*Plant virus

75% of plant viruses have genomes that consist of single stranded RNA (ssRNA). 65% of plant viruses have +ssRNA, meaning that ... Plants do not move, and so plant-to-plant transmission usually involves vectors (such as insects). Plant cells are surrounded ... Plant viruses are pathogenic to higher plants. Although plant viruses are not nearly as well understood as the animal ... Plant viruses are viruses that affect plants. Like all other viruses, plant viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that ...

*Negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus

Viruses of the family Tenuivirus only infect plants. A few viruses known to infect humans include Marburg virus, Ebola, measles ... The virus uses its own RNA replicase, also known as RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), to form positive RNA template strands ... The negative viral RNA is complementary to the mRNA and must be converted to a positive RNA by RNA polymerase before ... Negative sense ssRNA viruses need RNA polymerase to form a positive sense RNA. The positive-sense RNA acts as a viral mRNA, ...

*Caulimoviridae

Plants and insects serve as natural hosts. There are currently 53 species in this family, divided among 8 genera. Viruses ... The viral DNA is transcribed into polyadenylated RNA which is terminally redundant (due to transcription occurring twice for ... This family contains all plant viruses that consist of a double-stranded DNA genome that has a reverse transcribing phase in ... As replication requires the use of RNA intermediate, viruses from the Caulimoviridae family are not true dsDNA viruses - ...

*Positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus

Positive-sense ssRNA viruses are the most common type of plant virus. Members of the (+)ssRNA picornavirus group are also ... All positive-sense ssRNA virus genomes encode RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP), a viral protein that synthesizes RNA from an ... Single stranded RNA viruses are classified as positive or negative depending on the sense or polarity of the RNA. The positive- ... A positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus (or (+)ssRNA virus) is a virus that uses positive sense, single-stranded RNA as its ...

*Small nucleolar RNA snoR9 plant

... of other small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs). It is known as a small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) and also often referred to as a 'guide RNA ... O-methylation of substrate RNAs. This plant snoRNA was identified in Arabidopsis thaliana by computational screening and ... snoR9 is a non-coding RNA (ncRNA) which functions in the biogenesis (modification) ... Page for Small nucleolar RNA snoR9 at Rfam. ... O-Methylation of Target RNA in Vitro". Molecular and Cellular ...

*Plant small nucleolar RNA R71

Page for Plant small nucleolar RNA R71 at Rfam plant snoRNA database. ... small nucleolar RNA R71 (also known as snoRNA R71) is a non-coding RNA (ncRNA) molecule which functions in the modification of ... It is known as a small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) and also often referred to as a guide RNA. R71 belongs to the C/D box class of ... "Site-specific ribose methylation of preribosomal RNA: a novel function for small nucleolar RNAs". Cell. 85 (7): 1077-88. doi: ...

*Tombusviridae

RNA copies. Research has shown that infection of plants from tombusviruses contain defective interfering RNAs that are born ... Evolutionary relationship between luteoviruses and other RNA plant viruses based on sequence motifs in their putative RNA ... Viral DI RNAs with their small size and cis-acting elements are good templates both in vivo and in vitro on which to study RNA ... Tombusviridae is a family of single-stranded positive sense RNA plant viruses. There are currently 71 species in this family, ...

*Brome mosaic virus

The sequence similarities of RNA replication genes and strategies for BMV have been shown to extend to a wide range of plant ... involved in RNA capping. RNA2 (2.9 kb) encodes the 2a protein (94 kDa), the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, responsible for ... Brome mosaic virus (BMV) is a small (28 nm, 86S), positive-stranded, icosahedral RNA plant virus belonging to the genus ... 3a and coat protein are essential for systemic infection in plants but not RNA replication. Lucas, R. W.; Larson, S. B.; ...

*Species

"Experimental evolution of plant RNA viruses". Heredity. 100 (5): 478-483. doi:10.1038/sj.hdy.6801088. Barton, N. H. (June 2010 ... The nomenclatural codes that guide the naming of species, including the ICZN for animals and the ICN for plants, do not make ... Viruses have enormous populations, are doubtfully living since they consist of little more than a string of DNA or RNA in a ... As a rule of thumb, microbiologists have assumed that kinds of Bacteria or Archaea with 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences more ...

*Rice stripe virus

... is an RNA plant pathogen of the genus Tenuivirus. RSV is prevalent in Japan, China, and Korea and can infect plants of the ... RNA 1 is negative sense and encodes a protein that is part of the RNA polymerase. RNA 2 and RNA 4: These strands are ambisense ... If the plants grow, they produce few, if any, tillers and panicles with empty spikelets. Infected mature plants do not have ... This allows the plants to grow past the tillering stage by the time planthoppers immigrate from wheat and barley plants. Xiong ...

*Emaravirus

Mielke-Ehret, N; Mühlbach, HP (Sep 2012). "Emaravirus: a novel genus of multipartite, negative strand RNA plant viruses". ... The 3' and 5' ends of the genomic RNAs are complementary (similar to viruses of the Bunyaviridae family), with the sequence 5'- ... Emaravirus is a genus of plant viruses. The genus has five species: European mountain ash ringspot-associated virus (type ... The genomes are segmented, consisting of four strands of negative-sense single-stranded RNA. Emaravirus has the closest ...

*Cap-independent translation element

... is an RNA sequence found in the 3'UTR of many RNA plant viruses. Eukaryotic mRNAs contain a 5' cap structure which is required ... Nicholson, BL; White, KA (Nov 2011). "3' Cap-independent translation enhancers of positive-strand RNA plant viruses". Current ... untranslated regions of plant viral RNAs". Biochemical Society Transactions. 35 (Pt 6): 1629-33. doi:10.1042/BST0351629. PMC ... Many plant viral mRNAs contain a cap-independent translation element. These elements mediate initiation of translation of the ...

*Viroplasm

Plant viruses induce the rearrangement of membranes structures to form the viroplasm. This is mostly shown for plant RNA ... Viroplasms also control release of virons when the insect stings an infected plant cell or a cell near the infected cells. ... viroplasms from plant viruses have not been as studied as viroplasms from animal viruses. Viroplasms have been found in the ... may help to develop new therapeutic approaches against virus infections in animal and plant cells. Viral evolution Viral ...

*Arthur G. Hunt

His interests are mRNA 3' end formation and polyadenylation, and plant RNA processing. His highest cited paper is "Design and ... The Plant Cell 29, 1262-1277. Majee, M., Wu, S., Salaita, L., Gingerich, D., Dirk, L. M. A., Chappell J., Hunt, A. G., Vierstra ... Plant Gene 10, 74-85. Chakrabarti, M., Dinkins, R. D., and Hunt, A. G. (2016) De novo transcriptome assembly and dynamic ... Arthur G. Hunt is an American plant and soils scientist currently Professor at University of Kentucky and an Elected Fellow of ...

*Fig mosaic virus

... segmented RNA plant viruses. Emaraviruses all contain four to six genome segments. They are also common in their mode of ... FMV vcRNA 1 codes for RNA dependent RNA polymerase protein (RdRp), which has endonuclease function at its N terminus and is ... Negative-Sense RNA Virus Associated with Fig Mosaic". Plant Disease. 93 (1): 1-10. doi:10.1094/PDIS-93-1-0004. Elbeaino, T; ... is common to all viruses of genus Emaravirus and codes for the virus's 264 kDa RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), which has ...

*Satellite (biology)

"Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses of Plants". Viruses. 1 (3): 1325-1350. doi:10.3390/v1031325. "Hepatitis D Virus". web. ... RNAs Arabis mosaic virus large satellite RNA Bamboo mosaic virus satellite RNA Chicory yellow mottle virus large satellite RNA ... RNA Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV satellite RNA Chicory yellow mottle virus satellite RNA Hepatitis D satellite virus RNA ... small satellite RNA Peanut stunt virus satellite RNA Turnip crinkle virus satellite RNA Tomato bushy stunt virus satellite RNA ...

*Trans-acting siRNA

Axtell, Michael J. (29 April 2013). "Classification and Comparison of Small RNAs from Plants". Annual Review of Plant Biology. ... "Identification of trans-acting siRNAs in moss and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase required for their biogenesis". Plant J. 48 ( ... Initial descriptions found involvement of the plant protein suppressor of gene silencing 3 (SGS3), and the enzyme RNA-dependant ... and other plants. TAS3 trans-acting short-interfering RNA targeting auxin response factors ("tasiR-ARF") is an example of a ta- ...

*Hairpin ribozyme

Symons, RH (1997). "Plant pathogenic RNAs and RNA catalysis". Nucleic Acids Res. 25 (14): 2683-2689. doi:10.1093/nar/25.14.2683 ... The hairpin ribozyme is an RNA motif that catalyzes RNA processing reactions essential for replication of the satellite RNA ... Like the hammerhead ribozyme it is found in RNA satellites of plant viruses. It was first identified in the minus strand of the ... This is a commonly used strategy for separating those parts of a self-processing RNA molecule that are essential for the RNA ...

*Orchid fleck virus

Peng DW, Zheng GH, Zheng ZZ, Tong QX, Ming YL 2013 Orchid fleck virus: an unclassified bipartite, negative-sense RNA plant ... RNA-dependent RNA polymerase) Chlorotic and necrotic flecks, spots, and/or ringspots, as well as yellow flecks or spots are all ... mites or other infected plants) Ensure proper environment for cultivation Work towards developing OFV-resistant plants through ... J Gen Plant Pathol 75:250-255. Kondo H, Maeda T, Shirako Y, Tamada T 2006. Orchid fleck virus is a rhabdovirus with an unusual ...

*Innate immune system

RNA silencing mechanisms are also important in the plant systemic response, as they can block virus replication. The jasmonic ... Most plant immune responses involve systemic chemical signals sent throughout a plant. Plants use pattern-recognition receptors ... Baulcombe D (2004). "RNA silencing in plants". Nature. 431 (7006): 356-63. doi:10.1038/nature02874. PMID 15372043. ... see: plant defense against herbivory). Like invertebrates, plants neither generate antibody or T-cell responses nor possess ...

*Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge

subscription required) Baulcombe, D. (2004). "RNA silencing in plants". Nature. 431 (7006): 356-363. doi:10.1038/nature02874. ... More recently, the department has been home to: John C. Gray Emeritus Professor of Plant Molecular Biology since 2011 Thomas ap ... Coordinates: 52°12′10″N 0°07′17″E / 52.202896°N 0.12150384°E / 52.202896; 0.12150384 The Department of Plant Sciences is a ... subscription required) Anon (2017). "People in the Department of Plant Sciences". plantsci.cam.ac.uk. Cambridge: University of ...

*Immune system

... is a type of defensive response used by plants that renders the entire plant resistant to a particular infectious agent. RNA ... but many plant immune responses involve systemic chemical signals that are sent through a plant. Individual plant cells respond ... Baulcombe D (Sep 2004). "RNA silencing in plants". Nature. 431 (7006): 356-63. Bibcode:2004Natur.431..356B. doi:10.1038/ ... When a part of a plant becomes infected, the plant produces a localized hypersensitive response, whereby cells at the site of ...

*Sunn-hemp mosaic virus

Plants do have a natural defense in the form of a protein coating that protects the plants RNA. Different strains have varying ... This mean that touching an infected plant, then touching a healthy plant could cause the healthy plant to contract the virus. ... from plant to plant, just by flying around and making contact between plants. Hemp mosaic virus is particularly resilient and ... Using tools to trim an infected plant, then using them on a healthy plant without sterilizing them between uses can result in ...

*Hammerhead ribozyme

... hammerhead ribozymes RNAs were originally discovered in two classes of plant virus-like RNAs: satellite RNAs and viroids. They ... Of the three possible topological types, type I can be found in the genomes of prokaryotes, eukaryotes and RNA plant pathogens ... In 1986, the first hammerhead ribozymes were found in some RNA plant pathogens like viroids and viral satellites. One year ... Prody GA, Bakos JT, Buzayan JM, Schneider IR, Bruening G (1986). "Autolytic Processing of Dimeric Plant Virus Satellite RNA". ...

*RNA polymerase IV

... is an enzyme which synthesizes small interfering RNA (siRNA) in plants. Polymerase IV is specific to plants ... "Role of RNA polymerase IV in plant small RNA metabolism". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 104. doi:10.1073/pnas.0611456104. CS1 maint: ... "Interplay of RNA Pol IV and ROS1 During Post-Embryonic 5S rDNA Chromatin Remodeling". Plant and Cell Physiology. 49. CS1 maint ... RNA polymerase silences the transposons and repetitive DNA in the siRNA pathway. The siRNA plays a major role in defending the ...

*Sequence motif

The planted motif search is another motif discovery method that is based on combinatorial approach. Motifs have also been ... Some of these are believed to affect the shape of nucleic acids (see for example RNA self-splicing), but this is only sometimes ...

*Cloverleaf model of tRNA

"A Survey of TRNA Mimicry: Structural Studies of Plant Viral RNA". books.google.co.uk. Retrieved June 2, 2015. ...