep-disturbed ...
*  Theta wave
There is also a distinction between sleep states: REM (dreaming) sleep is associated with theta; slow-wave sleep is associated ... The hippocampal oscillations were associated with REM sleep and the transition from sleep to waking, and came in brief bursts, ... and also during REM sleep. Theta waves with a lower frequency range, usually around 6-7 Hz, are sometimes observed when a rat ... during REM sleep (Vanderwolf, 1969). The frequency of the theta waves increases as a function of running speed, starting at ...
*  Preoptic area
It also mediates non-REM sleep onset. The preoptic periventricular nucleus is located along the midline and is medial to the ...
*  History of the University of Chicago
The discovery of the atmosphere's jet stream.[citation needed] The discovery of REM sleep. The discovery of synchronized ... Lamberg, Lynne (January 2, 2004). "'53 REM Discovery Launched Study of Sleep Disorders". Psychiatric News. p. 22. Retrieved ...
*  Testosterone
Miscellaneous: Sleep: (REM sleep) increases nocturnal testosterone levels. Behavior: Dominance challenges can, in some cases, ... Andersen ML, Tufik S (Oct 2008). "The effects of testosterone on sleep and sleep-disordered breathing in men: its bidirectional ... interaction with erectile function" (PDF). Sleep Medicine Reviews. 12 (5): 365-79. doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2007.12.003. PMID ...
*  Electroencephalography
... "slow-wave sleep". Stages I-IV comprise non-REM (or "NREM") sleep. The EEG in REM (rapid eye movement) sleep appears somewhat ... In 1953 Aserinsky and Kleitman described REM sleep. In the 1950s, William Grey Walter developed an adjunct to EEG called EEG ... Stage II sleep is characterized by sleep spindles - transient runs of rhythmic activity in the 12-14 Hz range (sometimes ... Other transient features are normal: vertex waves and sleep spindles are seen in normal sleep. Note that there are types of ...
*  Pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS)
Sleep disruptions (disturbed REM sleep) are also characteristic. The definitive diagnosis also necessitates a course that ... When widespread pain is present, patients often report other forms of sensory amplification and poor sleep. Physical exam may ... deterioration Defiance Fatigue Specific phobias Tics and hyperkinesia Bizarre thoughts or behavior Insomnia REM-sleep ... including sleep disturbances, enuresis, or urinary frequency. According to the 2017 "Survey of Pediatric Acute-Onset ...
*  Pupillary response
The pupils contract immediately before REM sleep begins. A pupillary response can be intentionally conditioned as a Pavlovian ...
*  Sleep in non-human animals
REM sleep has been observed in the pilot whale, a species of dolphin. Whales do not seem to have REM sleep, nor do they seem to ... One reason REM sleep might be difficult in marine settings is the fact that REM sleep causes muscular atony; that is to say, a ... They can also hang with their nostrils above water and in that position have REM sleep, but they do not have REM sleep ... Aquatic mammal infants do not have REM sleep in infancy; REM sleep increases as they age. Among others, seals and whales belong ...
*  Non-rapid eye movement sleep
Dreaming is rare during NREM sleep, and muscles are not paralyzed as in REM sleep. People who do not go through the sleeping ... Participants were then trained in the maze for 4 hours and later, during the various sleep cycles of nonREM sleep, REM sleep ... whereas REM sleep includes hallucinatory and bizarre content. The mental activity that occurs in NREM and REM sleep is a result ... their sleep was separated into naps including only REM sleep and only NREM sleep using polysomnography. This implies that the ...
*  Iprindole
... an antidepressant which does not block REM sleep". Nature. 223 (5207): 750-2. Bibcode:1969Natur.223..750B. doi:10.1038/223750a0 ...
*  Allan Hobson
... joking that the only known function of sleep is to cure sleepiness. Hobson, J.A. (2009). "REM sleep and dreaming: ... Instead, as we can observe through dream reports, during REM sleep, it is emotional salience that steps into a directorial role ... 1989, Sleep (Scientific American Library Series). W. H. Freeman & Co. 1992, Sleep and Dreams. (Carolina Biology Readers Series ... Konnikova, Maria (8 July 2015). "The Work We Do While We Sleep". The New Yorker. Retrieved 17 July 2015. The Harvard sleep ...
*  Multiple system atrophy
... abnormal breathing or inspiratory stridor during sleep other sleep disorders including sleep apnea, REM behavior disorder Other ... July 2003). "REM sleep behavior disorder is related to striatal monoaminergic deficit in MSA". Neurology. 61 (1): 29-34. doi: ... To further control the postural hypotension, raising the head of the bed by 8 in (20.3 cm) while sleeping may be indicated as ...
*  Acetylcholine
ACh has also been shown to promote REM sleep. In the brainstem acetylcholine originates from the Pedunculopontine nucleus and ... Platt, Bettina; Riedel, Gernot (10 August 2011). "The cholinergic system, EEG and sleep". Behavioural Brain Research. 221 (2): ... Jones, BE (November 2005). "From waking to sleeping: neuronal and chemical substrates". Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. 26 ...