Bacterial, archaeal and plant plastid 11 See translation table 1. Alternative yeast nuclear 12 CTG CUG Ser (S) Leu (L) ... In RNA, it is replaced with uracil (U).[16] This is the only difference between the standard RNA codon table and the standard ... Standard RNA codon table[edit]. Amino-acid biochemical properties Nonpolar Polar Basic Acidic ↓ Termination: stop codon * ... RNA codon involved Translation with this code Standard translation Notes Standard 1 Includes translation table 8 (plant ...
"Large variations in bacterial ribosomal RNA genes". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 29 (10): 2937-48. doi:10.1093/molbev/ ... The two RNA polymerases may recognize and bind to different kinds of promoters within the chloroplast genome.[85] The ribosomes ... Chloroplasts make all of a cell's purines and pyrimidines-the nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA.[158] They also convert ... Protein synthesis within chloroplasts relies on two RNA polymerases. One is coded by the chloroplast DNA, the other is of ...
Small RNA[edit]. Bacterial small RNAs play important roles in many cellular processes; 11 small RNAs have been experimentally ... Type strain of Enterococcus faecalis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase ... "Small RNAs in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium involved in daptomycin response and resistance". Scientific Reports. 7 ... "Genome-Wide Identification of Small RNAs in the Opportunistic Pathogen Enterococcus faecalis V583". PLOS ONE. 6 (9): e23948. ...
RNA editing in plastids[edit]. RNA editing is the insertion, deletion, and substitution of nucleotides in a mRNA transcript ... Because it is similar to bacterial amino acid transporters and the mitochondrial import protein Tim17[42] (translocase on the i ... This includes four ribosomal RNAs, approximately 30 tRNAs, 21 ribosomal proteins, and 4 subunits of the plastid-encoded RNA ... Chloroplasts also contain a mysterious second RNA polymerase that is encoded by the plant's nuclear genome. The two RNA ...
Mehta, Preeti; Woo, Perry; Venkataraman, Krithika; Karzai, A. Wali (2012). Bacterial Regulatory RNA. Methods in Molecular ...
She has also played a major role in the discovery and characterization of bacterial small RNAs. Gottesman was born on May 19, ... Small RNA are short RNA sequences that have a wide variety of functions within cells. They have been shown to be vital in cell ... The small RNAs have also been shown to be a factor in certain diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and liver disease. The ATP- ... The DsrA small RNA helps to translate the RpoS factor by binding to the RpoS leader sequence. Elected to the National Academy ...
Bacterial Regulatory RNA. Methods in Molecular Biology. 905. pp. 273-89. doi:10.1007/978-1-61779-949-5_18. ISBN 978-1-61779-948 ... Dirks-Hofmeister ME, Kolkenbrock S, Moerschbacher BM (2013). "Parameters that enhance the bacterial expression of active plant ... "Ribosome purification approaches for studying interactions of regulatory proteins and RNAs with the ribosome". ...
"A programmable dual-RNA-guided DNA endonuclease in adaptive bacterial immunity". Science. 337 (6096): 816-21. Bibcode:2012Sci ... Chen I, Dubnau D (March 2004). "DNA uptake during bacterial transformation". Nature Reviews. Microbiology. 2 (3): 241-9. doi: ... In 2010, scientists at the J. Craig Venter Institute created the first synthetic genome and inserted it into an empty bacterial ... July 2010). "Creation of a bacterial cell controlled by a chemically synthesized genome". Science. 329 (5987): 52-6. Bibcode: ...
For RNA-based phages, RNA replicase is synthesized early in the process. Proteins modify the bacterial RNA polymerase so it ... ICTV classification of prokaryotic (bacterial and archaeal) viruses[1] Order. Family. Morphology. Nucleic acid. Examples ... RNA phage such as MS2 have the smallest genomes of only a few kilobases. However, some DNA phages such as T4 may have large ... "Novel Phage Therapy Saves Patient with Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Infection". UC Health - UC San Diego. Retrieved 2018-05-13 ...
Bacterial small RNA Wen, Y; Feng, J; Scott, DR; Marcus, EA; Sachs, G (January 2011). "A cis-encoded antisense small RNA ... In molecular biology, 5' ureB sRNA is a small RNA. It is located at the 5' end of the ureB gene in the urease gene cluster, and ... Wen, Y; Feng, J; Sachs, G (February 2013). "Helicobacter pylori 5'ureB-sRNA, a cis-encoded antisense small RNA, negatively ...
No evidence of RNA alternate splicing was determined. Kagachi, Chihiro (2007). "A Comparison of Bacterial Genomes". Seikagaku- ...
Some bacterial heat shock proteins are upregulated via a mechanism involving RNA thermometers such as the FourU thermometer, ... Narberhaus F (2010). "Translational control of bacterial heat shock and virulence genes by temperature-sensing mRNAs". RNA ... 7 (1): 84-9. doi:10.4161/rna.7.1.10501. PMID 20009504.. *^ Walter S, Buchner J (April 2002). "Molecular chaperones--cellular ... HSF1 inhibition by a potent RNA aptamer attenuates mitogenic (MAPK) signaling and induces cancer cell apoptosis.[34] ...
... Bacterial small RNA. (Lister 1873). Schleifer et al. 1986. Subspecies. ... "RNA Biology. 13 (3): 353-366. doi:10.1080/15476286.2016.1146855. ISSN 1547-6286. PMC 4829306 . PMID 26950529.. ... "Transcriptome landscape of Lactococcus lactis reveals many novel RNAs including a small regulatory RNA involved in carbon ... Hundreds of novel small RNAs were identified by Meulen et al. in the genome of L. lactis MG1363. One of them: LLnc147 was shown ...
Ames TD, Breaker RR (January 2011). "Bacterial aptamers that selectively bind glutamine". RNA Biol. 8 (1): 82-89. doi:10.4161/ ... functions as an RNA structure. A distinct predicted non-coding RNA called yfr14 overlaps both yfr6 and Downstream-peptide RNAs ... Downstream-peptide RNAs overlap a predicted non-coding RNA called yfr6 that is over 200 nucleotides in length, but it was ... The Downstream-peptide motif has a structural resemblance to a different candidate RNA structure called the glnA RNA motif ...
"Predicting bacterial infection outcomes using single cell RNA-sequencing analysis of human immune cells". Nature Communications ... To target larger non-poly(A) RNAs, such as long non-coding mRNA, histone mRNA, circular RNA, and enhancer RNA, size selection ... Standard methods such as microarrays and bulk RNA-seq analysis analyze the expression of RNAs from large populations of cells. ... Current scRNA-seq protocols involve isolating single cells and their RNA, and then following the same steps as bulk RNA-seq: ...
Bacterial small RNAs (sRNA) are an important class of regulatory molecules. Many Brucella sRNAs have been identified. Infection ...
Bacterial small RNAs play critical roles in virulence and stress/adaptation responses. Although their specific functions have ... "Bacterial small RNAs in the Genus Rickettsia". BMC Genomics. 16: 1075. doi:10.1186/s12864-015-2293-7. ISSN 1471-2164. PMC ... 1989). Approved Lists of Bacterial Names (amended ed.). Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology. Truper H.G.; De' ... the bacterial genus Rickettsia was named after Howard Taylor Ricketts, in honor of his pioneering work on tick-borne spotted ...
"Bacterial Genome Containing Chimeric DNA-RNA Sequences". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 140 (36): 11464-11473. doi: ... One goal of this work is to culture the yeast-bacteria hybrids and see whether the bacterial genome evolves to increase the ... A bacterial organism has been generated which biosynthesizes a novel, previously unnatural amino acid (p-aminophenylalanine) ... and bacteria whose chromosomes are hybrids which include both RNA and DNA. In order to probe details of the traditionally ...
Kortmann J, Narberhaus F (March 2012). "Bacterial RNA thermometers: molecular zippers and switches". Nature Reviews. ... Upstream activation sequence RNA List of cis-regulatory RNA elements Polyadenylation signals, mRNA AU-rich element, mRNA Other ... Only once this region has been bound with the appropriate set of TFs, and in the proper order, can RNA polymerase bind and ... The term "silencer" can also refer to a region in the 3' untranslated region of messenger RNA, that binds proteins which ...
The genome has one open reading frame which encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The genome is associated with the ... 2020). "Narnaviruses: Novel players in fungal-bacterial symbioses". The ISME Journal. doi:10.1038/s41396-020-0638-y.CS1 maint: ... Replication follows the positive-strand RNA virus replication model. Positive-strand RNA virus transcription is the method of ... The genus has two species: Narnaviridae Narnavirus Saccharomyces 20S RNA narnavirus Saccharomyces 23S RNA narnavirus ICTV. " ...
Lim K, Furuta Y, Kobayashi I (October 2012). "Large variations in bacterial ribosomal RNA genes". Molecular Biology and ... tRNA replication origin regions tRNA small RNA ribosomal protein replication origin regions ribosomal RNA tRNAs ribosomal RNA ... The two RNA polymerases may recognize and bind to different kinds of promoters within the chloroplast genome. The ribosomes in ... While similar to bacterial ribosomes, chloroplast translation is more complex than in bacteria, so chloroplast ribosomes ...
Hausner, Georg; Hafez, Mohamed; Edgell, David R. (2014-03-10). "Bacterial group I introns: mobile RNA catalysts". Mobile DNA. 5 ... Viruses: They are viral agents composed of a molecule of genetic material (DNA or RNA) and with the ability to form complex ... Satellite nucleic acids: they are DNA or RNA molecules, which are encapsidated as a stowaway in the virions of certain helper ... Retroposons: they are exclusive transposons of mammals that move in the genome, being transcribed into DNA and then into RNA, ...
"Tertiary structure of bacterial selenocysteine tRNA". Nucleic Acids Research. 41 (13): 6729-6738. doi:10.1093/nar/gkt321. PMC ... A transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA and formerly referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA[1]) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, ... doi:10.4161/rna.27177. PMC 3917982 . PMID 24351723.. *^ a b Shigematsu Megumi; et al. (2014). "Transfer RNA as a source of ... In eukaryotic cells, tRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase III as pre-tRNAs in the nucleus.[50] RNA polymerase III recognizes ...
Lactis-leu-phe leader RNA motif Attenuation in eukaryotes[edit]. Research conducted on microRNA processing showed an evidence ... Attenuation (in genetics) is a proposed mechanism of control in some bacterial operons which results in premature termination ... When the RNA polymerase binds and transcribes the trp gene, the ribosome will start translating. (This differs from eukaryotic ... In this situation RNA polymerase is dependent on (lagging) ribosome activity; if the ribosome pauses due to insufficient ...
Advances in confocal microscopy at the end of the 20th century identified proteins, RNA or carbohydrates localising to many non ... Muthunayake, Nisansala S.; Tomares, D.T; Childers, W. Seth; Schrader, Jared M. (May 2020). "Phase‐separated bacterial ... Bacteria Ribonucleoprotein Bodies (BR-bodies)- In recent studies it has been shown that bacteria RNA degradosomes can assemble ... RNA and other biopolymers into either colloidal emulsions, liquid crystals, solid crystals or aggregates within cells. The ...
Bechhofer DH, Deutscher MP (June 2019). "Bacterial ribonucleases and their roles in RNA metabolism". Critical Reviews in ... Hsiao YY, Yang CC, Lin CL, Lin JL, Duh Y, Yuan HS (April 2011). "Structural basis for RNA trimming by RNase T in stable RNA 3'- ... It is inhibited by both double stranded DNA and RNA, as well as cytosine residues on the 3' end of RNA. Two cytosines at the 3 ... Li Z, Pandit S, Deutscher MP (January 1999). "Maturation of 23S ribosomal RNA requires the exoribonuclease RNase T". RNA. 5 (1 ...
Molecular modeling of RNA polymerase. Molecular modeling of a bacterial DNA primase template. Molecular modeling of DNA ... These include computer molecular models of molecules as varied as RNA polymerase, an E. coli, bacterial DNA primase template ...
Bacillus subtilis sRNAs Bacterial small RNA Brucella sRNA Caenorhabditis elegans sRNA Escherichia coli sRNA Pseudomonaa sRNA ... Livny J, Waldor MK (April 2007). "Identification of small RNAs in diverse bacterial species". Current Opinion in Microbiology. ... The small RNA (sRNA) families were identified through RNomics - the direct analysis of RNA molecules isolated from cultures of ... "A screen for non-coding RNA in Mycobacterium tuberculosis reveals a cAMP-responsive RNA that is expressed during infection". ...
Peters, JM; Vangeloff, AD; Landick, R (7 October 2011). "Bacterial transcription terminators: the RNA 3'-end chronicles". ... In intrinsic termination, the RNA transcript doubles back and base pairs with itself, creating an RNA stem-loop, or hairpin, ... This bacteriophage protein 7 stops transcription termination by blocking the RNA polymerase (RNAP) RNA-exit channel and ... allowing it to unwind and dissociate from the RNA polymerase. Overall, the modified RNA structure is what terminates ...
"Structural organization of bacterial RNA polymerase holoenzyme and the RNA polymerase-promoter open complex". Cell. 108 (5): ... the demonstration that bacterial transcription-translation coupling involves direct physical bridging of RNA polymerase and a ... and the identification of novel antibacterial drug targets in bacterial RNA polymerase. In 1994, Ebright was awarded the ... "Opening and closing of the bacterial RNA polymerase clamp". Science. 337 (6094): 591-595. Bibcode:2012Sci...337..591C. doi: ...
Finding the virus, viral RNA, or antibodies in blood[1]. Differential diagnosis. Malaria, cholera, typhoid fever, meningitis, ... balance as well as treating any bacterial infections that may develop.[33] Dialysis may be needed for kidney failure, and ... Ebolaviruses contain single-stranded, non-infectious RNA genomes.[46] Ebolavirus genomes contain seven genes including 3'-UTR- ... The specific diagnosis of EVD is confirmed by isolating the virus, detecting its RNA or proteins, or detecting antibodies ...
RNA editing in plastidsEdit. RNA editing is the insertion, deletion, and substitution of nucleotides in a mRNA transcript prior ... Because it is similar to bacterial amino acid transporters and the mitochondrial import protein Tim17[38] (translocase on the i ... Chloroplasts also contain a mysterious second RNA polymerase that is encoded by the plant's nuclear genome. The two RNA ... Among land plants, the contents of the chloroplast genome are fairly similar[8]-they code for four ribosomal RNAs, 30-31 tRNAs ...
1993). "On the evolution of RNA editing". Trends in Genetics. 9 (8): 265-268. doi:10.1016/0168-9525(93)90011-6.. ... "Being Pathogenic, Plastic, and Sexual while Living with a Nearly Minimal Bacterial Genome". PLoS Genet. 3 (5): e75. doi ... Daniel, Chammiran; Behm, Mikaela; Öhman, Marie (2015). "The role of Alu elements in the cis-regulation of RNA processing". ... RNA editing may have arisen in Trypanosoma brucei.[21][24][23][25][26] ...
The genome of an organism is the whole of its hereditary information encoded in its DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). This ... Smallest angiosperm genomes found in Lentibulariaceae, with chromosomes of bacterial size. Plant Biology. 8: 770-777. ... 1976). "Complete nucleotide-sequence of bacteriophage MS2-RNA - primary and secondary structure of replicase gene". Nature. 260 ...
Single-molecule RNA FISH[edit]. Single-molecule RNA FISH, also known as Stellaris® RNA FISH,[11] is a method of detecting and ... Bacterial FISH probes are often primers for the 16s rRNA region. FISH is widely used in the field of microbial ecology, to ... doi:10.1261/rna.2701111. PMC 3096040. PMID 21518807.. *^ a b c Bernasconi, B.; Karamitopolou-Diamantiis, E.; Tornillo, L.; ... RNA Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization for the Simultaneous Detection of Immature and Mature Long Noncoding RNAs in Adherent ...
Abel-Santos, E (editor) (2012). Bacterial Spores: Current Research and Applications. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-908230- ... and the sigma factor subunits of RNA polymerase. ... Gram-negative bacteria only: Bacterial outer membrane *Porin. * ... Further information: Bacterial morphological plasticity. Under conditions of starvation, especially the lack of carbon and ... While the rest of a bacterial cell may stain, the endospore is left colourless. To combat this, a special stain technique ...
Loman, N.J.; Quick, J.; Simpson, J.T. (2015). "A complete bacterial genome assembled de novo using only nanopore sequencing ... and polyuridylic acid as homopolymers or as segments within single RNA molecules". Biophysical Journal. 77 (6): 3227-3233. doi: ... could distinguish between purine and pyrimidine bases in single RNA molecules. In 2007, Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) ...
All are similar and related to each other and to bacterial RNAP:. *RNA polymerase I synthesizes a pre-rRNA which will form the ... Non-coding RNA or "RNA genes". These are a broad class of genes that encode RNA which is not translated into protein. The most ... RNA polymerase IV synthesizes siRNA in plants.[5]. *RNA polymerase V synthesizes RNAs involved in siRNA-directed ... RNA polymerase III synthesizes tRNAs, rRNA 5S and other small RNAs found in the nucleus and cytosol.[4] ...
... family members are homologous to the bacterial RecA, Archaeal RadA and yeast Rad51.[5][6] The protein is highly conserved ... messenger RNA. [13]. Breast cancer (progesteron receptor negative). Over-expression. -. messenger RNA. [16]. ...
Transcription in archaea more closely resembles eukaryotic than bacterial transcription, with the archaeal RNA polymerase being ... Archaea were split off as a third domain because of the large differences in their ribosomal RNA structure. The particular RNA ... although there are many introns in their transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA genes,[146] and introns may occur in a few protein- ... while archaeal flagella appear to have evolved from bacterial type IV pili.[106] In contrast to the bacterial flagellum, which ...
bacterial RNA polymerase: rpoB. *eukaryotic RNA polymerase: RNA polymerase II. Termination. (bacterial,. eukaryotic). * ... the TATA box is found at RNA polymerase II promoter regions, although some in vitro studies have demonstrated that RNA ... "RNA polymerase III accurately initiates transcription from RNA polymerase II promoters in vitro". The Journal of Biological ... TATA-binding protein (TBP) can be recruited in two ways, by SAGA, a cofactor for RNA polymerase II, or by TFIID.[11] When ...
This bacterial protein complex is a machine for folding other proteins, which get trapped within the shell. Fatty acid synthase ... Important information on protein synthesis, ligand binding and RNA interaction can be obtained using this novel technique at ...
A fundamental building block of RNA structure crucial to RNA function in diverse biological systems". EMBO Rep. 1 (1): 18-23. ...
cellular response to molecule of bacterial origin. • positive regulation of interferon-gamma production. • embryonic axis ... positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • negative regulation of cell proliferation. • signal ...
Bacterial evolution. Microbiological reviews 51 (2): 221-71. [1]. *↑ Holland L. (1990). "Woese, Carl in the forefront of ... All modern ideas start with the sequence analysis of DNA and RNA. In 1987, Carl Woese, the forerunner of the molecular ... Bacterial cells do not have a nucleus, and most have no organelles with membranes around them. Most have a cell wall. They do ... The complete DNA sequence is known for many bacterial strains.. Shape[change , change source]. Bacteria vary widely in size and ...
"Intragenomic heterogeneity between multiple 16S ribosomal RNA operons in sequenced bacterial genomes". FEMS Microbiology ... "The variability of the 16S rRNA gene in bacterial genomes and its consequences for bacterial community analyses". PLoS One 8 (2 ... "Comparative RNA function analysis reveals high functional similarity between distantly related bacterial 16 S rRNAs". ... Schmidt TM, Relman DA (1994). Phylogenetic identification of uncultured pathogens using ribosomal RNA sequences. Methods in ...
... and use of endonuclease digestion of PCR-amplified RNA to demonstrate lack of mRNA expression from the second allele". American ...
Werner F (2007). "Structure and function of archaeal RNA polymerases". Mol. Microbiol. 65 (6): 1395-404. PMID 17697097. doi: ... 1994). "Evolutionary relationships of bacterial and archaeal glutamine synthetase genes". J Mol Evol. (38(6)): 566-576.. ... Ng SY, Chaban B, Jarrell KF (2006). "Archaeal flagella, bacterial flagella and type IV pili: a comparison of genes and ... Cavalier-Smith T. (2002). "The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial ...
೪೧.೦ ೪೧.೧ Eddy SR (December 2001). "Non-coding RNA genes and the modern RNA world". Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (12): 919-29. doi: ... Ochman, H; Lawrence, JG; Groisman, EA (18 May 2000). "Lateral gene transfer and the nature of bacterial innovation.". Nature ... ೯೦.೦ ೯೦.೧ Claverie JM (September 2005). "Fewer genes, more noncoding RNA". Science 309 (5740): 1529-30. Bibcode:2005Sci... ... Domingo, E; Escarmís, C; Sevilla, N; Moya, A; Elena, SF; Quer, J; Novella, IS; Holland, JJ (June 1996). "Basic concepts in RNA ...
Nudler E, Mironov AS (Jan 2004). "The riboswitch control of bacterial metabolism". Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 29 (1): 11-7 ... Atkins JF, Gesteland RF, Cech T (2006). The RNA world: the nature of modern RNA suggests a prebiotic RNA world. Plainview, N.Y ... of RNAs with molecular properties predicted for RNAs of the RNA World constitutes an additional argument supporting the RNA ... Properties of RNA[edit]. The properties of RNA make the idea of the RNA world hypothesis conceptually plausible, though its ...
RNA silencing mechanisms are also important in the plant systemic response, as they can block virus replication.[40] The ... When host cells die, either by programmed cell death (also called apoptosis) or by cell injury due to a bacterial or viral ... Baulcombe D (September 2004). "RNA silencing in plants". Nature. 431 (7006): 356-63. Bibcode:2004Natur.431..356B. doi:10.1038/ ... For example, the Influenza A virus produces NS1 protein, which can bind to host and viral RNA, interact with immune signaling ...
효소는 5,000가지 이상의 생화학 반응 유형들을 촉매하는 것으로 알려져 있다.[5] 대부분의 효소들은 단백질이지만, 일부 효소들은 촉매 기능을 가지고 있는 RNA 분자이다. 촉매 기능을 가지고 있는 RNA를 리보자임이라고 한다 ... Fisher JF, Meroueh SO, Mobashery S (February 2005). "Bacterial resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics: compelling opportunism, ... 리보자임이라고 불리는 소수의 RNA 기반 생물학적 촉매가 존재하며, 리보자임은 단독으로 또는 단백질과 복합체를 형성하여 작용할 수 있다. 리보자임들 중 가장 일반적인 것은 촉매 기능을 가진 RNA와 단백질의 복합체인 리보솜이다. ... 이와 유사한 교정 기작은 RNA 중합효소,[33] 아미노아실 tRNA 합성효소,[34] 리보솜[35]에서도 발견된다. ...
... it recruits autophagy adaptor such as NDP52 leading to the formation of an autophagosome and bacterial degradation.[64] ... detecting single stranded RNA. Following activation of the toll-like receptor, intracellular signaling cascades are initiated, ... "Subversion of cellular autophagosomal machinery by RNA viruses". PLoS Biol. 3 (5): e156. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030156. PMC ... "Galectin 8 targets damaged vesicles for autophagy to defend cells against bacterial invasion". Nature. 482 (7385): 414-8. doi ...
... in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase. Both RNA and DNA are nucleic acids, which ... A type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.. apoptosis. A highly regulated form ... RNA. See ribonucleic acid.. RNA polymerase. A member of a family of enzymes that are essential to life: they are found in all ... One of the four main nitrogenous bases found in both DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, thymine, and uracil (in RNA); it ...
An autoantigen is usually a normal protein or protein complex (and sometimes DNA or RNA) that is recognized by the immune ... or because of viral or intracellular bacterial infection. The fragments are then presented on the cell surface in the complex ... named the hypothetical substances halfway between bacterial constituents and antibodies "substances immunogenes ou antigenes" ( ...
"A programmable dual-RNA-guided DNA endonuclease in adaptive bacterial immunity". Science. 337 (6096): 816-21. Bibcode:2012Sci ... July 2010). "Creation of a bacterial cell controlled by a chemically synthesized genome". Science. 329 (5987): 52-6. Bibcode: ...
Euzeby, JP (1997). "List of Bacterial Names with Standing in Nomenclature: a folder available on the Internet". Int. J. Syst. ... Bacteria and Eucarya in terms of small subunit ribosomal RNA characteristics". Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 14 (4): 305-310. doi: ... Palys, T; Nakamura LK; Cohan FM (1997). "Discovery and classification of ecological diversity in the bacterial world: the role ... Gurtler, V; Mayall BC (2001). "Genomic approaches to typing, taxonomy and evolution of bacterial isolates". Int. J. Syst. Evol ...
negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor ... other bacterial products, and Interleukin-1 (IL-1). In the skin, mast cells appear to be the predominant source of pre-formed ... positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • positive regulation of leukocyte adhesion to arterial ...
Type strain of Enterococcus faecium at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase ... "Small RNAs in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium involved in daptomycin response and resistance". Scientific Reports. 7 ...
Instead, the naked viral RNA may alter the function of the cells through a mechanism similar to RNA interference, in which the ... Circulative viruses are protected inside aphids by the chaperone protein symbionin, produced by bacterial symbionts. Many plant ... The RNA carries genetic information to code for the production of new infectious particles. More recently virus research has ... Some viruses (e.g. tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)) have RNA sequences that contain a "leaky" stop codon. In TMV 95% of the time the ...