In Arabidopsis and other plant species, the IMEter has been developed to calculate the likelihood that an intron sequence will ... Rose, A (2002). "Requirements for intron-mediated enhancement of gene expression in Arabidopsis". RNA. 8 (11): 1444-53. doi: ... Gallegos, Jenna E.; Rose, Alan B. (2015-08-01). "The enduring mystery of intron-mediated enhancement". Plant Science. 237: 8-15 ... The Plant Journal. 11 (3): 455-464. doi:10.1046/j.1365-313X.1997.11030455.x. PMID 9107035. Jeon, JS; Lee, S; Jung, KH; Jun, SH ...
The RNA polymerase II subunit RPB1 is the largest subunit of the RNA polymerase II. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is encoded ... Kress WJ (2017). "Plant DNA barcodes: Applications today and in the future". Journal of Systematics and Evolution. 55 (4): 291- ... RNA. 3 (4): 543-55. doi:10.1002/wrna.1118. PMC 3374885. PMID 22555874. Meyer W, Irinyi L, Hoang MT, Robert V, Garcia-Hermoso D ... However, its discrimination power is partly superseded by that of the DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB1 (see also ...
... and that they were co-opted in the plant lineage as RNA binding modules by incorporation into diverse protein contexts. Plant ... The diversity of the CRM domain family in plants suggests a diverse set of RNA targets. The CRM domain is a compact alpha/beta ... In molecular biology, the CRM domain is an approximately 100-amino acid RNA-binding domain. The name CRM (chloroplast RNA ... and that the domain was recruited to serve as an RNA binding module during the evolution of plant genomes. YhbY has a fold ...
Chen M, Meng Y, Gu H, Chen D (December 2010). "Functional characterization of plant small RNAs based on next-generation ... RNA. 14 (5): 836-43. doi:10.1261/rna.895308. PMC 2327369. PMID 18356539. Page for MIR396 microRNA precursor family at Rfam v t ... In molecular biology mir-396 microRNA is a short RNA molecule. MicroRNAs function to regulate the expression levels of other ... Hewezi T, Howe P, Maier TR, Baum TJ (December 2008). "Arabidopsis small RNAs and their targets during cyst nematode parasitism ...
Axtell MJ, Snyder JA, Bartel DP (June 2007). "Common functions for diverse small RNAs of land plants". The Plant Cell. 19 (6): ... "Small RNA regulation of ovule development in the cotton plant, G. hirsutum L". BMC Plant Biology. 8: 93. doi:10.1186/1471-2229- ... "Identification of trans-acting siRNAs in moss and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase required for their biogenesis". The Plant ... Li F, Orban R, Baker B (June 2012). "SoMART: a web server for plant miRNA, tasiRNA and target gene analysis". The Plant Journal ...
RNA recombination in animal and plant viruses. Microbiol Rev. 1992 Mar;56(1):61-79. PMID: 1579113; PMCID: PMC372854 Weiss BG, ... end of Sindbis virus genome RNA regulate minus- and plus-strand RNA synthesis". RNA. 7 (11): 1638-1651. doi:10.1017/ ... The genomic RNA is partially translated at the 5' end to produce the non-structural proteins which are then involved in genome ... A non-coding RNA element has been found to be essential for Sindbis virus genome replication. Recombination has been ...
... parallels with spliceosomal U6 RNA". RNA. 12 (2): 235-47. doi:10.1261/rna.2237806. PMC 1370903. PMID 16428604. Valadkhan S (May ... Ahlert D, Piepenburg K, Kudla J, Bock R (July 2006). "Evolutionary origin of a plant mitochondrial group II intron from a ... RNA. 16 (1): 1-9. doi:10.1261/rna.1791310. PMC 2802019. PMID 19948765. Peebles CL, Perlman PS, Mecklenburg KL, Petrillo ML, ... doi:10.4161/rna.7.3.12089. PMID 20458185. de Lencastre A, Hamill S, Pyle AM (July 2005). "A single active-site region for a ...
Many enopleans are parasites of plants and animals, including humans. The orders Triplonchida and Dorylaimida include plant- ... 2012). "Armless mitochondrial tRNAs in Enoplea (Nematoda)". RNA Biology. 9 (9): 1161-66. doi:10.4161/rna.21630. PMC 3579883. ... Nemaplex: Nematode-Plant Expert Information System. University of California, Davis. Version October 4, 2012. Jühling, F.; et ... Nemaplex: Nematode-Plant Expert Information System. University of California, Davis. Version October 4, 2012. Lee 2010, p. 13. ...
RNA silencing mechanisms are also important in the plant systemic response, as they can block virus replication.[40] The ... Most plant immune responses involve systemic chemical signals sent throughout a plant. Plants use pattern-recognition receptors ... Baulcombe D (September 2004). "RNA silencing in plants". Nature. 431 (7006): 356-63. Bibcode:2004Natur.431..356B. doi:10.1038/ ... Plants[edit]. Main article: Plant disease resistance § Immune system. Members of every class of pathogen that infect humans ...
Plant Biology, by the American Society of Plant Biologists (2005). 1965: Ernest Dechelle Prize of the French Academy of ... RNA, proteins; functioning, cell cycle). After simple mitosis surveys for the vegetative point of Bean, quantitative methods ... Arlette Nougarède and her team identify, in the whole plant, regions of constant localization, differentiated into G1 and which ... In the 20th century, histocytology and ontogenic examination made it possible to understand how plant meristems regularly form ...
Baulcombe D (September 2004). "RNA silencing in plants". Nature. 431 (7006): 356-63. Bibcode:2004Natur.431..356B. doi:10.1038/ ... but many plant immune responses involve systemic chemical signals that are sent through a plant. Individual plant cells respond ... When a part of a plant becomes infected, the plant produces a localized hypersensitive response, whereby cells at the site of ... Systemic acquired resistance is a type of defensive response used by plants that renders the entire plant resistant to a ...
Plant viruses induce the rearrangement of membranes structures to form the viroplasm. This is mostly shown for plant RNA ... Viroplasms also control release of virons when the insect stings an infected plant cell or a cell near the infected cells. ... viroplasms from plant viruses have not been as studied as viroplasms from animal viruses. Viroplasms have been found in the ... may help to develop new therapeutic approaches against virus infections in animal and plant cells. Viral evolution Viral ...
... another theory arose that these viruses moved from a plant host to plant pathogenic fungal host or vice versa. This 'plant ... DsRNA as well as ssRNA are assumed to be very ancient and presumably originated from the 'RNA world' as both types of RNA ... "Mycoviruses of filamentous fungi and their relevance to plant pathology". Molecular Plant Pathology. 10 (1): 115-128. doi: ... Many double stranded RNA elements that have been described in fungi do not fit this description, and in these cases they are ...
Trends in Plant Science. 22 (11): 961-975. doi:10.1016/j.tplants.2017.08.011. PMID 28965742.. ... In RNA-Seq, the quantification of expression uses the information of mapped reads that are summarized in some genetic unit, as ... In animal and plant breeding, the use of markers in selection aiming for breeding, mainly the molecular ones, collaborated to ... Studies for differential expression of genes from RNA-Seq data, as for RT-qPCR and microarrays, demands comparison of ...
... (small RNA identified from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris) is a family of trans-acting non-coding RNA (also ... vesicatoria is homologous to two-component response regulators". Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 9 (8): 704-12. doi:10.1094/mpmi-9- ... RNA Biol. 8 (6): 947-53. doi:10.4161/rna.8.6.16690. PMC 3256417. PMID 21941121. Schmidtke C, Findeiß S, Sharma CM, Kuhfuß J, ... 2011). "Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of the plant pathogen Xanthomonas identifies sRNAs with putative virulence functions ...
In higher plants, it was thought that CGG encoded for tryptophan and not arginine; however, the codon in the processed RNA was ... Hiesel R, Wissinger B, Schuster W, Brennicke A (December 1989). "RNA editing in plant mitochondria". Science. 246 (4937): 1632- ... Plant mitochondria can also produce a limited amount of ATP either by breaking the sugar produced during photosynthesis or ... Some of these differences should be regarded as pseudo-changes in the genetic code due to the phenomenon of RNA editing, which ...
"The Conservation and Function of RNA Secondary Structure in Plants". Annual Review of Plant Biology. 67 (1): 463-88. doi: ... Paz I, Kosti I, Ares M, Cline M, Mandel-Gutfreund Y (July 2014). "RBPmap: a web server for mapping binding sites of RNA-binding ... Control of Messenger RNA Stability. 1993. doi:10.1016/c2009-0-03269-3. ISBN 9780120847822. Zuker M (July 2003). "Mfold web ... The dorsal horn shows considerable expression in the cervical spine of adult mouse (P56). RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that bind ...
"Carlavirus Isolation and RNA Extraction." Foster, Gary D. and Sally C. Taylorin. Plant Virology Protocols: From Virus Isolation ... The genome encodes 3 to 6 proteins including a coat protein located at the 3' end and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase located ... Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method ... Plants serve as the natural host. Infection is at times spread by aphids in a semi-persistent mode, that is, the vector is ...
Bonner, James (1994). "Chapters from my life". Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology. 45: 1-23. doi: ... where it is initiated by recruitment of the RNA-induced transcriptional silencing (RITS) complex to double stranded RNAs ... "Huang R C & Bonner J. Histone, a suppressor of chromosomal RNA synthesis. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. US 48:1216-22, 1962" (PDF). ... The formation of this mark is tied to transcription in a rather convoluted manner: early in transcription of a gene, RNA ...
Replication follows the negative stranded RNA virus replication model. Negative stranded rna virus transcription, using ... Plants serve as the natural host. The virus is transmitted via a vector (insect aphid, leafhopper, planthopper, and insect). ... Plants serve as natural hosts. Table legend: "*" denotes type species. Cytorhabdovirions are enveloped, with bullet shaped and ...
Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded rna virus transcription is the method ... Plants serve as natural hosts. There are currently 56 species in this subfamily, divided among 3 genera. The genera Comovirus, ... Plants serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are mechanical. "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. " ...
Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded rna virus transcription is the method ... Plants serve as natural hosts. There are currently six species in this genus including the type species Apple stem pitting ... Plants serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are grafting. "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus ...
Positive stranded RNA virus transcription, using the premature termination model of subgenomic RNA transcription is the method ... Machlomovirus is a genus of plant viruses, in the family Tombusviridae. Plants serve as natural hosts. There is currently only ... Plants serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are mechanical, seed borne, and contact. "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved ... Niblett, C. L.; Claflin, L. E. (1978). "Corn lethal necrosis - a new virus disease of corn in Kansas". Plant Disease Reporter. ...
"Experimental evolution of plant RNA viruses". Heredity. 100 (5): 478-83. doi:10.1038/sj.hdy.6801088. PMC 7094686. PMID 18253158 ... Attenuated RNA virus vaccines can revert to virulent forms. RNA viruses released in nature for pest control purposes can mutate ... The molecular basis of high error rates is the limited template-copying fidelity of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps) and ... RNA-RNA interactions and replicator networks, the error threshold in variable fitness landscapes, consideration of chemical ...
"Experimental evolution of plant RNA viruses". Heredity. 100 (5): 478-483. doi:10.1038/sj.hdy.6801088. PMC 7094686. PMID ... Viruses have enormous populations, are doubtfully living since they consist of little more than a string of DNA or RNA in a ... The nomenclatural codes that guide the naming of species, including the ICZN for animals and the ICN for plants, do not make ... As a rule of thumb, microbiologists have assumed that kinds of Bacteria or Archaea with 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences more ...
To quantify gene expression, the (Cq) for an RNA or DNA from the gene of interest is subtracted from the (Cq) of RNA/DNA from a ... mixed in with the DNA of the host plant. Discrimination between the DNA of the pathogen and the plant is based on the ... The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a common method for amplifying DNA; for RNA-based PCR the RNA sample is first reverse- ... As the process of creating a transgenic plant normally leads to the insertion of more than one copy of the transgene its ...
In plants, starch is used for the same purpose. The most abundant carbohydrate, cellulose, is a structural component of the ... cell wall of plants and many forms of algae. Ribose is a component of RNA. Deoxyribose is a component of DNA. Lyxose is a ... Plant components are consumed by animals and fungi, and used as fuel for cellular respiration. Oxidation of one gram of ... Cellulose, a polysaccharide found in the cell walls of all plants, is one of the main components of insoluble dietary fiber. ...
Chloroplasts also contain a mysterious second RNA polymerase that is encoded by the plant's nuclear genome. The two RNA ... Parasitic plants such as Epifagus virginiana show a loss of RNA editing resulting in a loss of function for photosynthesis ... Takenaka M, Zehrmann A, Verbitskiy D, Härtel B, Brennicke A (2013). "RNA editing in plants and its evolution". Annual Review of ... RNA editing in plastids[edit]. RNA editing is the insertion, deletion, and substitution of nucleotides in a mRNA transcript ...
RNA Biol. 8 (1): 5-10. doi:10.4161/rna.8.1.13865. PMC 3142362. PMID 21317561. "2.A.109 The Tellurium Ion Resistance (TerC) ... Plant J. 55 (3): 428-442. doi:10.1111/j.1365-313X.2008.03523.x. PMID 18429937. Meyer, M.M.; Hammond, M.C.; Salinas, Y.; Roth, A ... The Plant Journal. 55 (3): 428-442. doi:10.1111/j.1365-313X.2008.03523.x. ISSN 1365-313X. PMID 18429937. Turkovicova, L.; ...
US Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). "National Select ... et sua genoma per RNA unius fili sensu negativo scribunt. Duo notissima familiae genera sunt Ebolavirus et Marburgvirus. Ambo ...
3 RNA-Viren *3.1 Doppelsträngige RNA-Viren (dsRNA, double stranded RNA). *3.2 Einzelstrang-RNA-Viren mit negativer Polarität ( ... Virgaviridae: a new Familie of rod-shaped plant viruses. . In: Arch Virol. . 154, Nr. 12, 2009, S. 1967-72. doi:10.1007/s00705- ... ss(−)RNA: negative single-stranded RNA). *3.3 Einzelstrang-RNA-Viren mit positiver Polarität (ss(+)RNA: positive single ... Einzelstrang-RNA-Viren mit negativer Polarität (ss(−)RNA: negative single-stranded RNA)[Bearbeiten , Quelltext bearbeiten]. ...
Finding the virus, viral RNA, or antibodies in blood[1]. Differential diagnosis. Malaria, cholera, typhoid fever, meningitis, ... Of 24 plant and 19 vertebrate species experimentally inoculated with EBOV, only bats became infected.[86] The bats displayed no ... Ebolaviruses contain single-stranded, non-infectious RNA genomes.[46] Ebolavirus genomes contain seven genes including 3'-UTR- ... The specific diagnosis of EVD is confirmed by isolating the virus, detecting its RNA or proteins, or detecting antibodies ...
Chloroplasts also contain a mysterious second RNA polymerase that is encoded by the plant's nuclear genome. The two RNA ... Among land plants, the contents of the chloroplast genome are fairly similar[8]-they code for four ribosomal RNAs, 30-31 tRNAs ... Parasitic plants such as Epifagus virginiana show a loss of RNA editing resulting in a loss of function for photosynthesis ... Takenaka M, Zehrmann A, Verbitskiy D, Härtel B, Brennicke A (2013). "RNA editing in plants and its evolution". Annual Review of ...
RNA editing. Octopuses and other coleoid cephalopods are capable of greater RNA editing (which involves changes to the nucleic ... while at the same time mimicking plant matter.[78] This form of locomotion allows these octopuses to move quickly away from a ... Coleoids rely mostly on ADAR enzymes for RNA editing, which requires large double-stranded RNA structures to flank to the ... High levels of RNA editing do not appear to be present in more basal cephalopods or other molluscs.[118][119] ...
1993). "On the evolution of RNA editing". Trends in Genetics. 9 (8): 265-268. doi:10.1016/0168-9525(93)90011-6.. ... Daniel, Chammiran; Behm, Mikaela; Öhman, Marie (2015). "The role of Alu elements in the cis-regulation of RNA processing". ... RNA editing may have arisen in Trypanosoma brucei.[21][24][23][25][26] ...
First plant genome sequenced, Dec 2000.[9] Plant, Genlisea margaretae 6.34×107 Smallest recorded flowering plant genome, 2006.[ ... The genome of an organism is the whole of its hereditary information encoded in its DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). This ... Plant Biology. 8: 770-777. *↑ The C. elegans sequencing consortium (1998). "Genome sequence of the nematode C. elegans: a ... They include animals, archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes, fungi, algae, plants, plastomes, and protists. Readers must look in the ...
RNA polymerase IV synthesizes siRNA in plants.[5]. *RNA polymerase V synthesizes RNAs involved in siRNA-directed ... Non-coding RNA or "RNA genes". These are a broad class of genes that encode RNA which is not translated into protein. The most ... RNA polymerase III synthesizes tRNAs, rRNA 5S and other small RNAs found in the nucleus and cytosol.[4] ... RNA polymerase (RNAP) in action. It is building a messenger RNA molecule from a DNA helix. Part of the enzyme was made ...
... specializing in ecology and plant population biology (b. 1925). 9 April - Carl Rettenmeyer, American biologist who specialised ... American biochemist who discovered transfer RNA (tRNA) (b. 1921). 6 October - Ruth L. Kirschstein, American pathologist and ...
In vertebrates and plants, five paralogs of RAD51 are expressed in somatic cells, including RAD51B (RAD51L1), RAD51C (RAD51L2 ... messenger RNA. [13]. Breast cancer (progesteron receptor negative). Over-expression. -. messenger RNA. [16]. ... Outside of plants and vertebrates, a much broader diversity of Rad51 recombinase paralog proteins exists. In budding yeast, ...
Cadbury used to make Curly Wurly, Double Decker and Crunchie at the Somerdale Factory, Keynsham until Kraft closed the plant in ... Fourth Element (wet suits) are on the A3083 at Cury, south of RNAS Culdrose and Helston. A.P. Valves make diving equipment in ... "Mini Plant Swindon". MINI. Archived from the original on 14 November 2017. Retrieved 30 December 2017.. ... X-Fab UK (semiconductor fabrication plant, former Plessey Semiconductors) is next to the A386 Bickleigh Cross roundabout; ...
... strand RNA genome is replicated through a double-stranded RNA intermediate that is formed using viral RDRP (RNA-Dependent RNA ... The plant-infecting picorna-like viruses have a number of properties that are distinct from the animal viruses.The ... The mRNA encodes RNA dependent RNA polymerase. This polymerase makes complementary minus strands of RNA, then uses them as ... Genomic RNAs of picornaviruses possess multiple RNA elements and they are required for both negative and plus strand RNA ...
They flourish in Arctic and Antarctic lakes,[12] hotsprings[13] and wastewater treatment plants.[14] They even inhabit the fur ... is toxic to liver and kidney tissue and is thought to inhibit protein synthesis and to covalently modify DNA and/or RNA. There ... Skulberg OM (1996) "Terrestrial and limnic algae and cyanobacteria". In: A Catalogue of Svalvard Plants, Fungi, Algae and ... Rhoades, David F (1979). "Evolution of Plant Chemical Defense against Herbivores". In Rosenthal, Gerald A.; Janzen, Daniel H. ...
... were split off as a third domain because of the large differences in their ribosomal RNA structure. The particular RNA ... Plants and other organisms consume the latter.[181]. In the sulfur cycle, archaea that grow by oxidizing sulfur compounds ... although there are many introns in their transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA genes,[146] and introns may occur in a few protein- ... Werner F (September 2007). "Structure and function of archaeal RNA polymerases". Mol. Microbiol. 65 (6): 1395-404. doi:10.1111/ ...
... the TATA box is found at RNA polymerase II promoter regions, although some in vitro studies have demonstrated that RNA ... Mutations in maize promoters affect the expression of the promoter genes in a plant-organ-specific manner.[29] A duplication of ... "RNA polymerase III accurately initiates transcription from RNA polymerase II promoters in vitro". The Journal of Biological ... TATA-binding protein (TBP) can be recruited in two ways, by SAGA, a cofactor for RNA polymerase II, or by TFIID.[11] When ...
Plant Biology[11]. Plant genome sequencing; epigenetics and stem cell fate; stem cell signaling; plant-environment interactions ... RNA interference (RNAi) and small-RNA biology; DNA replication; RNA splicing; signal transduction; genome structure; non-coding ... increase fruit yield in flowering plants, e.g., tomato. Other initiatives: genetics of aquatic plants for biofuel development; ... "Plant Biology - Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory". Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Retrieved 2018-08-08.. ...
13.0 13.1 13.2 AW Robards (1976) Plasmodesmata in higher plants. In: Intercellular communications in plants: studies on ... 原生質絲可以讓蛋白質(包括轉錄因子)、小干擾RNA、mRNA和病毒的基因組在細胞內流通。其中一個病毒的運動蛋白例子是MP-30。MP-30可結合病毒的基因組,並且將病毒的基因組經由原生質絲傳入未受感染的細胞。[14]Flowering Locus T ... Plant Biology. 2001, 3: 223-33. doi:10.1055/s-2001-15204.. *^ Lucas W., Ding, B. and Van
In the mid-Permian, coal-age flora are replaced by cone-bearing gymnosperms (the first true seed plants) and by the first true ... The first life forms and self-replicating RNA molecules evolve around 4,000 Ma, after the Late Heavy Bombardment ends on Earth ... Flowering plants proliferate, along with new types of insects. More modern teleost fish begin to appear. Ammonoidea, belemnites ... First vascular plants (the rhyniophytes and their relatives), first millipedes and arthropleurids on land. First jawed fishes, ...
"for his researches on plant pigments, especially سبزینه"[۲۰] ۱۹۱۸ فریتس هابر[۱] آلمان "for the synthesis of ammonia from its ... "for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"[۳۳] ۱۹۹۲ رادولف مارکوس[۱] United States "for his contributions to the ... "for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants"[۲۳] ۱۹۶۲ ماکس پراتز[۲۴] United Kingdom "for their studies of the ... "for his discovery of آران‌ای سرکوبگر - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"[۷۹] ...
The NSs protein is also a non-structural protein and contributes to suppression of RNA silencing during plant infection. ... Typically thrips feeding alone on soybean plants does not cause economic damage, however it may if the plant is under some ... The L segment is 9010 nt and encodes for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The M segment is 4955 nt and to encode for ... Adult thrips are then able via feeding to transmit the virus to the plant host. It is important to keep in mind with this ...
Evert RF, Eichhorn SE (2006). Esau's Plant Anatomy: Meristems, Cells, and Tissues of the Plant Body: Their Structure, Function ... Corpas FJ (2015). "What is the role of hydrogen peroxide in plant peroxisomes?". Plant Biol (Stuttg). 17 (6): 1099-103. doi: ... "Peroxisomes as a source of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide signal molecules in plant cells". Trends in Plant Science. ... "Frontiers in Plant Science. 5: 97. doi:10.3389/fpls.2014.00097. PMC 3956114. PMID 24672535.. ...
"Analysis of a silane explosion in a photovoltaic fabrication plant". Process Safety Progress. 25 (3): 237-244. doi:10.1002/prs. ... "Revisiting of a silane explosion in a photovoltaic fabrication plant". Process Safety Progress. 26 (2): 155-158. doi:10.1002/ ...
Plant sources[edit]. Ficus carica (fig) is probably the most abundant source of psoralens. They are also found in small ... Research on psoralen has historically focused on interactions with DNA and RNA (in particular, ICL formation). Psoralen, ... and therefore have been used extensively for the analysis of interactions and structures for both DNA and RNA.[26][27] ... "RNA Duplex Map in Living Cells Reveals Higher-Order Transcriptome Structure". Cell. 165 (5): 1267-1279. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ...
RNA: consists of a dimer RNA. It has a cap at the 5' end and a poly(A) tail at the 3' end. The RNA genome also has terminal ... These inserts are transcribed by enzymes of the host into new RNA molecules that enter the cytosol. Next, some of these RNA ... In most viruses, DNA is transcribed into RNA, and then RNA is translated into protein. However, retroviruses function ... While transcription was classically thought to occur only from DNA to RNA, reverse transcriptase transcribes RNA into DNA. The ...
THE PLANT CELL ONLINE. 1990, roč. 2, čís. 4, s. 279-289. DOI:10.1105/tpc.2.4.279.. ... RNA interference (z angl., česky doslova „rušení RNA"), zkratka RNAi, je relativně nedávno objasněný proces, kterým je ... Animace znázorňující RNA-interfernci z nakladatelství NATURE REVIEWS. *Objev RNA Interference (vyžaduje Flash), z Howard Hughes ... V tomto článku byl použit překlad textu z článku RNA interference na anglické Wikipedii. ...
Werner F (2007). "Structure and function of archaeal RNA polymerases". Mol. Microbiol. 65 (6): 1395-404. PMID 17697097. doi: ... Simon HM, Dodsworth JA, Goodman RM (2000). "Crenarchaeota colonize terrestrial plant roots". Environ. Microbiol. 2 (5): 495-505 ... 2008). "Characterization of the methanogenic Archaea within two-phase biogas reactor systems operated with plant biomass". Syst ... "A putative RNA-interference-based immune system in prokaryotes: computational analysis of the predicted enzymatic machinery, ...
೪೧.೦ ೪೧.೧ Eddy SR (December 2001). "Non-coding RNA genes and the modern RNA world". Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (12): 919-29. doi: ... Puchta, H.; Fauser, F. (2013). "Gene targeting in plants: 25 years later". Int. J. Dev. Biol 57 (6-7-8): 629-637. doi:10.1387/ ... ೯೦.೦ ೯೦.೧ Claverie JM (September 2005). "Fewer genes, more noncoding RNA". Science 309 (5740): 1529-30. Bibcode:2005Sci... ... Domingo, E; Escarmís, C; Sevilla, N; Moya, A; Elena, SF; Quer, J; Novella, IS; Holland, JJ (June 1996). "Basic concepts in RNA ...
ingesting contaminated plants Foodborne illnesses (commonly diarrheal diseases) Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, ... but there is increasing evidence from DNA and RNA sequencing, that measles, smallpox, influenza, HIV, and diphtheria came to ...