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*  Osteometry
In zooarchaeology the main goal of osteometry is taxonomic determination and, to lesser extent, determination of sex. Usually ... In later skeletons, osteometry has historically been used to attempt to identify the ethnicity or race of skeletons. Aspects ... Comparison of various aspects of ancient skeletons can be used to determine which species a skeleton belongs to, or if the ... sex, the degree of sex dimorphism (which may be used to answer questions related to lack of nutrition) and even ethnicity. ...
*  Lake Mungo remains
Determination of LM3's sex was initially difficult, due to the deterioration of the skull and pelvis bones, which normally ... to collaborate on a final determination of the skeleton's age. They reached a consensus that LM3 is about 40,000 years old. ... Thorne A, Curnoe D (2000). "Sex and significance of Lake Mungo 3: reply to Brown "Australian pleistocene variation and the sex ... "A new test of the sex of the Lake Mungo 3 skeleton". Archaeology in Oceania. 44 (2): 77-83. doi:10.1002/j.1834-4453.2009. ...
*  Clavicle
... form is a reliable criterion for sex determination. The collarbones are sometimes partly or completely absent in ... The clavicle first appears as part of the skeleton in primitive bony fish, where it is associated with the pectoral fin; they ... Transmits physical impacts from the upper limb to the axial skeleton. Muscles and ligaments that attach to the collarbone ...
*  Largest organisms
Lang, J. W.; Andrews, H.; Whitaker, R. (1989). "Sex determination and sex ratios in Crocodylus palustris". American Zoologist. ... The tallest and heaviest sauropod known from a complete skeleton is a specimen of an immature Giraffatitan discovered in ... Theropods (Theropoda) The largest theropod known from a nearly complete skeleton is the biggest and most complete Tyrannosaurus ... Other contenders known from partial skeletons include Giganotosaurus carolinii (est. 12.2-13.2 m and 6-13.8 tonnes) and ...
*  Terry Collection
Işcan's ancestry determination using the pelvis, DiBennardo and Taylor's method of sex and ancestry assessment utilizing the ... The Robert J. Terry Anatomical Skeletal Collection is a collection of some 1,728 human skeletons held by the Department of ... The FDB is the main data pool that the computer program FORDISC utilizes in order to estimate sex, stature, and ancestry from ... This information includes name, sex, age, race, cause of death, date of death, morgue or institution of origin, permit number, ...
*  Alec Jeffreys
Sixteen micro satellites, plus a marker for sex determination, are used with the current system developed for the NDNAD, giving ... Josef Mengele, who had died in 1979, by comparing DNA obtained from a femur bone of his exhumed skeleton, with DNA from his ...
*  Bioarchaeology
Not all skeletons can be assigned a sex, and some may be wrongly identified as male or female. Sexing skeletons is based on the ... Lovejoy, C.O. (1985). "Dental wear in the Libben population: its functional pattern and role in the determination of adult ... Bioarchaeological sexing of skeletons is not error-proof. In reviewing the sexing of Egyptian skulls from Qua and Badari, Mann ... Sexing skeletons of young people who have not completed puberty is more difficult and problematic than sexing adults, because ...
*  Susan Margaret Black
subscription required) Gapert, R.; Black, S.; Last, J. (2009). "Sex determination from the occipital condyle: Discriminant ... Louise Scheuer; Sue M. Black (2004). The Juvenile Skeleton. London: Elsevier Academic Press. ISBN 9780121028213. Maureen ... 2004 The Juvenile Skeleton (co-author) 2009 Juvenile Osteology: A Laboratory and Field Manual (co-author) 2009 'Forensic ... Identification from the Human Skeleton' in 1986. In 1987 she was appointed a lecturer in Anatomy at St Thomas' Hospital, London ...
*  Ellis R. Kerley
As a human skeleton grows and matures during a lifetime, a condition similar to osteoporosis occurs naturally. Cells replacing ... Kerley also contributed to hair analysis as it pertains to race, age, sex and cause of death. Child abuse studies were also a ... By the 1970s, the method was considered a standard in the field of Forensic anthropology for determination of age, and over 40 ... age determinations had been made, to even badly burned and disfigured remains with similar results. In 1987 Kerley became the ...
*  Cranid
The use of this program is designed to aid forensic anthropologists in the determination of the biological profile, which ... "Can ancestry be consistently determined from the skeleton?". Anthropological Review. 78 (1): 21-31. doi:10.1515/anre-2015-0002 ... includes factors such as age, sex, stature and race. This biological profile is used to determine personal identification of ... and an Analysis of the Potential of 3D Geometric Morphometrics in Ancestry Determination from the Skull." AXIS, Volume 2, Issue ...
*  Bird
These birds do not exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination, but temperature-dependent sex mortality. Feathers are a ... "The Avian Skeleton". paulnoll.com. Retrieved 13 December 2007. "Skeleton of a typical bird". Fernbank Science Center's ... Birds have two sexes: either female or male. The sex of birds is determined by the Z and W sex chromosomes, rather than by the ... However, one recent study demonstrated temperature-dependent sex determination among the Australian brushturkey, for which ...
*  Madrone butterfly
The determination of sex in E. socialis is chromosomal with heterogametic females. But, the primary sex-ratio i.e, the sex- ... They consume the epidermis and mesophyll and leave the venous skeleton of the leaf intact. The larvae then build their first ... Furthermore, the operational sex-ratio is also male-biased. Such a ratio is thought to be evolutionarily maintained because of ... Underwood*, Dessie L.A.; Shapiro, Arthur M. (1999). "A male-biased primary sex ratio and larval mortality in Eucheira socialis ...
*  Edible frog
Christiansen D. G. (2009). "Gamete types, sex determination and stable equilibria of all-hybrid populations of diploid and ... ArchéoZooThèque : Edible frog skeleton drawing Species account on HerpFrance.com Video: Pool frogs and hybrid green frogs on ...
*  Physical impacts of climate change
Global warming portal Effects of global warming Temperature-dependent sex determination University for Peace IPCC (2007d). " ... The oceans soak up much of the CO2 produced by living organisms, either as dissolved gas, or in the skeletons of tiny marine ...
*  Teleost
In monofactorial sex determination, a single-locus determines sex inheritance. Both the XY sex-determination system and ZW sex- ... At this stage, its axial skeleton, internal organs, scales, pigmentation and fins are fully developed. The transition from ... where there are several genes which play a role in determining sex. Environment-dependent sex determination has been documented ... Multifactorial sex determination occurs in numerous Neotropical species and involves both XY and ZW systems. Multifactorial ...
*  FORDISC
This software is able to estimate the sex, ancestry, and stature from a skeleton of unknown identity. This software also can be ... Due to the age of these collections, their use in a medico-legal context did not produce accurate determination of the ... "Poster: Elliott and Collard 2012 Going head to head: FORDISC vs CRANID in the determination of ancestry from craniometric data ... 15: Fordisc 3 and Statistical Methods for Estimating Sex and Ancestry". In Dirkmaat, Dennis. A Companion to Forensic ...
*  List of largest reptiles
Lang, J. W.; Andrews, H.; Whitaker, R. (1989). "Sex determination and sex ratios in Crocodylus palustris". American Zoologist. ... but the lack of a complete skeleton has resulted in a wide range of size estimates. Molnar's 2004 assessment resulted in an ...
*  Evolutionary history of life
... unusual haplodiploid method of sex determination, which has the paradoxical consequence that two sterile worker daughters of ... Its skeleton differed from that of most fish, in ways that enabled it to raise its head to breathe air while its body remained ... Otto, Sarah P.; Lenormand, Thomas (April 2002). "Evolution of sex: Resolving the paradox of sex and recombination". Nature ... Otto, Sarah P.; Gerstein, Aleeza C. (August 2006). "Why have sex? The population genetics of sex and recombination". ...
*  Joint POW/MIA Accounting Command
Forensic anthropologists carefully analyze all remains and artifacts to determine the sex, race, age at death, and stature of ... and even used as laboratory skeletons. In the report it was stated that the average length of time for the JPAC laboratory to ... the LSEL was able to provide crucial case determinations (through analysis of recovered equipment artifacts) when other ...
*  Dinocephalosaurus
Although the sex-determination systems among living archosauromorphs are diverse, with crocodilians and turtles using ... A second specimen discovered at the same locality represents a partially articulated skeleton that is only lacking the tail. ... Organ, C.L.; Janes, D.E.; Meade, A.; Pagel, M. (2009). "Genotypic sex determination enabled adaptive radiations of extinct ... phylogenetic modelling suggests that Dinocephalosaurus retained the basal condition of genotypic sex determination from early ...
*  Mammal
The monotremes have a sex determination system different from that of most other mammals. In particular, the sex chromosomes of ... Brink, A.S. (1955). "A study on the skeleton of Diademodon". Palaeontologia Africana. 3: 3-39. Kemp, T.S. (1982). Mammal-like ... 2007). "Sex determination in platypus and echidna: autosomal location of SOX3 confirms the absence of SRY from monotremes". ... Pecking orders may also be ranked by sex, where the lowest individual of a sex has a higher ranking than the top individual of ...
*  List of Hellsing characters
Maxwell's determination proved to be his hamartia as he ended up dying of impalement in the same way that he had lived; alone. ... Seeing Mina's skeleton, noting the woman's history and her possessing faint traces of Alucard's being in her bones, Walter ... The flashback ends with Seras seeing glimpses of the criminals having sex with her mother's corpse. It was also shown that, ... sex, and acts of violence. He commands with a good-natured attitude, which can change in a moment to cruelty or grandiose ...
*  Reptile
Some reptiles exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TDSD), in which the incubation temperature determines whether a ... doi:10.1186/1741-7007-10-65 . Paton, R. L.; Smithson, T. R.; Clack, J. A. (1999). "An amniote-like skeleton from the Early ... ISBN 978-1-55407-366-5. Chadwick, Derek; Goode, Jamie (2002). The genetics and biology of sex ... - Google Books. ISBN 978-0- ... Chapter 6: "Walking with early tetrapods: evolution of the postcranial skeleton and the phylogenetic affinities of the ...
*  Ichthyosaur
Organ, C.L.; Janes, D.E.; Meade, A.; Pagel, M. (2009). "Genotypic sex determination enabled adaptive radiations of extinct ... Skeletons of Eurhinosaurus and Shastasaurus show two morphotypes. Individuals with a longer snout, larger eyes, a longer trunk ... they do not have distinct sex chromosomes. Live-bearing reptiles do not regulate sex through incubation temperature. A study in ... The skeletons were very complete and often preserved soft tissues, including tail and dorsal fins. Additionally, female ...
*  Steroid
Sex hormones, which influence sex differences and support reproduction. These include androgens, estrogens, and progestagens. ... Structure determination refers to the methods to determine the chemical structure of an isolated pure steroid, using an ... Sterols are forms of steroids with a hydroxyl group at position three and a skeleton derived from cholestane. They can also ... The three cyclohexane rings (A, B, and C in the first illustration) form the skeleton of a perhydro derivative of phenanthrene ...
*  Allometry
A classic example discussed by Galileo in his Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences is the skeleton of mammals. The skeletal ... and sex), which is referred to as static allometry. Comparisons of species are used to examine interspecific or evolutionary ... Many factors go into the determination of body mass and size for a given animal. These factors often affect body size on an ... Animals with tubular endoskeletons tend to be larger than animals with exoskeletons or hydrostatic skeletons. Habitat An ...