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*  Retinal
6 occur in rod cell outer segments; Steps 1, 2, and 7 occur in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. RPE65 isomerohydrolases ... In rod cells the opsin molecules are embedded in the membranes of the disks which are entirely inside of the cell. The N- ... In cone cells the disks are defined by the cell's plasma membrane so that the N-terminus head extends outside of the cell. ... For example, the visual cycle of mammalian rod cells is as follows: all-trans-retinyl ester + H2O → 11-cis-retinol + fatty acid ...
*  Rhodopsin
Thousands of rhodopsin molecules are found in each outer segment disc of the host rod cell. Retinal is produced in the retina ... In the rod outer segment, Meta III decays into separate all-trans-retinal and opsin. A second product of Meta II decay is an ... rod outer segment instability and arrestin binding. Some prokaryotes express proton pumps called bacteriorhodopsins, ... Rhodopsin of the rods most strongly absorbs green-blue light and, therefore, appears reddish-purple, which is why it is also ...
*  Phosducin
This gene encodes a phosphoprotein, which is located in the outer and inner segments of the rod cells in the retina. This ... 2001). "Rethinking the role of phosducin: light-regulated binding of phosducin to 14-3-3 in rod inner segments". Proc. Natl. ... Cell. Biol. 20 (14): 5216-26. doi:10.1128/MCB.20.14.5216-5226.2000. PMC 85970 . PMID 10866677. Ruiz-Gómez A, Humrich J, Murga C ... 1994). "Assignment of the phosducin (PDC) gene to human chromosome 1q25-1q32.1 by somatic cell hybridization and in situ ...
*  Retinal degeneration (rhodopsin mutation)
These mutations affect rhodopsin transport to the outer segments of rod photoreceptor cells, rhodopsin folding, and rhodopsin ... Eventually, loss of rod cells leads to loss of cone cells (cone photoreceptors), the mainstay of human vision. Symptoms of RP ... RP begins with death of rod photoreceptor cells, which are the only cells in the retina to express rhodopsin and which express ... in the outer segments causes functional abnormalities and localization of rhodopsin in the outer and/or inner segments induces ...
*  Rod cell
... which lines the distal segment. The inner segment contains organelles and the cell's nucleus, while the rod outer segment ( ... Rods are much more common than cones, with about 100 million rod cells compared to 7 million cone cells. Like cones, rod cells ... On average, there are approximately 90 million rod cells in the human retina. Rod cells are more sensitive than cone cells and ... A human rod cell is about 2 microns in diameter and 100 microns long. Rods are not all morphologically the same; in mice, rods ...
*  Cilium
The outer segment of the rod photoreceptor cell in the human eye is connected to its cell body with a specialized non-motile ... Some epithelial cells are ciliated, and they commonly exist as a sheet of polarized cells forming a tube or tubule with cilia ... In comparison to motile cilia, non-motile (or primary) cilia usually occur one per cell; nearly all mammalian cells have a ... Scholey, JM (2008). "Intraflagellar transport motors in cilia: Moving along the cell's antenna". Journal of Cell Biology. 180 ( ...
*  Phosducin family
The outer and inner segments of vertebrate retina rod photoreceptor cells contain phosducin, a soluble phosphoprotein that ... a soluble phosphoprotein from photoreceptor cells". J. Biol. Chem. 265 (26): 15867-15873. PMID 2203790. Takagi T, Abe T, ...
*  Tauroursodeoxycholic acid
... rod cell death, and disruption of cone inner and outer segments. The findings of the study are elucidating optimized conditions ... This caused a considerable preservation in cone cell amount and function at P50, and a modest rod cell amount at P30. In the ... The synaptic contacts amongst photoreceptor cells, bipolar cells, and horizontal cells were preserved in the TUDCA treated P23H ... Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is largely influenced by the mitochondria. If the mitochondria are distressed, they ...
*  PDE6A
Takemoto DJ, Cunnick JM (1990). "Visual transduction in rod outer segments". Cell. Signal. 2 (2): 99-104. doi:10.1016/0898-6568 ... expressed in cells of the retinal rod outer segment. The phosphodiesterase 6 holoenzyme is a heterotrimer composed of an alpha ... beta, and two gamma subunits.cGMP is an important regulator of rod cell membrane current, and its dynamic concentration is ... Rod cGMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase subunit alpha is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE6A gene. PDE6A ...
*  Cone cell
Like rods, each cone cell has a synaptic terminal, an inner segment, and an outer segment as well as an interior nucleus and ... Like rods, the outer segments of cones have invaginations of their cell membranes that create stacks of membranous disks. ... The inner segment contains organelles and the cell's nucleus, while the outer segment, which is pointed toward the back of the ... Neither rods nor cones divide, but their membranous disks wear out and are worn off at the end of the outer segment, to be ...
*  Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase
... is located in photoreceptor outer segments and is an important enzyme in phototransduction. PDE in rod cells are oligomeric, ... PDE in rod cells are activated by transducin. Transducin is a G protein which upon GDP/GTP exchange in the transducin α subunit ... Both rod and cone PDEs catalyze the hydrolysis of cAMP or cGMP to their 5' monophosphate form. Both enzymes also bind cGMP with ... ISBN 0-12-738440-5. Deterre P, Bigay J, Forquet F, Robert M, Chabre M (April 1988). "cGMP phosphodiesterase of retinal rods is ...
*  Peripherin 2
... is a cell surface glycoprotein found in the outer segment of both rod and cone photoreceptor cells. It is located in the rim ... Peripherin-2 is found in the rod and cone cells of the retina of the eye. Defects in this protein result in one form of ... Peripherin 2 may function as an adhesion molecule involved in stabilization and compaction of outer segment disks or in the ... Most of these members are cell-surface proteins that are characterized by the presence of four transmembrane helices. ...
*  Retina
Outer nuclear layer - cell bodies of rods and cones External limiting membrane - layer that separates the inner segment ... of the amacrine cells, bipolar cells and horizontal cells. Outer plexiform layer - projections of rods and cones ending in the ... In the outer the rods and cones connect to the vertically running bipolar cells, and the horizontally oriented horizontal cells ... The outer cell segment contains a photopigment. Inside the cell the normal levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) keep ...
*  Transducin
"Transducin subunit stoichiometry and cellular distribution in rod outer segments". Cell Biology International. 30 (10): 829-835 ... However, there is evidence that there are more Tβ and Tγ than Tα in rod outer segments (ROS). The excess Tβ and Tγ have been ... Fung, B. K. (1983). "Characterization of transducin from bovine retinal rod outer segments. I. Separation and reconstitution of ... Transducin (Gt) is a protein naturally expressed in vertebrate retina rods and cones and it is very important in vertebrate ...
*  Visual phototransduction
Finally, it is oxidized to 11-cis retinal before traveling back to the rod outer segment where it is again conjugated to an ... It is a process by which light is converted into electrical signals in the rod cells, cone cells and photosensitive ganglion ... rod and cone On bipolar cells) and hyperpolarization of cone off-center bipolar cells. In light, low cGMP levels close Na+ and ... The photoreceptor cells involved in vision are the rods and cones. These cells contain a chromophore (11-cis retinal, the ...
*  Cytoplasm
"Longitudinal Diffusion in Retinal Rod and Cone Outer Segment Cytoplasm: The Consequence of Cell Structure". Biophysical Journal ... In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus. It comprises cytosol (the gel- ... and processes such as cell division. The concentrated inner area is called the endoplasm and the outer layer is called the cell ... Within the cells of eukaryotic organisms the contents of the cell nucleus are separated from the cytoplasm, and are then called ...
*  Photoreceptor cell
... is the outer segment, the part of the photoreceptor that absorbs light. Outer segments are actually modified cilia that contain ... The human retina contains about 120 million rod cells, and 6 million cone cells. The number and ratio of rods to cones varies ... rods, cones, and photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. The two classic photoreceptor cells are rods and cones, each ... This pump is necessary to reset the initial state of the outer segment by taking the sodium ions that are entering the cell and ...
*  SAG (gene)
"Activation of bovine rod outer segment phospholipase C by arrestin". J. Biol. Chem. 267 (25): 17977-82. PMID 1325454. Huang SK ... 1999). "Role of the T cell receptor alpha chain in stabilizing TCR-superantigen-MHC class II complexes". Immunity. 10 (4): 473- ... Cell Tissue Res. 267 (3): 493-8. doi:10.1007/BF00319371. PMID 1533347. Palczewski K, Pulvermüller A, Buczyłko J, Hofmann KP ( ... Klein DC, Korf HW (1992). "Immunocytochemical demonstration of rod-opsin, S-antigen, and neuron-specific proteins in the human ...
*  Oil droplet
They are found in cone cells far more often than in rods, suggesting a role in colour vision. Occurrence in rod cells may imply ... They are located in the cone inner segment, where they intercept and filter light before it can pass through to the cone outer ... that they have been modified from a cone cell ancestor. They occasionally occur in double cones/double rods. Some oil droplets ... Oil droplets are found in the eyes of some animals, being located in the photoreceptor cells. They are especially common in the ...
*  Gene therapy of the human retina
The protein RPE65 is used in the retinoid cycle where the all-trans-retinol within the rod outer segment is isomerized to its ... This mutation causes the accumulation of outer segment debris in the subretinal space, which causes photoreceptor cell death. ... There have been multiple hypotheses about how the lack of rod cells can lead to the death of cone cells. Pinpointing a ... The opsin proteins are made in the photoreceptor inner segments, then transported to the outer segment, and eventually ...
*  Disc shedding
... rod outer segment discs are shed at the onset of light (in the morning) and cone outer segments are shed at the onset of ... Vertebrate photoreceptors are composed of a photosensitive outer segment, an inner segment that contains the cell's metabolic ... Each day about one tenth of the length of the outer segment is lost, so that after ten days the entire outer segment has been ... Cell, 130, 535-547. Young, R.W. (1967). "The renewal of photoreceptor outer segments" (PDF). The Journal of Cell Biology. 33: ...
*  Night vision
... the outer layer of cells in the retina (the outer nuclear layer) in nocturnal mammals is thick due to the millions of rods ... and into the stack of ten photorecepting outer segments. The net effect of this anatomical change is to multiply the light ... In dark conditions only the rod cells have enough sensitivity to respond and to trigger vision. Rhodopsin in the human rods is ... April 16, 2009). "Nuclear Architecture of Rod Photoreceptor Cells Adapts to Vision in Mammalian Evolution". Cell. 137 (2): 945- ...
*  Outer plexiform layer
... where amacrine cells synapse with retinal ganglion cells. The synapses in the outer plexiform layer are between the rod cell ... and photoreceptor cell inner segments from the outer nuclear layer. It is much thinner than the inner plexiform layer, ... endings or cone cell branched foot plates and horizontal cells. Unlike in most systems, rod and cone cells release ... The outer plexiform layer (external plexiform layer) is a layer of neuronal synapses in the retina of the eye. It consists of a ...
*  King-Wai Yau
"The membrane current of single rod outer segments", 607 citations 1979 "Responses of retinal rods to single photons", 819 ... Hattar, S; Liao HW; Takao M; Berson DM; Yau KW (2002). "Melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells: architecture, projections ... "The membrane current of single rod outer segments". Journal of Physiology - London. 288: 589-611. Baylor DA, Lamb TD, Yau KW ( ... His investigations on the spontaneous activity of rod and cone pigments have provided a physicochemical explanation for why our ...
*  GNAT1
"Tyrosine phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of transducin and its association with Src in photoreceptor rod outer segments". ... 2000). "Activation of the rod G-protein Gt by the thrombin receptor (PAR1) expressed in Sf9 cells". Eur. J. Biochem. 266 (3): ... The transducin alpha subunits in rods and cones are encoded by separate genes. This gene encodes the alpha subunit in rods. ... Dryja TP, Hahn LB, Reboul T, Arnaud B (1996). "Missense mutation in the gene encoding the alpha subunit of rod transducin in ...
*  Development of the reproductive system
In the outer part of the intermediate mesoderm, immediately under the ectoderm, in the region from the fifth cervical segment ... For a time the vagina is represented by a solid rod of epithelial cells. A ring-like outgrowth of this epithelium occurs at the ... Development proceeds and the oogonia become fully surrounded by a layer of connective tissue cells (pre-granulosa cells) In ... At about the fifth or sixth month the lumen of the vagina is produced by the breaking down of the central cells of the ...