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*  Small supernumerary marker chromosome
Humans typically have 22 pairs of autosomal chromosomes in their cells, and a pair of sex chromosomes. About 2.7 million ... 47th autosomal chromosome called a small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC). These small supernumerary marker chromosomes ... Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) in humans. Cytogenet Genome Research, 2004; 107: 55-67 Liehr et al. Small ... can originate from any of the 24 different human chromosomes. About 70% of the cases with sSMC are de novo (new mutations), 30 ...
*  Homologous chromosome
The additional 23rd pair is the sex chromosomes, X and Y. If this pair is made up of an X and Y chromosome, then the pair of ... It reduces the chromosome number in a germ cell by half by first separating the homologous chromosomes in meiosis I and then ... Homologous chromosomes are chromosomes which contain the same genes in the same order along their chromosomal arms. There are ... Therefore, when two chromosomes of the exact structure exist, they are able to pair together to form homologous chromosomes. ...
*  Gender taxonomy
... which categorize female sex chromosome abnormalities and male sex chromosome abnormalities. Turner Syndrome is a result from ... XYY Syndrome is also a syndrome resulting from a male sex chromosome abnormality. Males inherit an extra Y chromosome (genotype ... "Human Chromosomal Abnormalities: Sex Chromosome Abnormalities". anthro.palomar.edu. Archived from the original on 2016-03-02. ... Triple-X Syndrome is another syndrome that occurs from a female sex chromosome abnormality. Females inherit three or more X ...
*  X-inactivation
... unlike the majority of genes along the sex chromosomes. Since individuals of either sex will receive two copies of every gene ... The inactive X chromosome is coated by Xist RNA, whereas the Xa is not (See Figure to the right). X chromosomes which lack the ... The inactive X chromosome does not express the majority of its genes, unlike the active X chromosome. This is due to the ... Normal females possess two X chromosomes, and in any given cell one chromosome will be active (designated as Xa) and one will ...
*  Allosome
Genes that are carried by either sex chromosome are said to be sex linked. Sex-linked diseases are passed down through families ... also referred to as a sex chromosome, heterotypical chromosome, heterochromosome, or idiochromosome) is a chromosome that ... The human sex chromosomes, a typical pair of mammal allosomes, determine the sex of an individual created in sexual ... The X chromosome is always present as the 23rd chromosome in the ovum, while either an X or a Y chromosomes can be present in ...
*  Sex chromosome disorders
... belong to a group of genetic conditions that are caused or affected by the loss, damage or addition of ... sex chromosomes (gonosomes). In humans this may refer to: 45, X, also known as Turner syndrome 45,X/46,XY mosaicism 46, XX/XY ...
*  Patricia Jacobs
Harper, Peter S. (2006). "The sex chromosomes". First years of human chromosomes : the beginnings of human cytogenetics. ... ISBN 0-674-00928-2. Milunsky, Jeff M. (2010). "Prenatal diagnosis of sex chromosome abnormalities". In Milunsky, Aubrey; ... ISBN 1-4051-9087-6. The addition of a Y chromosome to a normal male chromosome constitution does not produce a discernible ... "Criminal patients with XYY sex-chromosome complement". Lancet. 287 (7437): 565-6. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(66)90760-4. PMID ...
*  XYY syndrome
In the wake of the establishment of the normal number of human chromosomes, 47,XYY was the last of the common sex chromosome ... Harper, Peter S. (2006). "The sex chromosomes". First years of human chromosomes : the beginnings of human cytogenetics. ... This tall (that chromosome), intelligent (that chromosome again), functionally nonviolent (that chromosome still again) fellow ... sex chromatin bodies was not developed until 1970, a decade after the first reported sex chromosome aneuploidy. The first ...
*  Genetics of aggression
ISBN 0-471-95719-4. Allanson, Judith E.; Graham, Gail E. (2002). "Sex chromosome abnormalities". In Rimoin, David L.; Connor, J ... ISBN 0-443-06434-2. Milunsky, Jeff M. (2004). "Prenatal Diagnosis of Sex Chromosome Abnormalities". In Milunsky, Aubrey. ... several decades of long-term follow-up of scores of unselected XYY males identified in eight international newborn chromosome ...
*  Gynandromorphism
This leads to one of the two cells having sex chromosomes that cause male development and the other cell having chromosomes ... While the organism contains only a few cells, one of the dividing cells does not split its sex chromosomes typically. ... Arnold, Arthur P. (2004). "Sex chromosomes and brain gender". Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 5 (9): 701-8. doi:10.1038/nrn1494. ... Since X and XYY dictate different sexes, the organism has tissue that is female and tissue that is male. A developmental ...
*  Allorecognition
Fraser JA, Heitman J (2004). "Evolution of fungal sex chromosomes". Molecular Microbiology. 51 (2): 299-306. doi:10.1046/j.1365 ...
*  Synapsis
Sex chromosomes also undergo synapsis; however, the synaptonemal protein complex that holds the homologous chromosomes together ... The DNA damage response protein TOPBP1 has also been identified as a crucial factor in meiotic sex chromosome silencing. DNA ... "Sex chromosomes, synapsis, and cohesins: a complex affair" (PDF). Chromosoma. 115 (3): 250-9. doi:10.1007/s00412-006-0059-3. ... where the two chromosomes are physically joined. At least one chiasma per chromosome often appears to be necessary to stabilise ...
*  Smeagol (gastropod)
The number of chromosomes is unknown. They have no sex chromosomes. These slugs inhabit the upper intertidal zone on gravel ...
*  Richard Speck
Price, W. H.; Strong, J. A.; Whatmore, P. B.; McClemont, W. F. (March 12, 1966). "Criminal patients with XYY sex-chromosome ... doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.1968.tb00566.x. Court Brown; W. M. (December 1968). "Males with an XYY sex chromosome complement". J ... p. 1. Court Brown; W. Michael (December 1968). "Males with an XYY sex chromosome complement". J Med Genet. 5 (4): 341-59. doi: ... Clark, Gerald R.; Telfer, Mary A.; Baker, David; Rosen, Marvin (May 1970). "Sex chromosomes, crime, and psychosis". Am J ...
*  Matilda effect
Her crucial studies of mealworms revealed for the first time that an organism's sex is determined by its chromosomes rather ... "Nettie Stevens discovered XY sex chromosomes. She didn't get credit because she had two X's". Vox. Retrieved 2016-07-07. ... They felt their female co-worker, Frieda Robscheit-Robbins, was excluded on grounds of her sex. Whipple however shared the ... She is not mentioned in the "Dictionary of Scientific Biography" Nettie Stevens (1861-1912), discoverer of the XY sex- ...
*  Susumu Ohno
Ohno S (1967). Sex Chromosomes and Sex-Linked Genes. Berlin, New York: Springer-Verlag Wycoff, Mick (2008). "Art as Science ... ISBN 0-04-575015-7. Ohno S, Kaplan WD, Kinosita R (1959). "Formation of the sex chromatin by a single X-chromosome in liver ... He also discovered in 1956 that the Barr body of mammalian female nuclei was in fact a condensed X chromosome. In Evolution by ... He indicated that mammalian X chromosomes are conserved among species; it has been referred to as Ohno's law. He also ...
*  Indigenous peoples of the Americas
Griffiths, Anthony J. F. (1999). "Sex chromosomes and sex-linked inheritance". An Introduction to genetic analysis. New York: W ... "Aboriginal Identity (8), Sex (3) and Age Groups (12) for the Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan ... ISBN 0-7167-3771-X. Jones, Peter N. (October 2002). American Indian Mtdna, Y Chromosome Genetic Data, and the Peopling of North ... Genetic history of indigenous peoples of the Americas primarily focuses on Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups and Human ...
*  Ohno's law
ISBN 0-471-26821-6. Ohno S (1967). Sex Chromosomes and sex-linked genes. Berlin:Springer-Verlag. Ohno S (1970). Evolution by ... That is, nearly all mammalian species have conserved the X chromosome from their primordial X chromosome of a common ancestor. ... The content of a chromosome would be changed mainly by mutation after duplication of the chromosome and translocation with ... other chromosomes. However, in mammals, since the chromosomal sex-determination mechanism would have been established in their ...
*  Marion J. Lamb
Jablonka, E., & Lamb, M.J. (8 July 1988). "Meiotic pairing constraints and the activity of sex chromosomes". Journal of ... "The evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes". Biological Reviews. 65 (3): 249-276. doi:10.1111/j.1469-185X.1990.tb01426.x. ...
*  Autosome
An autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (a sex chromosome). The members of an autosome pair in a diploid cell have ... For example, the SRY gene on the Y chromosome encodes the transcription factor TDF and is vital for male sex determination ... Disteche, Christine M. (2012-01-01). "Dosage Compensation of the Sex Chromosomes". Annual Review of Genetics. 46: 537-560. doi: ... TDF functions by activating the SOX9 gene on chromosome 17, so mutations of the SOX9 gene can cause humans with a Y chromosome ...
*  Charles Elmer Allen
Anderson, Lewis E. (2000). "Charles E. Allen and Sex Chromosomes". The Bryologist. 103 (3): 442-448. doi:10.1639/0007-2745(2000 ... was an American botanist and cell biologist whose discoveries include the first documentation of sex chromosomes in plants. He ...
*  Gene duplication
ISBN 0-04-575015-7. Ohno, S. (1967). Sex Chromosomes and Sex-linked Genes. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 91-554-5776-2. Kellis M, ... Aneuploidy occurs when nondisjunction at a single chromosome results in an abnormal number of chromosomes. Aneuploidy is often ... Polyploidy is also a well known source of speciation, as offspring, which have different numbers of chromosomes compared to ... They are mostly found in pericentronomic, subtelomeric and interstitial regions of a chromosome. Many LCRs, due to their size ...
*  Eva Jablonka
In English: Jablonka, E.; Lamb, M. (1988). "Meiotic pairing constraints and the activity of sex chromosomes†". Journal of ... Jablonka, E.A.; Lamb, M.J. (1990). "The Evolution of Heteromorphic Sex Chromosomes". Biological Reviews. 65 (3): 249-276. doi: ...
*  Dinocephalosaurus
Organ, C.L.; Janes, D.E. (2008). "Evolution of sex chromosomes in Sauropsida". Integrative and Comparative Biology. 48 (4): 512 ... Although the sex-determination systems among living archosauromorphs are diverse, with crocodilians and turtles using ... Organ, C.L.; Janes, D.E.; Meade, A.; Pagel, M. (2009). "Genotypic sex determination enabled adaptive radiations of extinct ... phylogenetic modelling suggests that Dinocephalosaurus retained the basal condition of genotypic sex determination from early ...
*  Klinefelter syndrome
... in this case the X and Y or two X sex chromosomes, fail to separate, producing a sperm with an X and a Y chromosome or an egg ... Nondisjunction will occur when sister chromatids on the sex chromosome, in this case an X and an X, fail to separate. (meiosis ... MACLEAN N, HARNDEN DG, COURT BROWN WM; Harnden; Court Brown (Aug 1961). "Abnormalities of sex chromosome constitution in ... Linden MG, Bender BG, Robinson A (1995). "Sex chromosome tetrasomy and pentasomy". Pediatrics. 96 (4 Pt 1): 672-682. PMID ...
*  Sex determination in Silene
A few, such as S. colpophylla, possess homomorphic sex chromosomes. Plants with sex-determining chromosomes, like Silene, can ... This is made possible through heteromorphic sex chromosomes expressed as XY. Silene recently evolved sex chromosomes 5-10 ... Biologists have found that sex chromosomes in plants originated from pairs of autosomes. As these chromosomes diverge from ... In the case of Silene, the pair of automsomal chromosomes are transformed into heteromorphic sex-determining chromosomes ...
*  Tetrasomy X
2007). "The multiple sex chromosomes of platypus and echidna are not completely identical and several share homology with the ... Linden MG, Bender BG, Robinson A (1995). "Sex chromosome tetrasomy and pentasomy". Pediatrics. 96 (4 Pt 1): 672-82. PMID ... is a rare chromosomal disorder caused by the presence of four X chromosomes instead of two X chromosomes. This condition occurs ... This can occur when homologous X chromosomes fail to separate in the formation of the egg or sperm. Tetrasomy X is usually ...