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*  Negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus
The negative viral RNA is complementary to the mRNA and must be converted to a positive RNA by RNA polymerase before ... Negative sense ssRNA viruses need RNA polymerase to form a positive sense RNA. The positive-sense RNA acts as a viral mRNA, ... The virus uses its own RNA replicase, also known as RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), to form positive RNA template strands ... The negative RNA strands combine with capsids and viral RdRp to form new negative RNA virions. After assembly and maturation of ...
*  Antisense RNA
... and Stephenson found an antisense oligoneucleotides to the viral RNA of Rous scarcoma virus was capable of inhibiting viral ... RNA I and RNA II forms a duplex which introduces a conformational change of RNA II. Consequently, RNA II cannot hybridize with ... RNA-RNA interactions either in nucleus or cytoplasm and RNA-protein interactions (epigenetic). Antisense RNAs can be ... The replication of ColE1 relies on the transcription of a primer RNA named RNA II. Once RNA II is transcribed, it hybridizes to ...
*  Long non-coding RNA
... increases during cellular stress such as viral infection in some cancer cells where they may similarly regulate global changes ... short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), and other short RNAs. However ... an ncRNA repressor of RNA polymerase II transcription". RNA. 13 (4): 583-96. doi:10.1261/rna.310307. PMC 1831867 . PMID ... June 2007). "RNA maps reveal new RNA classes and a possible function for pervasive transcription". Science. 316 (5830): 1484-8 ...
*  Mycovirus
DsRNA as well as ssRNA are assumed to be very ancient and presumably originated from the 'RNA world' as both types of RNA ... Although it is not known yet whether viral transport is an active or passive process, it is generally assumed that fungal ... Many double stranded RNA elements that have been described in fungi do not fit this description, and in these cases they are ... According to Koonin, RNA viruses colonized eukaryotes first and subsequently co-evolved with their hosts. This concept fits ...
*  DNA-directed RNA interference
Any RNA, including endogenous mRNAs or viral RNAs, can be silenced by designing constructs to express double-stranded RNA ... inhibiting viral cell entry TAR decoy RNA, inhibiting initiation of viral transcription. Ongoing expression of the shRNA has ... Multi-cassette constructs that target multiple sites within the same viral RNA circumvent this issue. Delivery of ddRNAi DNA ... DNA constructs are designed to express self-complementary double-stranded RNAs, typically short-hairpin RNAs (shRNA), that once ...
*  Positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus
All positive-sense ssRNA virus genomes encode RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP), a viral protein that synthesizes RNA from an ... The positive-sense viral RNA genome can also serve as messenger RNA and can be translated into protein in the host cell. ... Nagy, Peter D.; Pogany, Judit (19 December 2011). "The dependence of viral RNA replication on co-opted host factors". Nature ... Single stranded RNA viruses are classified as positive or negative depending on the sense or polarity of the RNA. ...
*  Orthohantavirus
The L RNA encodes the L protein, which functions as the viral transcriptase/replicase. Within virions, the genomic RNAs of ... Mir MA, Panganiban AT (2005). "The Hantavirus Nucleocapsid Protein Recognizes Specific Features of the Viral RNA Panhandle and ... Special Issue: Treatment of highly pathogenic RNA viral infections. 78 (1): 162-169. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2007.10.012. PMC ... The lipid bilayer of the viral envelope is about five nm thick and is embedded with viral surface proteins to which sugar ...
*  Animal virus
587-599 Goris N, Vandenbussche F, De Clercq K (2008). "Potential of antiviral therapy and prophylaxis for controlling RNA viral ... These are called viral zoonoses or zoonotic infections. Examples include, rabies, yellow fever and pappataci fever. The viruses ... Canine distemper virus is closely related to measles virus and is the most important viral disease of dogs. The disease (which ... Marine mammals are susceptible to viral infections. In 1988 and 2002, thousands of harbor seals were killed in Europe by the ...
*  Michael Ashburner
Teixeira, L. S.; Ferreira, Á.; Ashburner, M. (2008). "The Bacterial Symbiont Wolbachia Induces Resistance to RNA Viral ...
*  Wolbachia
"The Bacterial Symbiont Wolbachia Induces Resistance to RNA Viral Infections in Drosophila melanogaster". PLOS Biology. 6 (12): ... suggesting that despite the existence of an enhancement of viral genomic RNA replication in the cell line Wolbachia infected, ... The small RNAs may regulate bacterial and host genes. Highly conserved intragenic region sRNA called ncrwmel02 was also ... Flies infected with the bacteria are more resistant to RNA viruses such as Drosophila C virus, norovirus, flock house virus, ...
*  Rev (HIV)
Rev-directed export of viral RNAs is similar to the mechanism by which snRNAs and the 5s rRNAs are exported, as opposed to the ... Binding of Rev to viral RNAs containing the RRE allows for mRNA export out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm by a mechanism ... Hope, TJ (May 1997). "Viral RNA export". Chemistry and Biology Journal. 4 (5): 335-344. doi:10.1016/s1074-5521(97)90124-1. PMID ... HIV-1 genes are expressed from either completely spliced RNA or from intron-containing RNA. The export of fully spliced mRNAs ( ...
*  Favipiravir
The mechanism of its actions is thought to be related to the selective inhibition of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Other ... a novel viral RNA polymerase inhibitor". Antiviral Research. 100 (2): 446-54. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2013.09.015. PMC 3880838 ... Novel broad-spectrum inhibitors of RNA viral infections". Antiviral Research. 82 (3): 95-102. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2009.02. ... Favipiravir does not inhibit RNA or DNA synthesis in mammalian cells and is not toxic to them. In 2014, favipiravir was ...
*  Mutation
The genomes of RNA viruses are based on RNA rather than DNA. The RNA viral genome can be double stranded (as in DNA) or single ... c if the mutation occurred in RNA. Note that, for mutations in RNA, the nucleotide code is written in lower case. Amino acid ... If it becomes necessary to differentiate between mutations in genomic DNA, mitochondrial DNA, and RNA, a simple convention is ... Sanjuán R (June 2010). "Mutational fitness effects in RNA and single-stranded DNA viruses: common patterns revealed by site- ...
*  Polydnavirus
They promote viral RNA destruction. MicroRNA attach to viral-RNA because they are complementary. Then the complex is recognised ... Viral replication is nuclear. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host cell by ... Mutualism "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Webb, B. ... MicroRNA are small RNA fragments produced in the host cells thanks to a specific enzymatic mechanism. ...
*  APOBEC3G
... interaction with host RNA 3. APOBEC3G interaction with viral RNA 4. Interaction of APOBEC3G with HIV-1 Gag proteins. ... It is predicted that reverse transcription is also negatively affected by APOBEC3G binding to viral RNA and causing steric ... thus leading to aberrant viral 3' long terminal repeat (LTR) DNA ends. These viral DNA ends are inefficient substrates for ... CD1 is catalytically inactive, but very important for binding to DNA and RNA and is key to defining the 5'->3' processivity of ...
*  Virome
The hypothesis was explored that viral transfer RNA (tRNA) genes originate from their host. Viral tRNAs identified in 7.6% of ... Zhang, T; Breitbart, M; Lee, WH; Run, JQ; Wei, CL; Soh, SW; Hibberd, ML; Liu, ET; Rohwer, F; Ruan, Y (January 2006). "RNA viral ... Virome refers to the collection of nucleic acids, both RNA and DNA, that make up the viral community associated with a ... The isolate viral host information was projected onto a group, resulting in host assignments for 2.4% of viral groups. Then the ...
*  Nucleic acid test
Detects low levels of viral RNA or DNA. Provides additional layer of safety to the blood supply because it allows the detection ... Have the ability to detect viral mutants and occult infections. Highly sensitive and specific for viral nucleic acid. There are ... It does so by detecting and amplifying the RNA or DNA of the pathogen, that is, making extra copies of its nucleic acids. This ... A reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) is used for HIV and other RNA viruses. Branched DNA (quantiplex bDNA) tests use a molecule ...
*  Potyvirus
It also interacts with eukaryotic initiation factor 4 (eIF4). It acts as a viral RNA silencing suppressor. The function of P3 ... NIb (~59 kDa) is an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The functions of the 6K1 (~6 kDa) is not known. 6K2 (~6 kDa) protein, having ... Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive-stranded RNA virus transcription is the method ... The virus exits the host cell by tubule-guided viral movement. Plants serve as the natural host. The virus is transmitted via a ...
*  N6-Methyladenosine
Tirumuru N, Zhao BS, Lu W, Lu Z, He C, Wu L (July 2016). "N(6)-methyladenosine of HIV-1 RNA regulates viral infection and HIV-1 ... Lichinchi G, Zhao BS, Wu Y, Lu Z, Qin Y, He C, Rana TM (November 2016). "Dynamics of Human and Viral RNA Methylation during ... Additionally, m6A has been reported to impact viral infections. Many RNA viruses including SV40, adenovirus, herpes virus, Rous ... It is also found in tRNA, rRNA, and small nuclear RNA (snRNA) as well as several long non-coding RNA, such as Xist. Adenosine ...
*  Transcription (biology)
"Tentative identification of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of dsRNA viruses and their relationship to positive strand RNA viral ... RNA sugar-phosphate backbone forms with assistance from RNA polymerase to form an RNA strand. Hydrogen bonds of the RNA-DNA ... ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), or other enzymatic RNA molecules called ribozymes. Overall, RNA helps synthesize, ... RNA synthesis by RNA polymerase was established in vitro by several laboratories by 1965; however, the RNA synthesized by these ...
*  Plant virus
Instead, the naked viral RNA may alter the function of the cells through a mechanism similar to RNA interference, in which the ... The resulting capped leader RNA is used to prime transcription on the viral genome. However some plant viruses do not use cap, ... For instance Brome mosaic virus has a genome split between 3 viral particles, and all 3 particles with the different RNAs are ... 2006). "Cap-independent translation of plant viral RNAs". Virus Research. 119 (1): 63-75. doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2005.10.010. ...
*  RNA interference
The first type is to target viral RNAs. Many studies have shown that targeting viral RNAs can suppress the replication of ... "Double-Stranded RNA Binding May Be a General Plant RNA Viral Strategy To Suppress RNA Silencing". J Virol. 80 (12): 5747-56. ... non-coding regions of viral RNA sequences would show similar levels of protection. Researchers believed that viral RNA produced ... RNAs are the direct products of genes, and these small RNAs can bind to other specific messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules and ...
*  Subgenomic mRNA
Positive-sense (5' to 3') viral RNA which may be directly translated into the desired viral proteins, undergoes a similar ... Or, different proteins can be created with positive sense viral RNA. The 5' section on the newly created strand matches that of ... Portions of the viral RNA may be skipped during translation. The result is that many different proteins can be created from the ... "Uncoupling RNA virus replication from transcription via the polymerase: functional and evolutionary insights." EMBO J. 2007 Nov ...
*  Lamin B1
Evidence that Tat links viral RNAs to nuclear matrix". J. Biol. Chem. 265 (7): 3803-8. PMID 2406262. Müller WE, Wenger R, ... 1989). "Association of Tat protein and viral mRNA with nuclear matrix from HIV-1-infected H9 cells". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. ...
*  Barley stripe mosaic virus
... (BSMV),of genus Hordevirus, is an RNA viral plant pathogen whose main hosts are barley and wheat. ...
*  Synthetic virology
... there is no RNA-equivalent for PCR). For many virus families the naked genome DNA (or RNA following transcription) is ... Nanofabricated synthetic viruses do not contain viral genes and do not have a capacity to replicate. Live synthetic viruses ... both in the case of DNA and RNA viruses, since methodologies for large scale DNA synthesis are much more developed than those ... which are then assembled using various methodologies to yield complete viral genomes. The first man-made infectious viruses ...
*  Cloverleaf model of tRNA
"A Survey of TRNA Mimicry: Structural Studies of Plant Viral RNA". books.google.co.uk. Retrieved June 2, 2015. ...