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*  Negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus
"Molecular cloning of natural paramyxovirus copy-back defective interfering RNAs and their expression from DNA". Virology. 191 ( ... Similarly, viruses can also synthesize proteins that prevent the phosphorylation of STAT1 a little further along the signaling ... The virus uses its own RNA replicase, also known as RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), to form positive RNA template strands ... The negative viral RNA is complementary to the mRNA and must be converted to a positive RNA by RNA polymerase before ...
*  Long non-coding RNA
... short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), and other short RNAs. However ... June 2008). "An endogenous small interfering RNA pathway in Drosophila". Nature. 453 (7196): 798-802. Bibcode:2008Natur.453.. ... September 2004). "Role of a neuronal small non-messenger RNA: behavioural alterations in BC1 RNA-deleted mice". Behavioural ... Similar to small regulatory RNAs such as microRNAs and snoRNAs, these functions often involve complementary base pairing with ...
*  DNA-directed RNA interference
Unlike small interfering RNA (siRNA) therapeutics that turn over within a cell and consequently only silence genes transiently ... Any RNA, including endogenous mRNAs or viral RNAs, can be silenced by designing constructs to express double-stranded RNA ... DNA constructs are designed to express self-complementary double-stranded RNAs, typically short-hairpin RNAs (shRNA), that once ... DNA-directed RNA interference (ddRNAi) is a gene-silencing technique that utilizes DNA constructs to activate an animal cell's ...
*  Small interfering RNA
... (siRNA), sometimes known as short interfering RNA or silencing RNA, is a class of double-stranded RNA ... Jensen, Kirsty; Anderson, Jennifer A.; Glass, Elizabeth J. (2014-04-15). "Comparison of small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery ... Li LC (2008). "Small RNA-Mediated Gene Activation". RNA and the Regulation of Gene Expression: A Hidden Layer of Complexity. ... Dicer cuts the long dsRNA to form short interfering RNA or siRNA; this is what enables the molecules to form the RNA-Induced ...
*  Short hairpin RNA
Small interfering RNA Paddison, PJ; Caudy, AA; Bernstein, E; Hannon, GJ; Conklin, DS (15 April 2002). "Short hairpin RNAs ( ... A short hairpin RNA or small hairpin RNA (shRNA/Hairpin Vector) is an artificial RNA molecule with a tight hairpin turn that ... Brummelkamp, TR; Bernards, R; Agami, R (19 April 2002). "A system for stable expression of short interfering RNAs in mammalian ... Xiang, Shuanglin; Fruehauf, Johannes; Li, Chiang J (2006). "Short hairpin RNA-expressing bacteria elicit RNA interference in ...
*  DUT (gene)
Studebaker AW, Lafuse WP, Kloesel R, Williams MV (Feb 2005). "Modulation of human dUTPase using small interfering RNA". ...
*  Survivin
Small interfering RNA (siRNA) are synthetic antisense oligonucleotides to the mRNA of the gene of interest that works to ... Huynh T, Wälchli S, Sioud M (December 2006). "Transcriptional targeting of small interfering RNAs into cancer cells". Biochem. ... Survivin is 16.5 kDa large and is the smallest member of the IAP family. X-ray crystallography has shown two molecules of human ... and CTLs to eliminate and suppress the pulmonary metastases of non-small cell lung carcinoma. The activation of the immune ...
*  Exosome (vesicle)
Wahlgren J.; Statello L.; Skogberg G.; Telemo E.; Valadi H. (2016). "Delivery of Small Interfering RNAs to Cells via Exosomes ... Exosomes can be considered a promising carrier for effective delivery of small interfering RNA due to their existence in body's ... For example, RNA that is shuttled from one cell to another, known as "exosomal shuttle RNA," could potentially affect protein ... Exosomes contain RNA, proteins, lipids and metabolites that is reflective of the cell type of origin. As exosomes contain ...
*  Transcriptome in vivo analysis tag
July 2007). "Transvascular delivery of small interfering RNA to the central nervous system". Nature. 448 (7149): 39-43. doi: ... The transcriptome is a set of all RNA, including rRNA, mRNA, tRNA, and non-coding RNA. Specifically mRNA transcripts can be ... RNA-seq uses reverse transcriptase to convert the mRNA template to cDNA. During library preparation, the cDNA is fragmented ... into small pieces, which then serve as the template for sequencing. After sequencing RNA-seq analysis can then be performed. ...
*  Complementarity (molecular biology)
Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are similar in function to miRNAs; they come from other sources of RNA, but serve a similar ... MiRNAs are formed from longer sequences of RNA that are cut free by a Dicer enzyme from an RNA sequence that is from a ... RNA is more likely to form these kinds of structures due to base pair binding not seen in DNA, such as guanine binding with ... And three is by providing a new double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) sequence that Dicer can act upon to create more miRNA to find and ...
*  RNA interference
Two types of small ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules - microRNA (miRNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) - are central to RNA ... RNAs are the direct products of genes, and these small RNAs can bind to other specific messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules and ... These short double-stranded fragments are called small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). These siRNAs are then separated into single ... discovered, by using synthetically made small interfering RNA (siRNA), it was possible to target the silencing of specific ...
*  Overlapping gene
"Recognition of small interfering RNA by a viral suppressor of RNA silencing". Nature. 426 (6968): 874-878. doi:10.1038/ ... In some cases overprinted proteins do have well-defined, but novel, three-dimensional structures; one example is the RNA ... Some studies attribute this observation to selective pressure toward small genome sizes mediated by the physical constraints of ... likely to greatly increase the number of potential expressible genes from a small set of viral genetic information. Genes may ...
*  Piwi-interacting RNA
Further, it is thought that piRNA and endogenous small interfering RNA (endo-siRNA) may have comparable and even redundant ... Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) is the largest class of small non-coding RNA molecules expressed in animal cells. piRNAs form RNA- ... Due to their small size, expression and amplification of small RNAs can be challenging, so specialised PCR-based methods have ... Kim, V.N. (2006). "Small RNAs Just Got Bigger: Piwi-Interacting RNAs (piRNAs) in Mammalian Testes". Genes Dev. 20: 1993-1997. ...
*  Inclisiran
It is a small interfering RNA that inhibits translation of the protein PCSK9. Fitzgerald, Kevin; White, Suellen; Borodovsky, ...
*  EIF2C1
Ma JB, Ye K, Patel DJ (May 2004). "Structural basis for overhang-specific small interfering RNA recognition by the PAZ domain ... Doi N, Zenno S, Ueda R, Ohki-Hamazaki H, Ui-Tei K, Saigo K (Jan 2003). "Short-interfering-RNA-mediated gene silencing in ... It may interact with dicer1 and play a role in short-interfering-RNA-mediated gene silencing. This gene is located on ... This gene encodes a member of the Argonaute family of proteins which play a role in RNA interference. The encoded protein is ...
*  Dicer
Small interfering RNA (siRNA) are produced and function in a similar manner to miRNA by cleaving double-stranded RNA with Dicer ... gene expression RISC RNA interference microRNA Small interfering RNA Drosha Ribonuclease III mRNA GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... into short double-stranded RNA fragments called small interfering RNA and microRNA, respectively. These fragments are ... ISBN 978-0-8053-9592-1. Zeng Y, Yi R, Cullen BR (Aug 2003). "MicroRNAs and small interfering RNAs can inhibit mRNA expression ...
*  Piwi
piRNAs have thus been classified as repeat-associated small interfering RNAs (rasiRNAs). Although their biogenesis is not yet ... phosphate of RNA; and the C-terminal PIWI domain acts as an RNase H endonuclease that can cleave RNA. The small RNA partners of ... Kim VN (2006). "Small RNAs just got bigger: Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) in mammalian testes". Genes Dev. 20 (15): 1993-7. ... the argonaute protein in the RISC complex can bind both small interfering RNA (siRNA) generated from exogenous double-stranded ...
*  RRM2B
"Improvement in radiosensitivity using small interfering RNA targeting p53R2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma". Oncology ... "ATM-mediated serine 72 phosphorylation stabilizes ribonucleotide reductase small subunit p53R2 protein against MDM2 to DNA ...
*  RNA polymerase IV
... is an enzyme which synthesizes small interfering RNA (siRNA) in plants. Polymerase IV is specific to plants ... "Role of RNA polymerase IV in plant small RNA metabolism". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 104. doi:10.1073/pnas.0611456104. CS1 maint: ... RNA polymerase silences the transposons and repetitive DNA in the siRNA pathway. The siRNA plays a major role in defending the ... Herr, A. J. , M. B. Jensen, T. Dalmay, and D. C. Baulcombe (2005). "RNA Polymerase IV Directs Silencing of Endogenous DNA". ...
*  LYK5
Removal of endogenous LYK5 by small interfering RNA abrogates LKB1-induced G1 phase arrest. STRADα stabilizes LKB1 protein both ...
*  Gene silencing
The discovery of small interfering RNAs (the specificity determinant in RNA-mediated gene silencing) also utilized virus- ... These small fragments, which include small interfering RNAs (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA), are approximately 21-23 nucleotides ... "Clearance of replicating hepatitis C virus replicon RNAs in cell culture by small interfering RNAs". Proceedings of the ... Lapteva N, Yang AG, Sanders DE, Strube RW, Chen SY (January 2005). "CXCR4 knockdown by small interfering RNA abrogates breast ...
*  Anil Suri
Small interfering RNA-mediated down regulation of Sperm-Associated Antigen 9 inhibits cervix tumor growth. Garg M, Kanojia D, ...
*  Robin Allshire
"Hairpin RNA induces secondary small interfering RNA synthesis and silencing in trans in fission yeast". EMBO Rep. 11: 112. 2010 ... "Long non-coding RNA-mediated transcriptional interference of a permease gene confers drug tolerance in fission yeast". Nat. ... He has provided insight into how transcription and resulting non-coding RNA might influence the assembly of specialised CENP-A ... He has investigated how RNA interference (RNAi) mediates heterochromatin formation and shown that splicing fators contribute to ...
*  RNA
... small interfering RNA (siRNA), small nucleolar RNA (snoRNAs), Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA), tRNA-derived small RNA (tsRNA) and ... According to the length of RNA chain, RNA includes small RNA and long RNA. Usually, small RNAs are shorter than 200 nt in ... Long RNAs, also called large RNAs, mainly include long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) and mRNA. Small RNAs mainly include 5.8S ... Also, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is part of the RNA interference pathway in many organisms. Messenger RNA (mRNA) is the RNA ...
*  Hazara virus
"Inhibition of Hazara nairovirus replication by small interfering RNAs and their combination with ribavirin". Virology Journal. ... The L RNA segment encodes an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L protein), the M RNA segment encodes two surface glycoproteins (Gc ... which are an order of enveloped negative-stranded RNA viruses with a genome split into three parts-Small (S), Middle (M) and ... Bilk, S.; Schulze, C.; Fischer, M.; Beer, M.; Hlinak, A.; Hoffmann, B. (2012). "Organ distribution of Schmallenberg virus RNA ...
*  Interferon
... clinical trials and the preparation of small amounts of interferon messenger RNA to clone the human alpha and beta interferon ... Interferons are named for their ability to "interfere" with viral replication by protecting cells from virus infections. IFNs ... Some viruses can encode proteins that bind to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to prevent the activity of RNA-dependent protein ... RNA interference technology tools such as siRNA or vector-based reagents can either silence or stimulate interferon pathways. ...
*  Epigenetics
Small interfering RNAs can modulate transcriptional gene expression via epigenetic modulation of targeted promoters. Sometimes ... A smaller quantity of sperm RNA is transmitted from the father, but there is recent evidence that this epigenetic information ... Genomics maps for small non-coding RNA's and their targets in microbial genomes Yool A, Edmunds WJ (1998). "Epigenetic ... sRNAs are small (50-250 nucleotides), highly structured, non-coding RNA fragments found in bacteria. They control gene ...