Ions and salts. The crystal lattice structure of potassium chloride (KCl), a salt which is formed due to the attraction of K+ ... Examples of such substances are mineral salts (such as table salt), solids like carbon and diamond, metals, and familiar silica ... Cations and anions can form a crystalline lattice of neutral salts, such as the Na+ and Cl− ions forming sodium chloride, or ... The ions are held together due to electrostatic attraction, and that compound sodium chloride (NaCl), or common table salt, is ...
Salt[edit]. See also: Salt March. Vending of common salt (sodium chloride) was historically a natural monopoly. Until recently ... The Salt Commission was a legal monopoly in China. Formed in 758, the Commission controlled salt production and sales in order ... The "Gabelle" was a notoriously high tax levied upon salt in the Kingdom of France. The much-hated levy had a role in the ... The Company traded in basic commodities, which included cotton, silk, indigo dye, salt, saltpetre, tea and opium. ...
Molten salt. Molten salt batteries are primary or secondary batteries that use a molten salt as electrolyte. They operate at ... A voltaic pile can be made from two coins (such as a nickel and a penny) and a piece of paper towel dipped in salt water. Such ... In this example the two half-cells are linked by a salt bridge that permits the transfer of ions. ...
Salt spalling[edit]. Salt spalling is a specific type of weathering which occurs in porous building materials, such as brick, ... Some[who?] believe that porous building materials can be protected against salt spalling by treatment with penetrating sealants ... Dissolved salt is carried through the material in water and crystallizes inside the material near the surface as the water ... As the salt crystals expand this builds up shear stresses which break away spall from the surface. ...
Two common salts include aluminium phosphate and aluminium hydroxide. Aluminium salts are the most commonly-used adjuvants in ... Aluminium salts[edit]. There are many adjuvants, some of which are inorganic (such as alum), that also carry the potential to ... Baylor NW, Egan W, Richman P (May 2002). "Aluminum salts in vaccines--US perspective". Vaccine. 20 Suppl 3 (Suppl 3): S18-23. ... Aluminium salts used in many human vaccines are generally regarded as safe.[25] ...
As per the Salt Commission's report there are 45000 Agariyas working in the salt pans of Kutch. Out of the estimated total ... LOVE ACROSS THE SALT DESERT Archived 2 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine; by Keki N. Daruwalla. Pdf of full story posted at ... The Rann is known for its marshy salt flats which become snow white after the shallow water dries up each season before the ... Communities involved in salt production are mainly Chunvaliya Koli, Ahir and Miyana (Muslim), residing in 107 villages in the ...
Related salts[edit]. Other commercial choline salts are choline hydroxide and choline bitartrate. In foodstuffs the compound is ... It is bifunctional, containing both quaternary ammonium salt and an alcohol. The cation is choline, which occurs naturally. It ... is a white, water soluble salt used mainly in animal feed.[2] ...
Alkylation of carboxylate salts[edit]. Although not widely employed for esterifications, salts of carboxylate anions can be ... The carboxylate salt is often generated in situ.[15] In difficult cases, the silver carboxylate may be used, since the silver ... as salts in which an acid is bonded with an ether. ... an iodide salt can catalyze the reaction (Finkelstein reaction ...
Salt glands[edit]. The incomplete skull specimens from the Mexican species of Dakosaurus preserves the chamber in which the ... Salt glands in the fossil crocodile Metriorhynchus. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 26 (4): 1009-1010. ... Salt glands in a Tithonian metriorhynchid crocodyliform and their physiological significance. Lethaia 33: 269-276. ... well-developed salt glands (known from Geosaurus[24] and Metriorhynchus[25]) would have been housed. Unfortunately, there was ...
Salt-like (saline) carbides[edit]. Salt-like carbides are composed of highly electropositive elements such as the alkali metals ... Carbides of the actinide elements, which have stoichiometry MC2 and M2C3, are also described as salt-like derivatives of C2−. 2 ... Several carbides are assumed to be salts of the acetylide anion C22- (also called percarbide), which has a triple bond between ... Carbides can be generally classified by the chemical bonds type as follows: (i) salt-like, (ii) covalent compounds, (iii) ...
Straw mulch or field hay or salt hay are lightweight and normally sold in compressed bales. They have an unkempt look and are ... Straw mulch / field hay / salt hay[edit]. Permaculture garden with a fruit tree, herbs, flowers and vegetables mulched with hay ... Salt hay is less likely to have weed seeds than field hay. Straw mulch is also available in various colors. ...
Molten salts[edit]. Graphite particles can be corroded in molten salts to form a variety of carbon nanostructures including ... Kamali, A.R.; Fray, D.J. (2013). "Molten salt corrosion of graphite as a possible way to make carbon nanostructures". Carbon. ... followed by pyrolysis of the ethoxide product and washing with water to remove sodium salts.[77] ...
When part of a salt, the formula of the acetate ion is written as CH. 3CO−. 2, C. 2H. 3O−. 2, or CH. 3COO−. . Chemists ... An acetate /ˈæsɪteɪt/ is a salt formed by the combination of acetic acid with an alkaline, earthy, metallic or nonmetallic and ... Commercially important acetate salts are aluminium acetate, used in dyeing, ammonium acetate, a precursor to acetamide, and ... Many acetate salts are ionic, indicated by their tendency to dissolve well in water. A commonly encountered acetate in the home ...
... is the salt content in the soil; the process of increasing the salt content is known as salinization.[1] Salts ... Visibly salt-affected soils on rangeland in Colorado. Salts dissolved from the soil accumulate at the soil surface and are ... Over long periods of time, as soil minerals weather and release salts, these salts are flushed or leached out of the soil by ... In addition to mineral weathering, salts are also deposited via dust and precipitation. In dry regions salts may accumulate, ...
Salt content[edit]. Salt (sodium chloride), dissolved in water, is used in the canning process.[20] As a result, canned food ... Rinsing thoroughly after opening may reduce the amount of salt in canned foods, since much of the salt content is thought to be ... "Sodium (Salt or Sodium Chloride)". Americanheart.org. 24 May 2010. Archived from the original on 8 February 2010.. ... Many canned products are available in low-salt and no-salt alternatives. ...
The salt melts at 131 °C (268 °F). It is kept liquid at 288 °C (550 °F) in an insulated "cold" storage tank. The liquid salt is ... Molten salt technology. Molten salt can be employed as a thermal energy storage method to retain thermal energy collected by a ... Solar energy can also be stored at high temperatures using molten salts. Salts are an effective storage medium because they are ... The Solana Generating Station in the U.S. has six hours of storage by molten salt. The María Elena plant[56] is a 400 MW thermo ...
... salts[edit]. Sodium nitrite is made industrially by passing "nitrous fumes" into aqueous sodium hydroxide or sodium ...
Deprotonation of sulfonium and oxosulfonium salts affords ylides, of structure R2S+−C−−R′2 and R2S(O)+−C−−R′2. While sulfonium ... Sulfonium, oxosulfonium and related salts[edit]. A sulfonium ion is a positively charged ion featuring three organic ... Braverman, S.; Cherkinsky, M.; Levinger, S. (2008). "Alkanesulfinic Acids and Salts". In Kambe, N. Science of Synthesis. 39. ... Together with their negatively charged counterpart, the anion, the compounds are called sulfonium salts. An oxosulfonium ion is ...
Salts[edit]. Lysis buffer usually contains one or more salts. The function of salts in lysis buffer is to establish an ionic ... Most lysis buffers contain buffering salts (e.g. Tris-HCl) and ionic salts (e.g. NaCl) to regulate the pH and osmolarity of the ... Some of the most commonly used salts are NaCl, KCl, and (NH4)2SO4. They are usually used with a concentration between 50 and ...
Epsom salt has been traditionally used as a component of bath salts. Epsom salt can also be used as a beauty product. Athletes ... Epsom salt takes its name from a bitter saline spring in Epsom in Surrey, England, where the salt was produced from the springs ... Double salts[edit]. Double salts containing magnesium sulfate exist, for example there are several known sodium magnesium ... Epsom salt is used as bath salts and for isolation tanks. Magnesium sulfate is the main preparation of intravenous magnesium. ...
Salt crystallization may also take place when solutions decompose rocks (for example, limestone and chalk) to form salt ... leaving salt crystals behind. These salt crystals expand as they are heated up, exerting pressure on the confining rock. ... An example of salt weathering can be seen in the honeycombed stones in sea wall. Honeycomb is a type of tafoni, a class of ... The salts which have proved most effective in disintegrating rocks are sodium sulfate, magnesium sulfate, and calcium chloride ...
Structure of fluoride salts[edit]. Salts containing fluoride are numerous and adopt myriad structures. Typically the fluoride ... whose salts are typically white or colorless. Fluoride salts typically have distinctive bitter tastes, and are odorless. Its ... Upon treatment with a standard acid, fluoride salts convert to hydrogen fluoride and metal salts. With strong acids, it can be ... The hazards of solutions of fluoride salts depend on the concentration. In the presence of strong acids, fluoride salts release ...
Salt-wasting crises in infancy[edit]. The excessive amounts of adrenal testosterone produce little effect on the genitalia of ... The salt-wasting form of CAH has an incidence of 1 in 15,000 births and is potentially fatal within a month if untreated. ... The severe salt-wasting form accounts for the majority of these cases, which is high enough that many states and countries ... Severe 21-hydroxylase deficiency causes salt-wasting CAH The most common cause of ambiguous genitalia due to prenatal ...
a b c Andrews, Thomas F. (April 1973). "Lansford W. Hastings and the Promotion of the Great Salt Lake Cutoff: A Reappraisal", ... It was August 20 by the time that they reached a point in the mountains where they could look down and see the Great Salt Lake ... In the heat of the day, the moisture underneath the salt crust rose to the surface and turned the soil to a gummy mass. The ... Instead of the promised two days journey over 40 miles, the journey across the 80 miles of Great Salt Lake Desert had taken six ...
Lithium salts[edit]. Main article: Lithium pharmacology. Lithium salts have been used for centuries as a first-line treatment ... The therapeutic effect of lithium salts appears to be entirely due to the lithium ion, Li+. ...