The list cites air pollution by particulates, including radioisotopes strontium-90, and caesium-137; the metals nickel, copper ... selenium and zinc are released into the air every year. Russia's Federal State Statistics Service lists Norilsk as the most ... cobalt, and lead; selenium; and by gases (such as nitrogen and carbon oxides, sulfur dioxide, phenols and hydrogen sulfide). ...
The Br-O bond in BrO− 4 is fairly weak, which corresponds to the general reluctance of the 4p elements arsenic, selenium, and ... The most stable bromine radioisotope is 77Br (t1/2 = 57.04 h). The primary decay mode of isotopes lighter than 79Br is electron ... capture to isotopes of selenium; that of isotopes heavier than 81Br is beta decay to isotopes of krypton; and 80Br may decay by ...
The non-primordial radioisotope 79Se also occurs in minute quantities in uranium ores as a product of nuclear fission. Selenium ... Selenium forms two oxides: selenium dioxide (SeO2) and selenium trioxide (SeO3). Selenium dioxide is formed by the reaction of ... Certain soils are selenium-rich, and selenium can be bioconcentrated by some plants. In soils, selenium most often occurs in ... Some of the selenium oxyhalides, such as selenium oxyfluoride (SeOF2) and selenium oxychloride (SeOCl2) have been used as ...
... is a radioisotope of selenium present in spent nuclear fuel and the wastes resulting from reprocessing this fuel. ... Selenium-80 and selenium-82 have higher fission yields, about 20 times the yield of 79Se in the case of uranium-235, 6 times in ... Moreover, selenium is an essential micronutrient as it is present in the catalytic centers in the glutathione peroxidase, an ... Due to redox-disequilibrium, selenium could be very reluctant to abiotic chemical reduction and would be released from the ...
... radioisotope Radium Radon Radon fluoride Raman spectroscopy Raoult's law Redox Reduction Reflux Reversible reaction Rhazes ... salt Salvinorin-A Samarium Samarskite Sand Sapphire Sard Scandium Scheelite Schist scientific notation Seaborgium Selenium ... Svante Arrhenius Syenite Sylvite synthetic radioisotope systematic element name Tabun Talc Talcum Tantalite Tantalum Tanzanite ...
By researching the physics of selenium and selenium appliances, was the first to explain the abnormalities in selenium and ... Россия) Radioisotopes and their Application in Semiconductor Physics. Abdullayev G.B. Press of the Academy of Sciences of the ... АН Аз.ССР, Bakı, Azərb.SSR Elmlər Akademiyası Nəşriyatı, 1958, 204 c. Physical Processes Occurring in Selenium and Selenium ... ССР., 1973 Physical Properties of Selenium and Selenium Devices. Abdullayev G.B. Elm, Baku(1974). Физические свойства селена и ...
Naturally occurring lanthanum is made up of two isotopes, the stable 139La and the primordial long-lived radioisotope 138La. ... selenium, silicon and arsenic. Lanthanum reacts slowly with water to form lanthanum(III) hydroxide, La(OH)3. In dilute sulfuric ...
The radioisotope iodine-131, which has a high fission product yield, concentrates in the thyroid, and is one of the most ... Tellurium has no biological role, although fungi can incorporate it in place of sulfur and selenium into amino acids such as ... A number of iodine radioisotopes are also used in medical applications. Iodine is found on Earth mainly as the highly water- ... A brittle, mildly toxic, rare, silver-white metalloid which looks similar to tin, tellurium is chemically related to selenium ...
While radioisotopes had been used in human nutrition research for several decades prior, stable isotopes presented a safer ... Iron, zinc, calcium, copper, magnesium, selenium and molybdenum are among the essential minerals having stable isotopes to ... In soil science 15N tracers are used extensively to study nitrogen cycling, whereas 13C and 14C, stable and radioisotopes of ... Other advantages offered by stable isotopes include the ability to study elements having no suitable radioisotopes and to study ...
... includes the study of both natural and man-made radioisotopes. All radioisotopes are unstable isotopes of ... Another example is the work which was done on the methylation of elements such as sulfur, selenium, tellurium and polonium by ... Radiochemistry also includes the study of the behaviour of radioisotopes in the environment; for instance, a forest or grass ... for example the action of cosmic rays on the air is responsible for the formation of radioisotopes (such as 14C and 32P), the ...
Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver ... The most stable bromine radioisotope is 77Br (t1/2 = 57.04 h). The primary decay mode of isotopes lighter than 79Br is electron ... 4 is fairly weak, which corresponds to the general reluctance of the 4p elements (especially arsenic, selenium, and bromine) to ... capture to isotopes of selenium; that of isotopes heavier than 81Br is beta decay to isotopes of krypton; and 80Br may decay by ...
... selenium and polonium: Tellurium and selenium compounds are similar. Tellurium exhibits the oxidation states −2, +2, +4 and +6 ... A further 31 artificial radioisotopes of tellurium are known, with atomic masses ranging from 104 to 142 and with half-lives of ... Tellurium and selenium are the heavy elements most depleted by this process. Tellurium is sometimes found in its native (i.e., ... Mixtures of selenium and tellurium are used with barium peroxide as an oxidizer in the delay powder of electric blasting caps. ...
Deposited hot particles of radioactive fallout and bioaccumulated radioisotopes can be reintroduced into the atmosphere by ... Coal combustion produces emissions containing aluminium, arsenic, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, mercury, selenium, and ...
Thirty-six radioisotopes have been characterized, with the heaviest being terbium-171 (with atomic mass of 170.95330(86) u) and ... Terbium combines with nitrogen, carbon, sulfur, phosphorus, boron, selenium, silicon and arsenic at elevated temperatures, ... lightest being terbium-135 (exact mass unknown). The most stable synthetic radioisotopes of terbium are terbium-158, with a ...
... ruthenium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.780 - selenium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.795 - sodium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496. ... iron radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.540 - krypton radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.560 - lead radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.590 ... xenon radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.960 - yttrium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.980 - zinc radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.807.800 ... xenon radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.943.800 - yttrium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.966.800 - zinc radioisotopes MeSH D01.524.500.040 ...
January 2009). "Effect of selenium and vitamin E on risk of prostate cancer and other cancers: the Selenium and Vitamin E ... Injections of certain radioisotopes, such as strontium-89, phosphorus-32, or samarium-153, also target bone metastases and may ... Neither selenium nor vitamin E have been found to be effective in preventing prostate cancer. The trade-off dilemma refers to ...
Nevertheless, germanium, rubidium, selenium, silicon, tellurium, and several other elements can be substituted for caesium in ... Caesium-137 is a radioisotope commonly used as a gamma-emitter in industrial applications. Its advantages include a half-life ... Binary compounds with sulfur, selenium, and tellurium also exist. Caesium has 39 known isotopes, ranging in mass number (i.e. ... Caesium is mined mostly from pollucite, while the radioisotopes, especially caesium-137, a fission product, are extracted from ...
... selenium, and tellurium are also known. Indium forms the expected trihalides. Chlorination, bromination, and iodination of In ... of which the stable isotope is less abundant in nature than the long-lived primordial radioisotopes. The stablest artificial ...
Reaction of copernicium atoms with trigonal selenium to form a selenide was observed, with ΔHadsCn(t-Se) > 48 kJ/mol, with the ... Experiments were performed with the simultaneous formation of mercury and radon radioisotopes, allowing a comparison of ... experiments were conducted in 2015 to deposit copernicium atoms on a selenium surface to form copernicium selenide, CnSe. ...
This assertion was validated by Rudolf Schoenheimer's work with radioisotopes as tracers in 1937. This in turn would pave the ... EC 2.9 includes enzymes that transfer selenium-containing groups. This category only contains two transferases, and thus is one ...
Numerous synthetic radioisotopes of naturally occurring elements have also been produced in laboratories. The organization of ... The remaining reactive nonmetals, hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur and selenium, being sandwiched between ... oxygen and selenium are in the same column because they both have four electrons in the outermost p-subshell). Elements with ...
Like germanium, selenium, and bromine, which like arsenic succeed the 3d transition series, arsenic is much less stable in the ... As of 2003, at least 33 radioisotopes have also been synthesized, ranging in atomic mass from 60 to 92. The most stable of ... It oxidises readily in air to form arsenic trioxide and water, and analogous reactions take place with sulfur and selenium ... ISBN 978-0-8155-1326-1. Stolz, John F.; Basu, Partha; Santini, Joanne M.; Oremland, Ronald S. (2006). "Arsenic and Selenium in ...
This is similar to the way in which mercury, selenium, and tellurium are methylated in living things to create organometallic ... Therefore, 210Po is used as an atomic heat source to power radioisotope thermoelectric generators via thermoelectric materials ... A rare and highly radioactive metal with no stable isotopes, polonium is chemically similar to selenium and tellurium, though ...
Doping selenium semiconductors with thallium improves their performance, thus it is used in trace amounts in selenium ... The radioisotope thallium-201 (as the soluble chloride TlCl) is used in small amounts as an agent in a nuclear medicine scan, ... The most useful radioisotope, 201Tl (half-life 73 hours), decays by electron capture, emitting X-rays (~70-80 keV), and photons ... 204Tl is the most stable radioisotope, with a half-life of 3.78 years. It is made by the neutron activation of stable thallium ...
In soil science 15N tracers are used extensively to study nitrogen cycling, whereas 13C and 14C, stable and radioisotopes of ... selenium and molybdenum are among the essential minerals having stable isotopes to which isotope tracer methods have been ... Other advantages offered by stable isotopes include the ability to study elements having no suitable radioisotopes and to study ... The use of stable isotopes instead of radioisotopes does have several drawbacks: larger quantities of tracer are required, ...
"34 Selenium". Elements.vanderkrogt.net. Retrieved 2008-09-12. "14 Silicon". Elements.vanderkrogt.net. Retrieved 2008-09-12. " ... Marinsky, J. A.; Glendenin, L. E.; Coryell, C. D. (1947). "The chemical identification of radioisotopes of neodymium and of ...
Thirty radioisotopes have been characterised, which range in mass number from 209 to 238. After 232Th, the most stable of them ... Berzelius had already discovered two elements, cerium and selenium, but he had made a public mistake once, announcing a new ... These rely on the fact that 232Th is a primordial radioisotope, but 230Th only occurs as an intermediate decay product in the ... selenium, and tellurium. All four thorium tetrahalides are known, as are some low-valent bromides and iodides: the tetrahalides ...
All three isoforms of the deiodinases are selenium-containing enzymes; thus dietary selenium is essential for T3 production. ... The other iodine radioisotopes have much shorter half-lives, no longer than days. Some of them have medical applications ... Excess iodine can be more cytotoxic in the presence of selenium deficiency. Iodine supplementation in selenium-deficient ... Radioisotopes; Vol: 4th Jan 01, 1961 Rivkees, Scott A.; Sklar, Charles; Freemark, Michael (1998). "The Management of Graves' ...
Selenium (density 4.8 g/cm3) is also included in the list. It falls marginally short of the density criterion and is less ... heavy metals are also employed as spallation targets for the production of neutrons or radioisotopes such as astatine (using ... Selenium is the most toxic of the heavy metals that are essential for mammals. Trace elements having an abundance much less ... More than five milligrams of selenium is highly toxic; this is roughly ten times the 0.45 milligram recommended maximum daily ...
Selenium 1817 J. Berzelius and G. Gahn 1817 J. Berzelius and G. Gahn While working with lead they discovered a substance that ... Marinsky, J. A.; Glendenin, L. E.; Coryell, C. D. (1947). "The chemical identification of radioisotopes of neodymium and of ... "34 Selenium". Elements.vanderkrogt.net. Retrieved 2008-09-12.. *^ "14 Silicon". Elements.vanderkrogt.net. Retrieved 2008-09-12. ... Shortly after the discovery of rubidium, Crookes found a new green line in a selenium sample; later that year, Lamy found the ...
Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver ... Radioisotopes of caesium require special precautions: the improper handling of caesium-137 gamma ray sources can lead to ... All of the alkali metals except lithium and caesium have at least one naturally occurring radioisotope: sodium-22 and sodium-24 ... The alkali metals can also react analogously with the heavier chalcogens (sulfur, selenium, tellurium, and polonium), and all ...
Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver ... 27 radioisotopes have been observed, with the most stable ones being 169Yb with a half-life of 32.0 days, 175Yb with a half- ...
... (131I, I-131) is an important radioisotope of iodine discovered by Glenn Seaborg and John Livingood in 1938 at the ... The other radioisotopes of iodine are never used in brachytherapy. The use of 131I as a medical isotope has been blamed for a ... other less-damaging radioisotopes of iodine such as iodine-123 (see isotopes of iodine) are preferred in situations when only ... at a longer distance from the radioisotope). It can be seen in diagnostic scans after its use as therapy, because 131I is also ...
Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver ... While most of germanium's radioisotopes decay by beta decay, 61. Ge. and 64. Ge. decay by β+. delayed proton emission.[46] 84. ... At least 27 radioisotopes have also been synthesized, ranging in atomic mass from 58 to 89. The most stable of these is 68. Ge ...
Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver ... Fourteen radioisotopes have been characterized. The most stable are 15O with a half-life of 122.24 seconds and 14O with a half- ...
Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver ... Fourteen radioisotopes have been characterized. The most stable are 15O with a half-life of 122.24 seconds and 14O with a half- ...
Many space probes, including the Mars Curiosity rover, generate electricity using a radioisotope thermoelectric generator whose ... or Selenium (Se). ... which has the same mechanism but use radioisotopes to generate ... Another application is radioisotope thermoelectric generators which are used in space probes, ...
Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver ... Twenty-eight radioisotopes have been characterized, the most stable being 105Ag with a half-life of 41.29 days, 111Ag with a ...
Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver ... 19 radioisotopes have been characterized, with the most stable being 50Cr with a half-life of (more than) 1.8×1017 years, and ... Though misidentified as a lead compound with selenium and iron components, the mineral was in fact crocoite with a formula of ...
Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver ... is also sometimes considered as a light radioisotope of hydrogen, due to the mass difference between the antimuon and the ...
Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver ... The longest-lived radioisotopes are thulium-171, which has a half-life of 1.92 years, and thulium-170, which has a half-life of ...
Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver ... allowing the use of radioisotope rubidium-82 in nuclear medicine to locate and image brain tumors.[50] Rubidium-82 has a very ...
Selenium. Bromine. Krypton. Rubidium. Strontium. Yttrium. Zirconium. Niobium. Molybdenum. Technetium. Ruthenium. Rhodium. ... The most stable radioisotopes are 107Pd with a half-life of 6.5 million years (found in nature), 103Pd with 17 days, and 100Pd ... Eighteen other radioisotopes have been characterized with atomic weights ranging from 90.94948(64) u (91Pd) to 122.93426(64) u ...
Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver ... At least 26 nickel radioisotopes have been characterised, the most stable being 59. Ni with a half-life of 76,000 years, 63. Ni ...
Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver ... Hg being the most abundant (29.86%). The longest-lived radioisotopes are 194. Hg with a half-life of 444 years, and 203. Hg ... Most of the remaining radioisotopes have half-lives that are less than a day. 199. Hg and 201. Hg are the most often studied ...
Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver ... The most stable chlorine radioisotope is 36Cl. The primary decay mode of isotopes lighter than 35Cl is electron capture to ... selenium, tellurium, bromine, iodine, and powdered molybdenum, tungsten, rhodium, iridium, and iron. An impermeable fluoride ...
Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver ... Thirty-six radioisotopes have been characterized, with the heaviest being terbium-171 (with atomic mass of 170.95330(86) u) and ... Terbium combines with nitrogen, carbon, sulfur, phosphorus, boron, selenium, silicon and arsenic at elevated temperatures, ... lightest being terbium-135 (exact mass unknown).[12] The most stable synthetic radioisotopes of terbium are terbium-158, with a ...
Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller ... K are foond in aw potassium, an it is the maist common radioisotope in the human bouk. ...
Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver ... About 20 radioisotopes and 7 nuclear isomers between 233Cm and 252Cm are known for curium, and no stable isotopes. The longest ... They predominantly emit α-particles, and the heat released in this process can serve as a heat source in radioisotope ... Sulfides, selenides and tellurides of curium have been obtained by treating curium with gaseous sulfur, selenium or tellurium ...
Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver ... Zn, which has a half-life of 243.66 days, is the least active radioisotope, followed by 72. Zn with a half-life of 46.5 hours.[ ... The most common decay mode of a radioisotope of zinc with a mass number lower than 66 is electron capture. The decay product ... The most common decay mode of a radioisotope of zinc with mass number higher than 66 is beta decay (β−), which produces an ...
Selenium. Bromine. Krypton. Rubidium. Strontium. Yttrium. Zirconium. Niobium. Molybdenum. Technetium. Ruthenium. Rhodium. ... Carbon-14 (14C) is a naturally occurring radioisotope, created in the upper atmosphere (lower stratosphere and upper ...
Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver ... Apart from the practically stable 48Ca, the longest lived radioisotope of calcium is 41Ca. It decays by electron capture to ... Many other calcium radioisotopes are known, ranging from 35Ca to 60Ca. They are all much shorter-lived than 41Ca, the most ...