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*  Sperm competition
Selection to produce more sperm can also select for the evolution of larger testes. Relationships across species between the ... The "good sperm hypothesis" suggests that a male's genetic makeup will determine the level of his competitiveness in sperm ... It has been found that because of female choice (see sexual selection), morphology of sperm in many species occurs in many ... By making many spermatozoa, males can buy more "raffle tickets", and it is thought that selection for numerous sperm has ...
*  Thymus
This involves selection of T cells that are functional (positive selection), and elimination of T cells that are autoreactive ( ... A number of genetic defects can cause SCID, including IL-7 receptor deficiency, common gamma chain deficiency, and ... negative selection). The medulla of the thymus is the site of T Cell maturation. Cells that pass both levels of selection are ... DiGeorge syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by the deletion of a small section of chromosome 22. This results in a midline ...
*  Inbreeding depression
Purging selection occurs where the phenotypes of deleterious recessive alleles are exposed through inbreeding, and thus can be ... In general, the higher the genetic variation or gene pool within a breeding population, the less likely it is to suffer from ... Natural selection cannot effectively remove all deleterious recessive genes from a population for several reasons. First, ... This appears to be due to a selection pressure for more heterozygous individuals, which generally are in better condition and ...
*  Ancestral reconstruction
Natural selection and evolution do not work towards a goal, they simply select for or against randomly occurring genetic ... In addition to genetic sequences, one might attempt to track the changing of one character trait to another, such as fins ... Since modern genetic sequences are essentially a variation of ancient ones, access to ancient sequences may identify other ... In brief, the evolution of a genetic sequence is modelled by a time-reversible continuous time Markov process. In the simplest ...
*  Genetic purging
Due to purging, fitness declines at the same rate δ than in the absence of selection, but as a function of g instead of F. This ... Genetic purging is the reduction of the frequency of a deleterious allele occurred by an increased efficiency of natural ... This allows natural selection to purge the deleterious alleles. Purging reduces both the overall number of recessive ... However, since selection operates upon fitness, mean fitness should be predicted taking into account both inbreeding and ...
*  Molecular phylogenetics
In a molecular systematic analysis, the haplotypes are determined for a defined area of genetic material; a substantial sample ... Bast, F. (2013). "Sequence Similarity Search, Multiple Sequence Alignment, Model Selection, Distance Matrix and Phylogeny ... such as the ever-more-popular use of genetic testing to determine a child's paternity, as well as the emergence of a new branch ... since the actions of evolution are ultimately reflected in the genetic sequences. At present, it is still a long and expensive ...
*  Mate choice
Traits that are perceived as attractive must reliably indicate broad genetic quality in order for selection to favor them and ... Mate choice is one of two components of sexual selection, the other being intrasexual selection. Ideas on sexual selection were ... Puurtinen, M.; Ketola, T.; Kotiaho, J. S. (2005). "Genetic compatibility and sexual selection". Trends in Ecology and Evolution ... Darwin treated natural selection and sexual selection as two different topics, although in the 1930s biologists defined sexual ...
*  Weak Selection
For example, genetic drift could cause a nearly neutral mutation to become the dominant allele in a population by wiping out ... Weak selection works to elongate fixation time for two competing alleles. Consequently, weak selection provides a model for ... Otherwise there would be no expectation of fixation and hence no selection. The result of weak selection is two phenotypes with ... Weak selection, therefore, is an evolutionary theory to explain the maintenance of multiple phenotypes in a stable population [ ...
*  Selection (genetic algorithm)
Fitness proportionate selection Reward-based selection Stochastic universal sampling Tournament selection Introduction to ... Selection is the stage of a genetic algorithm in which individual genomes are chosen from a population for later breeding ( ... this selection method is called fitness proportionate selection or roulette-wheel selection. If instead of a single pointer ... There are other selection algorithms that do not consider all individuals for selection, but only those with a fitness value ...
*  Hardy-Weinberg principle
These influences include mate choice, mutation, selection, genetic drift, gene flow and meiotic drive. In the simplest case of ... In the absence of selection, mutation, genetic drift, or other forces, allele frequencies p and q are constant between ... Ineichen, Robert; Batschelet, Eduard (1975). "Genetic selection and de Finetti diagrams". Journal of Mathematical Biology. 2: ... Selection, in general, causes allele frequencies to change, often quite rapidly. While directional selection eventually leads ...
*  Recurrent neural network
This function drives the genetic selection process. Many chromosomes make up the population; therefore, many different neural ... Initially, the genetic algorithm is encoded with the neural network weights in a predefined manner where one gene in the ... Therefore, the goal of the genetic algorithm is to maximize the fitness function, reducing the mean-squared-error. Other global ... The most common global optimization method for training RNNs is genetic algorithms, especially in unstructured networks. ...
*  Corsican cattle
There is no collective program of genetic selection. Studies have shown that its isolation for millennia helped to form a ...
*  Alberto Boerger
Genetic selection based on the selection of native seeds. These came from the natural selection of seeds imported by European ... In this first period his first investigations were related to the selection of wheats, due to problems of adaptation of the ... A work begun in 1912 with 377 selections of wheats that highlightedthe plant breeding as a powerful tool for improve the ... Enrique Klein's uneasy personality, coupled with his successful experience with the selection of barley (Cervecería Argentina ...
*  CXCL11
"A genetic selection for isolating cDNAs encoding secreted proteins". Gene. 198 (1-2): 289-96. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00330-2 ...
*  Alex Fraser (scientist)
Fraser began using it to simulate genetic selection processes. Fraser also starred in multiple TV shows during the early days ... His seminal work, "Simulation of genetic systems by automatic digital computers" (1958), is quoted in the literature to this ... Fraser, A. S., "Simulation of genetic systems by automatic digital computers. I. Introduction," Aust. J. Biol. Sci., vol. 10, ... in the development of the computer modeling of population genetics and his work has stimulated many advances in genetic ...
*  Particle filter
The genetic algorithm selection-mutation transitions ξ k := ( ξ k i ) 1 ⩽ i ⩽ N ⟶ selection ξ ^ k := ( ξ ^ k i ) 1 ⩽ i ⩽ N ⟶ ... the mutation-selection Markov chain described above is often called the genetic algorithm with proportional selection. Several ... Particle filtering uses a genetic mutation-selection sampling approach, with a set of particles (also called samples) to ... Feynman-Kac interacting particle methods are also strongly related to mutation-selection genetic algorithms currently used in ...
*  Infectious disease (athletes)
A third is simply genetic selection of the "fittest bacteria". The commonest presentations include pustules, furuncles, ...
*  Puerto Ricans
"Recent Genetic Selection in the Ancestral Admixture of Puerto Ricans". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 81 (3): 626-633 ... In genetic terms, even many of those of pure Spanish origin may have North and West African ancestry brought from founder ... Delegate selection processes frequently have resulted in presidential primaries being held in Puerto Rico. U.S. Citizens ...
*  Demographics of Puerto Rico
Tang, H; Choudhry, S; Mei, R; Morgan, M; Rodriguez-Cintron, W; Burchard, EG; Risch, NJ (2007). "Recent genetic selection in the ... have genetic contributions from Europeans, West Africans, and Native Americans of approximately 66%, 18%, and 16%, respectively ... Racial analysis Puerto rico 2005 Fact finder statistics United Nations country profile Genetic Make-up of Puerto Ricans 1930s ...
*  Puerto Ricans in the United States
Tang, H; Choudhry, S; Mei, R; Morgan, M; Rodriguez-Cintron, W; Burchard, EG; Risch, NJ (2007). "Recent genetic selection in the ...
*  Serine protease
"Substrate specificity of trypsin investigated by using a genetic selection". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of ...
*  Androgen insensitivity syndrome
"Submission on the ethics of genetic selection against intersex traits". Organisation Intersex International Australia. ... A genetic female conceived in such a way would receive her father's X chromosome, thus would become a carrier. Genetic females ... If the affected child is a genetic female, she, too, will be a carrier. An affected 46,XY child will have AIS. A genetic female ... Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD or PIGD) refers to genetic profiling of embryos prior to implantation (as a form of ...
*  Foraging
These different environments lead to different genetic selection between the subspecies. In times of crisis such as depletion ... Patch selection theory, which describes the behavior of a forager whose prey is concentrated in small areas known as patches ... 1989), Behavioural Mechanisms of Food Selection, London & New York: Springer-Verlag, p. v, ISBN 0-387-51762-6 Raine, N.E.; ... "Evidence for genetic variation in worker task performance by African and European honeybees". Behavioral Ecology and ...
*  Diadumene lineata
This species demonstrates strong genetic selection of certain physiological strains (Prosser 1957). While this sea anemone can ... This happens because there is a lack of genetic variability among the population, and as the limits of tolerance of some ... Shick, J. Malcolm; Lamb, Allen N. (1977). "Asexual reproduction and genetic population structure in the colonizing sea anemone ... doi:10.1007/s10530-008-9258-6. Shick, J. Malcolm; Lamb, Allen N. (December 1977). "Asexual Reproduction and Genetic Population ...
*  Jeffrey Owen Katz
An empirical study of the genetic selection of psychological characteristics in man. MENSA Research Journal, Winter 1978, Vol. ... Katz, Jeffrey Owen, and McCormick, Donna L. (February 1997). "Genetic Algorithms and RuleBased Systems." Technical Analysis of ... To that end, he developed sophisticated artificial intelligence software (neural networks and genetic algorithms). His clients ... designed for the genetic evolution of neural networks (LogiVolve). In addition, Katz served as Managing Principal and Director ...
*  Phage display
Danner S, Belasco JG (November 2001). "T7 phage display: a novel genetic selection system for cloning RNA-binding proteins from ... Many genetic sequences are expressed in a bacteriophage library in the form of fusions with the bacteriophage coat protein, so ... Selection Versus Design in Chemical Engineering The ETH-2 human antibody phage library Sidhu SS, Lowman HB, Cunningham BC, ... However, it can be useful for the production of a large protein library for scFV selection where the scFV is expressed on an ...
*  Evolution
... including sexual selection), genetic drift, mutation and gene migration due to genetic admixture. Natural selection and genetic ... Four such processes are widely recognized: natural selection (in the broad sense, to include sexual selection), genetic drift, ... Mechanisms that can lead to changes in allele frequencies include natural selection, genetic drift, genetic hitchhiking, ... A special case of natural selection is sexual selection, which is selection for any trait that increases mating success by ...