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*  Dephosphorylation
... dephosphorylation of the membrane ATPases and proton pumps in the gastrointestinal tract leads to higher secretory rates of ... Components of the protein synthetic apparatus also undergo phosphorylation and dephosphorylation and thus regulate the rates of ... phosphorylation of elongation factor 2 during mitosis in transformed human amnion cells correlates with a decreased rate of ...
*  Reelin
... being stored in Golgi secretory vesicles. Reelin's release rate is not regulated by depolarization, but strictly depends on its ... Studies show that reelin is absent from synaptic vesicles and is secreted via constitutive secretory pathway, ... synthesis rate. This relationship is similar to that reported for the secretion of other extracellular matrix proteins.[ ...
*  Sweat gland
When the rate of sweating is low, salt is conserved and reabsorbed by the gland's duct; high sweat rates, on the other hand, ... Their secretory portion has a narrow portion similar to secretory coils in eccrine glands as well as a wide section reminiscent ... the secretory coils are surrounded by contractile myoepithelial cells that function to facilitate excretion of secretory ... The secretory coil or base, is set deep in the lower dermis and hypodermis, and the entire gland is surrounded by adipose ...
*  Eosinophil peroxidase
The rate of iodide catalysis is five orders of magnitude greater than the rate of chloride catalysis, for comparison. ... Eosinophil Major basic protein Secretory pathway Peroxiredoxin Catalase Reactive oxygen species Antimicrobial peptides The ... However, they do not have a significantly increased rate of infection, owing to redundancy in peroxidase-mediated immune ... In fact, only myeloperoxidase can oxidize chloride with any considerable rate. ...
*  Respiratory system
The rates at which air is breathed in or out, either through the mouth or nose, or into or out of the alveoli are tabulated ... These include secretory immunoglobulins (IgA), collectins, defensins and other peptides and proteases, reactive oxygen species ... The rate of inflow of air into the lungs during inhalation at sea level is therefore twice that which occurs at 5500 m. However ... The breathing rate increases when the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood increases. This is detected by central ...
*  Tuberculosis diagnosis
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate is usually raised. Interferon-γ (interferon-gamma) release assays (IGRAs) are relatively new ... IGRAs are based on the ability of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens for early secretory antigen target 6 (ESAT-6) and ...
*  Chief cell
This high rate of turnover is a protective mechanism designed to protect the epithelial lining of the stomach from both the ... The gastric chief cell also contains many large secretory vesicles filled with digestive enzymes in the apical cytoplasm. ... Parathyroid tissue seems to have a low turn-over rate. Gastric chief cells are epithelial cells which are found within the ...
*  Somatostatin
Inhibits the release of glucagon Suppresses the exocrine secretory action of pancreas. Octreotide (brand name Sandostatin, ... so reducing the rate of secretion of growth hormone. Somatostatin is also produced by several other populations that project ... Enteroglucagon Decrease rate of gastric emptying, and reduces smooth muscle contractions and blood flow within the intestine ...
*  Lactoferrin
Parsi women in West India have the milk RNase level markedly lower than in other groups, and their breast cancer rate is three ... Lactoferrin is a globular glycoprotein with a molecular mass of about 80 kDa that is widely represented in various secretory ... Both in blood plasma and in secretory fluids lactoferrin can exist in different polymeric forms ranging from monomers to ... Lactoferrin hydrolyzes RNA and exhibits the properties of pyrimidine-specific secretory ribonucleases. In particular, by ...
*  Somatostatinoma
Enteroglucagon Lowers the rate of gastric emptying, and reduces smooth muscle contractions and blood flow within the intestine ... of pancreatic hormones Inhibits the release of insulin Inhibits the release of glucagon Suppresses the exocrine secretory ...
*  Insulin
These glucose transporters have a relatively low affinity for glucose, ensuring that the rate of glucose entry into the β-cells ... ISBN 1-4020-0655-1. Kjeldsen T (September 2000). "Yeast secretory expression of insulin precursors". Applied Microbiology and ... Type 2 diabetes is characterized by high rates of glucagon secretion into the blood which are unaffected by, and unresponsive ... The active enzyme, glycogen synthase (GS), catalyzes the rate limiting step in the synthesis of glycogen from glucose. Similar ...
*  Santosh G. Honavar
High dose rate interstitial brachytherapy in carcinoma eyelid: can it be a primary treatment modality? J Cancer Res Ther. 2011 ... Establishing human lacrimal gland cultures with secretory function. PLoS One. 2012;7(1):e29458 74. Meena M, Naik M, Honavar S. ... affection of the disease and he is reported to have treated over 2000 pediatric retinoblastoma patients with a success rate ...
*  Discovery and development of proton pump inhibitors
Evidence emerged by the end of the 1970s that the newly discovered proton pump (H+/K+ ATPase) in the secretory membrane of the ... which reduces the rate of metabolism, allowing a longer plasma residence time but also decreases the pKa of the fused imidazole ... Direct comparison of pantoprazole sodium with other anti-secretory drugs showed that it was significantly more effective than ... and the rate of healing and symptom relief reported. A clinical study showed that nocturnal acid breakthrough duration was ...
*  Plasma cell dyscrasia
IgG-secretory, IgA-secretory, and light-chain secretory multiple myeloma represent 52%, 21%, and 16%, respectively, of all ... In general, progression to one of these malignant outcomes occurs at a rate of 2% to 3% per year. Individuals with higher serum ... non-secretory patients exhibited a better prognosis than light chain-secretory patients. Multiple myeloma occurring ... Non-secretory multiple myeloma represents a class of plasma cell dyscrasias where no myeloma protein is detected in serum or ...
*  Lactation
Secretory IgA also helps prevent food allergies. Over the first two weeks after the birth, colostrum production slowly gives ... Research also suggests that draining the breasts more fully also increases the rate of milk production. Thus the milk supply is ... During the latter part of pregnancy, the woman's breasts enter into the Secretory Differentiation stage. This is when the ... Although biochemical markers indicate that Secretory Activation begins about 30-40 hours after birth, mothers do not typically ...
*  Tooth enamel
The wear rate of enamel, called attrition, is 8 micrometers a year from normal factors.[citation needed] A common misconception ... In the secretory stage, ameloblasts are polarized columnar cells. In the rough endoplasmic reticulum of these cells, enamel ... Human enamel forms at a rate of around 4 μm per day, beginning at the future location of cusps, around the third or fourth ... The first stage, called the secretory stage, involves proteins and an organic matrix forming a partially mineralized enamel. ...
*  Retina
In ON cells, an increment in light intensity in the centre of the receptive field causes the firing rate to increase. In OFF ... both befitting its secretory role. Pecten cells are packed with dark melanin granules, which have been theorized to keep this ... This is considered to enhance metabolic rate of the pecten, thereby exporting more nutritive molecules to meet the stringent ...
*  Bird vision
Birds can resolve rapid movements better than humans, for whom flickering at a rate greater than 50 light pulse cycles per ... Exra-high enzymic activity of alkaline phosphatase in pecten oculi has been proposed to support high secretory activity of ... Slight warming of pecten oculi due to absorption of light by melanin granules has been proposed enhance metabolic rate of ...
*  Diarrhea
Secretory diarrhea means that there is an increase in the active secretion, or there is an inhibition of absorption. There is ... However, there is some discrepancy when it comes to the impact of vitamin A deficiency on the rate of disease. While some argue ... This can progress to decreased urination, loss of skin color, a fast heart rate, and a decrease in responsiveness as it becomes ... This is down from a death rate of 4.5 million in 1980 for gastroenteritis. Diarrhea remains the second leading cause of infant ...
*  Neuroendocrine tumor
Given the diverse secretory activity of NETs there are many other potential markers, but a limited panel is usually sufficient ... Cellular proliferative rate is of considerable significance in this prognostic assessment. Ramage JK, Davies AH, Ardill J, et ... Neuroendocrine secretory protein-55, a member of the chromogranin family, is seen in pancreatic endocrine tumors but not ... Secretory activity of the tumor cells is sometimes dissimilar to the tissue immunoreactivity to particular hormones. ...
*  KIAA1797
Based on the EST profile of Unigene, KIAA1797 expression have been observed in tissues ranging from reproductive to secretory. ... A specific single-nucleotide polymorphism rs7875153 in KIAA1797 is associated with heart rate. KIAA1797 is a protein-coding ... "Bivariate genetic association of KIAA1797 with heart rate in American Indians: the Strong Heart Family Study". Hum. Mol. Genet ...
*  Kinase
If citrate levels are high, it means that glycolysis is functioning at an optimal rate. High levels of AMP stimulate PFK. ... Therefore, kinases are critical in metabolism, cell signalling, protein regulation, cellular transport, secretory processes, ... The kinase enzymes increase the rate of the reactions by making the inositol hydroxyl group more nucleophilic, often using the ... Kinases properly orient their substrate and the phosphoryl group within their active sites, which increases the rate of the ...
*  Insect physiology
A secretory gland nourishes the contained spermatozoa in the vagina. Egg development is mostly completed by the insect's adult ... Pumping rate accelerates due to periods of increased activity. Movement of hemolymph is particularly important for ... In insects with higher wing stroke frequencies the muscles contract more frequently than at the rate that the nerve impulse ... Most insects have a high reproductive rate. With a short generation time, they evolve faster and can adjust to environmental ...
*  Thylakoid
The Sec (secretory) pathway requires ATP as energy source and consists of SecA, which binds to the imported protein and a Sec ... The translation rate of chloroplast-encoded proteins is controlled by the presence or absence of assembly partners (control by ... Thylakoid proteins are targeted to their destination via signal peptides and prokaryotic-type secretory pathways inside the ...
*  Ubiquitin
This serves as a negative feedback mechanism because often the stimulation of receptors by ligands increases their rate of ... ion channels and the secretory pathway Response to stress and extracellular modulators Ribosome biogenesis Viral infection ...
*  Short-beaked echidna
During these situations, the heart rate drops to around 12 beats per minute, around one-fifth of the rate at rest. This process ... It is devoid of secretory glands and has a cornified stratified epithelium, which resembles horny skin. Unlike other mammals, ... The metabolic rate is around 30% of that of placental mammals, making it the lowest energy-consuming mammal. This figure is ... During hibernation, the body temperature drops to as low as 4 °C (39 °F). The heart rate falls to four to seven beats per ...