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*  HCN4
Larsson HP (Sep 2010). "How is the heart rate regulated in the sinoatrial node? Another piece to the puzzle". The Journal of ... "Phosphorylation and modulation of hyperpolarization-activated HCN4 channels by protein kinase A in the mouse sinoatrial node". ... Nof E, Antzelevitch C, Glikson M (Jan 2010). "The Contribution of HCN4 to normal sinus node function in humans and animal ... "Pacemaker channel dysfunction in a patient with sinus node disease". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 111 (10): 1537-45. ...
*  Wandering pacemaker
... is an atrial arrhythmia that occurs when the natural cardiac pacemaker site shifts between the sinoatrial node (SA node), the ... atria, and/or the atrioventricular node (AV node). This shifting of the pacemaker from the SA node to adjacent tissues is ... With increased vagal tone the SA Node slows, allowing a pacemaker in the atria or AV Nodal area, which may briefly become ... After vagal tone decreases, the SA Node assumes its natural pace. A wandering atrial pacemaker, also termed multifocal atrial ...
*  Dromotropic
A dromotropic agent is one which affects the conduction speed in the AV node, and subsequently the rate of electrical impulses ... "Chronotropic and dromotropic responses to stimulation of intracardiac sympathetic nerves to sinoatrial or atrioventricular ...
*  ANK2
"Ankyrin-based targeting pathway regulates human sinoatrial node automaticity". Channels (Austin, Tex.). 2 (6): 404-6. doi: ... Robaei, D; Ford, T; Ooi, SY (February 2015). "Ankyrin-B syndrome: a case of sinus node dysfunction, atrial fibrillation and ... Glukhov, AV; Fedorov, VV; Anderson, ME; Mohler, PJ; Efimov, IR (August 2010). "Functional anatomy of the murine sinus node: ... ANK2 mutations have also been identified in patients with sinus node dysfunction. Mechanistic studies on effects of these ...
*  Karel Frederik Wenckebach
A similar phenomenon can also occur in the Sinoatrial node where it gives rise to Type I second degree SA block, and this is ... Wenckebach is credited for describing the median bundle of the heart's conductive system that connects the sinoatrial node to ... James, Thomas N. (1 October 1963). "The connecting pathways between the sinus node and A-V node and between the right and the ... the atrioventricular node. This bundle was named Wenckebach's bundle, and is also known as the middle internodal tract. ...
*  Heart block
Conduction is initiated by the sinoatrial node ("sinus node" or "SA node"), and then travels to the atrioventricular node ("AV ... SA node Wenckebach (Mobitz I) SA node Mobitz II SA node exit block In addition to the above blocks, the SA node can be ... The difference between SA node block and SA node suppression is that in SA node block an electrical impulse is generated by the ... namely the SA node ("Sinoatrial block"), AV node ("AV block" or AVB), and at or below the bundle of His ("Intra-Hisian" or " ...
*  Sinoatrial node
The sinoatrial node (SA node), also known as sinus node, is a group of cells located in the wall of the right atrium of the ... although in some cases there have been either 2 or 3 sinoatrial node arteries supplying the SA node. Also, the SA node artery, ... The sinoatrial node receives its blood supply from the sinoatrial nodal artery. This blood supply, however, can differ hugely ... if the SA node is working, it usually beats the AVN to it. Outlined below are the 3 phases of a sinoatrial node action ...
*  Hydropolis
2013 "The Sinoatrial Node: The Body's Natural Pacemaker." The Sinoatrial Node. Web. 12 Nov. 2013 gizmodo.com arabianbusiness. ... Roland Dieterle put a special emphasis on the sinus node by placing it in the center of Hydropolis. Hauser and Prof. Roland ... Some of the parts represented in Hydropolis are the nervous system, cardiovascular system, and the sinus node. Hauser and Prof ... Dieterle did this because the sinus node is the heart's pacemaker. Cost is a problem facing the Hydropolis. Funding for ...
*  Crista terminalis
Sinoatrial node Sadler, T. (2010). Langman's medical embryology (11th ed. ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott William & Wilkins. p. ...
*  Vagus nerve
The right vagus branch innervates the sinoatrial node. In healthy people, parasympathetic tone from these sources are well- ... When hyperstimulated, the left vagal branch predisposes the heart to conduction block at the atrioventricular node. At this ...
*  HCN1
Wahl-Schott C, Fenske S, Biel M (Apr 2014). "HCN channels: new roles in sinoatrial node function". Current Opinion in ... HCN1 channel expression is found in the sinoatrial node, the neocortex, hippocampus, cerebellar cortex, dorsal root ganglion, ...
*  Cardiac cycle
... nodes. The sinoatrial node, often known as the cardiac pacemaker, is located in the upper wall of the right atrium and is ... The sinoatrial node can be detected by catheterization. Ventricular systole is the contraction of the ventricular syncytium of ... The wave of depolarization that stimulates both atria to contract at the same time is due to the sinoatrial node which is ... impulses that are produced by specialised pacemaker cells found within the sinoatrial node and the atrioventricular node. The ...
*  Sinoatrial nodal artery
... or sinuatrial nodal artery or sinoatrial artery) is an artery of the heart which supplies the sinoatrial node, the natural ... The sinoatrial node surrounds the sinoatrial artery, which can run centrally (in 70% of individuals) or off center within the ... The origin of the sinoatrial node artery is not related to coronary artery dominance, which means the side (right or left) that ... MDCT of the S-shaped sinoatrial node artery. Am J Roentgenol 2008; 190:1569-1575.. ...
*  Pacemaker potential
In a healthy sinoatrial node (SAN, a complex tissue within the right atrium containing pacemaker cells that normally determine ... In the pacemaking cells of the heart (e.g., the sinoatrial node), the pacemaker potential (also called the pacemaker current) ... ISBN 0-07-366175-9. Verkerk AO, van Ginneken AC, Wilders R (January 2009). "Pacemaker activity of the human sinoatrial node: ... SA node → ,block, atrial foci → junctional foci → ventricular foci The other foci will not see the SA node firing; however, ...
*  Heart rate
Pacemaker cells develop in the primitive atrium and the sinus venosus to form the sinoatrial node and the atrioventricular node ... SA node), and the vagus nerve provides parasympathetic input to the heart by releasing acetylcholine onto sinoatrial node cells ... The normal resting heart rate is based on the at-rest firing rate of the heart's sinoatrial node, where the faster pacemaker ... The heart rate is rhythmically generated by the sinoatrial node. It is also influenced by central factors through sympathetic ...
*  Beta-2 adrenergic receptor
Increases heart rate in sinoatrial node (SA node) (chronotropic effect). Increases atrial cardiac muscle contractility. ( ...
*  Cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel
In the heart, cells in the sinoatrial node (and, as backup, in the atrioventricular node) contain cyclic nucleotide gated ... ISBN 0-12-065310-9. Larsson, H. P. (2010). "How is the heart rate regulated in the sinoatrial node? Another piece to the puzzle ...
*  TBX3
"Molecular pathway for the localized formation of the sinoatrial node". Circulation Research. 100 (3): 354-62. doi:10.1161/01. ...
*  HCN channel
HCN4 is the main isoform expressed in the sinoatrial node, but low levels of HCN1 and HCN2 have also been reported. The current ... Larsson, H. P. (2010). "How is the heart rate regulated in the sinoatrial node? Another piece to the puzzle". The Journal of ...
*  Purkinje fibers
In short, they generate action potentials, but at a slower rate than sinoatrial node. This capability is normally suppressed. ... The electrical origin of atrial Purkinje fibers arrives from the sinoatrial node. Given no aberrant channels, the Purkinje ... They are influenced by electrical discharge from the sinoatrial node. During the ventricular contraction portion of the cardiac ... The Purkinje fibers do not have any known role in setting heart rate unless the SA node is compromised. ...
*  Threshold potential
"The Anatomy and Physiology of the Sinoatrial Node-A Contemporary Review". Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology. 33 (11): 1392- ...
*  Muscarinic antagonist
It causes tachycardia by blocking vagal effects on the sinoatrial node. Acetylcholine hyperpolarizes the sinoatrial node, which ... In the atrioventricular node, the resting potential is abbreviated, which facilitates conduction. This is seen as a shortened ...
*  Nav1.5
In contrast, expression is low in the sinoatrial node and atrioventricular node. Within the heart, a transmural expression ...
*  Heart
The right coronary artery also supplies blood to the atrioventricular node (in about 90% of people) and the sinoatrial node (in ... The sinoatrial node is found in the upper part of the right atrium near to the junction with the superior vena cava. The ... Cells in the sinoatrial node do this by creating an action potential. The cardiac action potential is created by the movement ... The heart pumps blood with a rhythm determined by a group of pacemaking cells in the sinoatrial node. These generate a current ...
*  Heart development
Pacemaker cells develop in the primitive atrium and the sinus venosus to form the sinoatrial node and the atrioventricular node ... These cells form an ovoid sinoatrial node (SAN), on the left venous valve. After the development of the SAN, the superior ... the sinoatrial node and the coronary sinus. The central part of cardiogenic area is in front of the oropharyngeal membrane and ... But this pacemaker activity is actually made by a group of cells that derive from the sinoatrial right venous sinus. ...
*  Atrioventricular node
A wave of excitation spreads out from the sinoatrial node through the atria along specialized conduction channels. This ... The AV node is quite compact (~1 x 3 x 5 mm). The AV node lies at the lower back section of the interatrial septum near the ... The atrioventricular node, or AV node is a part of the electrical conduction system of the heart that coordinates the top of ... The AV node's normal intrinsic firing rate without stimulation (such as that from the SA node) is 40-60 times/minute. This ...
*  Cardiac action potential
In the sinoatrial node, this phase is also due to the closure of the L-type calcium channels, preventing inward flux of Ca2+ ... In healthy hearts, these cells are found in the right atrium and are called the sinoatrial node (SAN; see below for more ... Joung, B., Chen, P. and Lin, S. (2011) 'The role of the calcium and the voltage clocks in sinoatrial node dysfunction', Yonsei ... In pacemaker cells (e.g. sinoatrial node cells), however, the increase in membrane voltage is mainly due to activation of L- ...