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*  Salinity
History of the salinity determination Practical Salinity Scale 1978. Salinity calculator Lewis, E. L. 1982. The practical ... The salinity of euhaline seas is 30 to 35. Brackish seas or waters have salinity in the range of 0.5 to 29 and metahaline seas ... Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity). This is usually measured in ... Absolute salinities on this scale are expressed as a mass fraction, in grams per kilogram of solution. Salinities on this scale ...
*  Soil salinity
Salinity Laboratory Salinity in Australia from "Soil salinity" in WaterWiki, the on-line Knowledge and Collaboration Tool of ... Salinity is an important land degradation problem. Soil salinity can be reduced by leaching soluble salts out of soil with ... Salinity in drylands can occur when the water table is between two and three metres from the surface of the soil. The salts ... Since soil salinity makes it more difficult for plants to absorb soil moisture, these salts must be leached out of the plant ...
*  Dryland salinity
Primary salinity (natural salinity) and secondary salinity (induced salinity). (Nrm.qld.gov.au, 2013) Primary salinity ... Dryland salinity - causes and impacts [Accessed: 20 Oct 2013]. Dryland Salinity [Accessed: 15 Oct 2013]. Types of salinity [ ... dryland salinity refers to salinity in unirrigated landscapes. Salinity processes extend from local to regional scales and are ... Dryland salinity is a natural process for soil, just like other processes such as wind erosion. Salinity degrades land by an ...
*  Messinian salinity crisis
The Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC), also referred to as the Messinian Event, and in its latest stage as the Lago Mare event, ... Messinian salinity crisis regulated by competing tectonics and erosion at the Gibraltar Arc. Nature, 2011-12-15 pdf here Link ... The high level of salinity cannot be tolerated by many known organisms, a factor in reducing the biodiversity of much of the ... These deposits were dated and interpreted for the first time as deep-basin products of the Messinian Salinity Crisis. The first ...
*  Salinity in Australia
Soil salinity and dryland salinity are two problems degrading the environment of Australia. Salinity is a concern in most ... Salinity is classified as a dissolved salt content of a substance like soil or water. Salinity can prevent crops and other ... information/Salinity+and+water+quality State Natural Resource Management Office 2010 National Action Plan for Salinity andWater ... social and policy aspects of dryland salinity Department of the Environment and Heritage National Dryland Salinity Program ...
*  Satellite surface salinity
... refers to measurements of surface salinity made by remote sensing satellites. The radiative ... The depth of the water column that a satellite surface salinity measurement is sensitive to depends on the frequency (or ... The emissivity of sea water has been modeled as a function of its temperature, salinity, and radiant energy frequency. Studies ... Figure 1 shows an example of the brightness temperature curves associated with sea surface salinity, as a function of sea ...
*  Great Salinity Anomaly
... including the Great Salinity Anomaly of the 1980s and the Great Salinity Anomaly of the 1990s. The recovery time for reversion ... The Great Salinity Anomaly originally referred to a significant disturbance caused by a major pulse of freshwater input to the ... 2004) A Great Salinity Anomaly affects sea basins over a wide geographical distance, as seawater moved from one basin to ... 1999) Since the discovery of this GSA, the term "Great Salinity Anomaly" has been applied to successive occurrences of the same ...
*  Temperature salinity diagram
In oceanography, temperature-salinity diagrams, sometimes called T-S diagrams, are used to identify water masses. In a T-S ... Temperature and salinity combine to determine the potential density of seawater; contours of constant potential density are ... is plotted versus salinity (on the horizontal axis). As long as it remains isolated from the surface, where heat or fresh water ... a water parcel's potential temperature and salinity are conserved. Deep water masses thus retain their T-S characteristics for ...
*  Soil salinity control
After one or two years, the soil salinity is decreased so much, that the salinity of the drainage water has come down to a ... Assuming that one wishes to avoid the soil salinity to increase and maintain the soil salinity Cu at a desired level Cd we have ... Soil salinity control relates to controlling the problem of soil salinity and reclaiming salinized agricultural land. The aim ... Soil salinity is measured as the salt concentration of the soil solution in tems of g/l or electric conductivity (EC) in dS/m. ...
*  U.S. Salinity Laboratory
Alfalfa, barley, sugar beets, and cotton are tolerant crops that can often be grown where salinity is a problem. The Salinity ... 60 prepared by United States Salinity Laboratory Staff, Agricultural Research Service. On line: [3] U.S. Salinity Laboratory, ... The U.S. Salinity Laboratory is a National Laboratory for research on salt-affected soil-plant-water systems. It resorts under ... On line: [1] USDA-ARS, History of the Salinity Lab. On line: [2] L. A. Richards, Editor, 1954. Diagnosis and Improvement of ...
*  Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity
Ocean salinity is crucial to the understanding of the role of the ocean in climate through the global water cycle. Salinity in ... Additionally, ocean salinity is one of the variables that regulate CO2 uptake and release and therefore has an effect on the ... Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity, or SMOS, is a satellite which forms part of ESA's Living Planet Programme. It is intended to ... Project Aquarius will attempt to monitor sea surface salinity with an accuracy of 0.1 psu (10- to 30-day average and a spatial ...
*  Central Soil Salinity Research Institute
... (1998). Salinity Management in Agriculture. ... Central Soil Salinity Research Institute. N. K. Tyagi; P. S. Minhas (1998). Agricultural Salinity Management in India. Central ... Central Soil Salinity Research Institute. OCLC 8753432. Central Soil Salinity Research Institute (1998). Twenty five years of ... Central Soil Salinity Research Institute. Central Soil Salinity Research Institute (2005). Crop Improvement for Management of ...
*  Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program
The Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) is a cooperative international project that seeks to develop and ... Making global measurements of ocean temperature and salinity (T-S) quickly and easily accessible to users is the primary goal ... Continuously Managed Database (CMD): Maintains the up-to-date global temperature-salinity data, replaces near real-time records ... the GTSPP Continuously Managed Database Public access to Global Temperature-Salinity Data RSS Emphasis of Temperature-Salinity ...
*  Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act
The SCA has been amended five times: Public Law 98-569, "An Act to Amend the Salinity Control Act, enacted 30 October 1984; ... The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act, Public Law 93-320, and the laws authorizing three other conservation cost- ... Until it was replaced, the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Program provided cost-sharing assistance to producers to ... Public Law 98-569 amendments included: (1) authorization of construction of two new salinity control units, Stage 1 of the ...
*  Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Program
The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Program was authorized in the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act and was ... The Department of the Interior's Bureau of Reclamation administers its own Colorado River Salinity control Program. This ... it was used to implement salinity control measures, primarily to manage irrigation water using financial and technical ...
*  List of bodies of water by salinity
This is a list of bodies of water by salinity that is limited to natural bodies of water that have a stable salinity above 0.5 ... Long Term Temperature & Salinity Records from the Baltic Sea Transition Zone Some bays have considerably lower salinity. ... "Ocean salinity". Science Learning Hub. Retrieved 2017-07-02. A. Anati, David (March 1999). "The salinity of hypersaline brines ... On average, seawater has a salinity of 3.5% (or 35 parts per thousand). Water salinity often varies by location and season, ...
*  Polyhaline
... is a salinity category term applied to brackish estuaries and other water bodies with a salinity of between 18 and ... 30 ppt (parts per thousand). It is the most dense saltwater type that is classified[by whom?] as "brackish." Salinity. ...
*  Water cycle
The salinity of the oceans is derived from erosion and transport of dissolved salts from the land. Cultural eutrophication of ... Research published in 2012 in Science based on surface ocean salinity over the period 1950 to 2000 confirm this projection of ... "Salinity , Science Mission Directorate". science.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2018-01-15. National Weather Service Northwest River ... We show that ocean salinity patterns express an identifiable fingerprint of an intensifying water cycle. Our 50-year observed ...
*  Chesapeake Bay
"Figure 1. Map of Chesapeake Bay and salinity zones. Salinity zones.." ResearchGate. "The Big Freeze". Time. 1977-01-31. ... The salinity ranges from 18.7 ppt to 36 ppt. (36 ppt is as salty as the ocean.) The climate of the area surrounding the Bay is ... Salinity there ranges from 10.7 ppt to 18 ppt. The polyhaline zone is the saltiest zone, and some of the water can be as salty ... While the Bay's salinity is ideal for oysters and the oyster fishery was at one time the Bay's most commercially viable, the ...
*  Gordon Gunter
1961) "Salinity and size in marine fishes." Copeia 1961(2):234- 235. (1961) "Biological investigations of the St. Lucie Estuary ... 1957) "Salinity." Chapter 7. In: "Treatise on Marine Ecology and Paleoecology." Vol. 1 Ecology. Memoir 67, Geological Society ... 1967) "A review of salinity problems of organisms in United States coastal areas subject to the effects of engineering works." ... Gunter and G.E. Hall). (1963) "Some relations of salinity to population distributions of motile estuarine organisms, with ...
*  Cane toad
RHINELLA MARINA (Cane Toad). SALINITY TOLERANCE. Herpetological Review 46(2):237-238. Lever 2001, p. 3 Barker, Grigg & Tyler ... and recent field observations found living tadpoles and toadlets at salinities of 27.5‰ on Coiba Island, Panama. The cane toad ...
*  Paleosalinity
Modern day salinities are all within 0.5 psu of the global average salinity of 34.7 psu, whereas salinities during the last ... There may exist proxies for salinity, but to date the main way that salinity has been measured has been by directly measuring ... From Bjerrum plots, it is found that a decrease in the salinity of an aqueous fluid will act to increase the value of the ... Adkins' study found that global salinity increased with a global sea level drop of 120 m. Analyzing 18O data they also found ...
*  Human impact on the environment
Salinity control. In: H.P. Ritzema (ed.), Drainage Principles and Applications. Publication 16, International Institute for ... ftp://ftp.fao.org/agl/agll/docs/salinity_brochure_eng.pdf van Hoorn, J. W. and J.G. van Alphen. 2006. ...
*  Nueces Bay
The Odem Bay extension is low in salinity and serves as a nursery for shrimp, which migrate to Nueces Bay in spring. Oyster ... "Nueces Bay Salinity". Division of Nearshore Research. Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi. Retrieved 1 July 2010. Yochem, ... increasing the bay's salinity, and hurting the natural oyster and shrimp habitat. In response, the City of Corpus Christi, ...
*  Shutdown of thermohaline circulation
"Salinity and Brine". NSIDC. "Everything you need to know about the surprisingly cold 'blob' in the North Atlantic ocean". The ... The evaporation of ocean water in the North Atlantic increases the salinity of the water as well as cooling it, both actions ... Formation of sea ice further increases the salinity, because salt is ejected into the ocean when sea ice forms, which in turn ... But freshwater decreases ocean water salinity, and through this process prevents colder waters sinking. This mechanism possibly ...