Riboflavin; Thiamine "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-08-21. Retrieved 2008-08-06. CS1 maint: discouraged ...
"Riboflavin". Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, ... Riboflavin deficiency also causes anemia with red blood cells that are normal in size and hemoglobin content, but reduced in ... Riboflavin (Vitamine B2) deficiency is especially common in countries that do not require fortification of wheat and maize ... Vitamin fortification programs exist in one or more countries for folate, niacin, riboflavin, thiamin, vitamin A, vitamin B6, ...
Riboflavin. "Music Review: Laetitia Sadier - Silencio". Tiny Mix Tapes. Retrieved 20 March 2021. "The Wire Review". The Wire: ...
Rivlin, Richard S. (1970-08-27). "Riboflavin Metabolism". New England Journal of Medicine. 283 (9): 463-472. doi:10.1056/ ...
... riboflavin (vitamin B2), thiamin mononitrate (vitamin B1). "Better Breakfast Choices , Three Sisters Cereal". Three Sisters. ... riboflavin 50%; niacin 50%; phosphorus 20%; magnesium 25%. Ingredients: whole wheat kernels, whole flaxseed, salt, barley malt ...
Riboflavin deficiency. Hair changes: dull, without shine, hair loss. → Pantothenic acid deficiency. Swelling of the thigh. → ... Riboflavin deficiency. Tongue red like horse meat. → Nicotinamide deficiency. Nail changes: hard, brittle, strong streak. → ... Citric acid deficiency, Riboflavin deficiency. Apathy, lack of motivation, reduced vitality. → Vitamin B deficiency. Bleeding ...
... phosphate This enzyme is involved in riboflavin biosynthesis. Kis K, Volk R, Bacher A (March 1995). "Biosynthesis of riboflavin ...
1998). "Chapter 5 - Riboflavin". Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamine, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, ... 1998). "Chapter 9 - Vitamin B12". Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamine, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, ... 1998). "Chapter 6 - Niacin". Dietary Reference Intakes for Tjiamine, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, ... 1998). "Chapter 8 - Folate". Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamine, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is riboflavin hydrolase. This enzyme participates in riboflavin metabolism. Foster JW ... In enzymology, a riboflavinase (EC 3.5.99.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction riboflavin + H2O ⇌ {\ ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } ribitol + lumichrome Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are riboflavin and H2O, whereas ... Yanagita T (August 1956). "A bacterial riboflavin hydrolase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 221 (2): 593-607. PMID ...
Riboflavin, 2013-08-01. "1983: Paris 1942 (Moe Tucker, Alan Bishop, Sir Richard Bishop)". Tiny Mix Tapes. Retrieved 2021-02-14. ...
In 2000 the North American Dietary Reference Intake chapter on vitamin C updated the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) to 90 milligrams per day for adult men and 75 mg/day for adult women, and set a Tolerable upper intake level (UL) for adults of 2,000 mg/day.[3] The table shows RDAs for the United States and Canada for children, and for pregnant and lactating women.[3] For the European Union, the EFSA set higher recommendations for adults, and also for children: 20 mg/day for ages 1-3, 30 mg/day for ages 4-6, 45 mg/day for ages 7-10, 70 mg/day for ages 11-14, 100 mg/day for males ages 15-17, 90 mg/day for females ages 15-17. For pregnancy 100 mg/day; for lactation 155 mg/day.[62] India, on the other hand, has set recommendations much lower: 40 mg/day for ages 1 through adult, 60 mg/day for pregnancy, and 80 mg/day for lactation.[57] Clearly, there is not consensus among countries. Cigarette smokers and people exposed to secondhand smoke have lower plasma vitamin C levels than nonsmokers. The ...
Riboflavin 25% Niacin 25% Vitamin B6 100% Folic Acid 100% Vitamin B12 100% ...
Institute of Medicine (1998). "Folate". Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin ...
InChI=1S/C20H23N7O6/c21-20-24-16-15(18(31)25-20)27-9-26(8-12(27)7-22-16)11-3-1-10(2-4-11)17(30)23-13(19(32)33)5-6-14(28)29/h1-4,12-13H,5-9H2,(H,23,30)(H,28,29)(H,32,33)(H4,21,22,24,25,31)/t12?,13-/m0/s1 ...
Institute of Medicine (1998). "Vitamin B6". Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, ... Pyridoxine 5′-phosphate oxidase is dependent on flavin mononucleotide (FMN) as a cofactor which is produced from riboflavin ( ...
Riboflavin 1933 Vitamin B6 1936 Oxford University closed down its nutrition department after World War II because the subject ...
InChI=1S/C28H48O2/c1-20(2)11-8-12-21(3)13-9-14-22(4)15-10-17-28(7)18-16-25-19-26(29)23(5)24(6)27(25)30-28/h19-22,29H,8-18H2,1-7H3/t21-,22-,28-/m1/s1 ...
Riboflavin. Riboflavin is involved in release of energy in the electron transport chain, the citric acid cycle, as well as the ... Riboflavin. Riboflavin deficiency can cause ariboflavinosis, which may result in cheilosis (cracks in the lips), high ... "Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and ... "Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamine, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and ...
7-Dehydrocholesterol is the precursor of cholecalciferol.[2] Within the epidermal layer of skin, 7-dehydrocholesterol undergoes an electrocyclic reaction as a result of UVB light at wavelengths between 290 and 315 nm, with peak synthesis occurring between 295 and 300 nm.[34] This results in the opening of the vitamin precursor B-ring through a conrotatory pathway making previtamin D3 (pre-cholecalciferol).[35] In a process which is independent of UV light, the pre-cholecalciferol then undergoes a [1,7] antarafacial sigmatropic rearrangement [36] and therein finally isomerizes to form vitamin D3. The active UVB wavelengths are present in sunlight, and sufficient amounts of cholecalciferol can be produced with moderate exposure of the skin, depending on the strength of the sun.[34] Time of day, season, and altitude affect the strength of the sun, and pollution, cloud cover or glass all reduce the amount of UVB exposure. Exposure of face, arms and legs, averaging 5-30 minutes twice per week, may be ...
... has been used as a vitamin C dietary supplement.[8] As a cosmetic ingredient, dehydroascorbic acid is used to enhance the appearance of the skin.[9] It may be used in a process for permanent waving of hair[10] and in a process for sunless tanning of skin.[11] In a cell culture growth medium, dehydroascorbic acid has been used to assure the uptake of vitamin C into cell types that do not contain ascorbic acid transporters.[12] As a pharmaceutical agent, some research has suggested that administration of dehydroascorbic acid may confer protection from neuronal injury following an ischemic stroke.[7] The literature contains many reports on the antiviral effects of vitamin C,[13] and one study suggests dehydroascorbic acid has stronger antiviral effects and a different mechanism of action than ascorbic acid.[14] Solutions in water containing ascorbic acid and copper ions and/or peroxide, resulting in rapid oxidation of ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid, have been shown to ...
... (mecobalamin, MeCbl, or MeB12) is a cobalamin, a form of vitamin B12. It differs from cyanocobalamin in that the cyano at the cobalt is replaced with a methyl group.[1] Methylcobalamin features an octahedral cobalt(III) centre and can be obtained as bright red crystals.[2] From the perspective of coordination chemistry, methylcobalamin is notable as a rare example of a compound that contains metal-alkyl bonds. Nickel-methyl intermediates have been proposed for the final step of methanogenesis. Methylcobalamin is equivalent physiologically to vitamin B12,[citation needed] and can be used to prevent or treat pathology arising from a lack of vitamin B12 intake (vitamin B12 deficiency). Methylcobalamin is also used in the treatment of peripheral neuropathy, diabetic neuropathy, and as a preliminary treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.[3] Methylcobalamin that is ingested is not used directly as a cofactor, but is first converted by MMACHC into cob(II)alamin. Cob(II)alamin is ...
As a proportion of the Daily Value (DV), a serving of yogurt is a rich source of vitamin B12 (31% DV) and riboflavin (23% DV), ...
... , also known as vitamin D2 and calciferol, is a type of vitamin D found in food and used as a dietary supplement.[1] As a supplement it is used to prevent and treat vitamin D deficiency.[2] This includes vitamin D deficiency due to poor absorption by the intestines or liver disease.[3] It may also be used for low blood calcium due to hypoparathyroidism.[3] It is used by mouth or injection into a muscle.[2][3]. Excessive doses can result in increased urine production, high blood pressure, kidney stones, kidney failure, weakness, and constipation.[4] If high doses are taken for a long period of time, tissue calcification may occur.[3] It is recommended that people on high doses have their blood calcium levels regularly checked.[2] Normal doses are safe in pregnancy.[5] It works by increasing the amount of calcium absorbed by the intestines and kidneys.[4] Food in which it is found include some mushrooms.[6]. Ergocalciferol was first described in 1936.[7] It is on the World Health ...
Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (1967). Requirement of Vitamin A, Thiamine, Riboflavin and Niacin. ...
Riboflavin Water 1.3 mg/1.1 mg Ariboflavinosis, glossitis, angular stomatitis Dairy products, bananas, green beans, asparagus ... "Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and ... riboflavin), vitamin B3 (niacin), vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B7 (biotin), vitamin B9 ( ...
InChI=1S/C28H46O/c1-19(2)20(3)9-10-22(5)26-15-16-27-23(8-7-17-28(26,27)6)12-13-24-18-25(29)14-11-21(24)4/h12-13,19-20,22,25-27,29H,4,7-11,14-18H2,1-3,5-6H3/b23-12+,24-13-/t20-,22+,25-,26+,27-,28+/m0/s1 ...
American researchers Elmer McCollum and Marguerite Davis in 1914[12] discovered a substance in cod liver oil which later was called "vitamin A". British doctor Edward Mellanby noticed dogs that were fed cod liver oil did not develop rickets and concluded vitamin A, or a closely associated factor, could prevent the disease. In 1922, Elmer McCollum tested modified cod liver oil in which the vitamin A had been destroyed.[12] The modified oil cured the sick dogs, so McCollum concluded the factor in cod liver oil which cured rickets was distinct from vitamin A. He called it vitamin D because it was the fourth vitamin to be named.[188][189] It was not initially realized that, unlike other vitamins, vitamin D can be synthesised by humans through exposure to UV light. In 1925,[12] it was established that when 7-dehydrocholesterol is irradiated with light, a form of a fat-soluble vitamin is produced (now known as D3). Alfred Fabian Hess stated: "Light equals vitamin D."[190] Adolf Windaus, at the ...
Riboflavin 2.0 mg/kg min. Pantothenic Acid 9 mg/kg min. Vitamin B12 0.020 mg/kg min. Choline 1080 mg/kg min. "Big Heart Pet ... Riboflavin Supplement, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride, Vitamin D3 Supplement, Folic Acid, Biotin, Vitamin B12 Supplement), Sodium ...
MedlinePlus (2005-08-01). "Riboflavin (vitamin B2) deficiency (ariboflavinosis)". National Institutes of Health. Archived from ... B2-riboflavin) vitamins and iron (which causes iron deficiency anemia), which in turn may be evidence of malnutrition or ...