*Gluten-related disorders

Retrospective Studies). 13 (1): 146-51. doi:10.3748/wjg.v13.i1.146. PMID 17206762. Tonutti E, Bizzaro N (2014). "Diagnosis and ... Studies using anti-gliadin antibodies (AGA) reveal that diagnosed or untreated[clarification needed] individuals with AGA have ... The incidence of NCGS is unknown; some estimates range from 0.6% to 6%, and a systematic review of 2015 reported on studies ... Evaluation Studies). 63 (2): 233-6. doi:10.1111/j.1398-9995.2007.01504.x. PMID 18186814. Akagawa M, Handoyo T, Ishii T, ...

*Cavernous sinus thrombosis

Retrospective studies show conflicting data. This decision should be made with subspecialty consultation. One systematic review ... A MRI using flow parameters and an MR venogram are more sensitive than a CT scan, and are the imaging studies of choice to ... The diagnosis of cavernous sinus thrombosis is made clinically, with imaging studies to confirm the clinical impression. ... Cavernous sinus thrombosis is a clinical diagnosis with laboratory tests and imaging studies confirming the clinical impression ...

*Prasterone

A review of prospective and retrospective studies". Acta Cardiol. 58 (5): 403-10. doi:10.2143/AC.58.5.2005304. PMID 14609305. ... In clinical studies of prasterone supplementation, dosages have ranged from 20 to 1,600 mg per day. In people with adrenal ... In the short term, several studies have noted few adverse effects. In a study by Chang et al., prasterone was administered at a ... A few small, short term clinical studies have found that prasterone improves mood but its long-term efficacy and safety, and ...

*Bird collections

... have been useful for retrospective studies. Bird collections offer the potential for current and future ... Rigorous studies of avian taxonomy are based on specimens from bird collections. Taxonomic studies rely on morphological and ... In the case of molecular studies, the preservation of a specimen that can vouch for the source of the tissue sample used to ... Studies on ectoparasites, usually obtained during capture, but also obtained from old museum specimens, are valuable for ...

*Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

Retrospective studies identified four other cases likely of similar cause. The rate of transmission from a single contaminated ... Large scale studies in the UK have yielded an estimated prevalence of 493 per million, higher than the actual number of ... In recent years, studies have shown that the tumour marker Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) is often elevated in CJD cases; ... The Lancet in 2006 suggested that it may take more than 50 years for vCJD to develop, from their studies of kuru, a similar ...

*Lithium

Yacobi S; Ornoy A (2008). "Is lithium a real teratogen? What can we conclude from the prospective versus retrospective studies ... Mountbatten Centre for International Studies, Nuclear History Working Paper No5.. ...

*Cyproheptadine

... the only evidence for this use comes from retrospective studies. Cyproheptadine is sometimes used off label to improve ...

*Stevens-Johnson syndrome

Early retrospective studies suggested corticosteroids increased hospital stays and complication rates. No randomized trials of ... Based on the Asian findings, similar studies in Europe showed 61% of allopurinol-induced SJS/TEN patients carried the HLA-B58 ( ...

*Population viability analysis

Accuracy of PVAs has been tested in a few retrospective studies. For example, a study comparing PVA model forecasts with the ... The difference in viability between the two studies was primarily due to differences in reproduction and not survival. The ... "Bird population studies: relevance to conservation and management", New York: Oxford University Press McCarthy, M.A., Keith, D ...

*William M. Haenszel

Mantel, N.; Haenszel, W. (1959). "Statistical Aspects of the Analysis of Data from Retrospective Studies of Disease". Journal ...

*Differential item functioning

Mantel, N., & Haenszel, W. (1959). Statistical aspects of the analysis of data from retrospective studies of disease. Journal ... It is common in DIF studies to identify some items that suggest DIF. This may be an indication of problematic items that need ...

*Near-death studies

From 1975 to 2005, some 2500 self reported individuals in the US had been reviewed in retrospective studies of the phenomena ... The first decades of Near-death research were characterized by retrospective studies. However, the 2000s marked the beginning ... Near-death studies is a field of psychology and psychiatry that studies the physiology, phenomenology and after-effects of the ... and who later established the International Association for Near-death Studies (IANDS) and the Journal of Near-Death Studies. ...

*Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel statistics

Nathan Mantel and William Haenszel (April 1959). "Statistical aspects of the analysis of data from retrospective studies of ... ISBN 0-471-36093-7. Day N.E., Byar D.P. (September 1979). "Testing hypotheses in case-control studies-equivalence of Mantel- ... It is often used in observational studies where random assignment of subjects to different treatments cannot be controlled, but ...

*Abortion-breast cancer hypothesis

Such studies are considered more reliable than retrospective studies and case-control studies. The positive association between ... reviewed 32 studies on the abortion-breast cancer relationship and concluded that the results of studies on this subject were ... Cohort studies and studies that used records to determine the history of abortions have not found an increased risk... ... positive studies tend to be more likely to be published). The meta-analysis was also criticized because the studies it included ...

*Retrospective cohort study

Retrospective studies may need very large sample sizes for rare outcomes. While retrospective cohort studies try to compare the ... Retrospective cohort studies have existed for approximately as long as prospective cohort studies. The retrospective cohort ... Retrospective cohort studies exhibit the benefits of cohort studies and have distinct advantages relative to prospective ones: ... Retrospective studies have disadvantages vis-a-vis prospective studies: Some key statistics cannot be measured, and significant ...

*Prospective cohort study

Prospective cohort studies are typically ranked higher in the hierarchy of evidence than retrospective cohort studies and can ... "Prospective and Retrospective Cohort Studies". Boston University College of Public Health. Retrieved Nov 25, 2013. .http:// ... One of the advantages of prospective cohort studies is they can help determine risk factors for being infected with a new ... The Strengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) recommends that authors refrain from calling ...

*Non-biological complex drugs

Clear evidence for these observations comes from retrospective studies on iron sucrose and iron sucrose similars. NBCDs have ... Studies have shown differences in therapeutic and safety effects between originator NBCDs and approved similar, even though ... and the importance of clinical comparative studies. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 64(2), 324-328. Crommelin D. J., de ... Reflection paper on non-clinical studies for generic nanoparticle iron medicinal product applications. http://www.ema.europa.eu ...

*Sympathetic ophthalmia

Several retrospective studies involving over 3000 eviscerations, however, have failed to identify a single case of SO. Once SO ...

*Myelitis

Retrospective studies of patients with TM treated with IV steroids followed by PLEX showed a positive outcome. It also has been ... Studies have shown respiratory tract infections within 4-39 days prior to the onset of transverse myelitis. Or, tuberculosis, ... Studies show that NSCs that were transplanted into a demyelinating spinal cord lesion were found to regenerate oligodendrocytes ... Also a detailed medical history, a careful neurologic examination, and imaging studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ...

*Earthquake prediction

Another factor was the bias of retrospective selection of criteria. Other studies have shown dilatancy to be so negligible that ... "Retrospective Studies of Unusual Animal Behavior as an Earthquake Predictor", Geophysical Research Letters, 8 (12): 1203-1206, ... Other studies relying on quarry blasts (more precise, and repeatable) found no such variations, while an analysis of two ... More recent studies have cast doubt on the connection, attributing the Corralitos signals to either unrelated magnetic ...

*Anterior interosseous syndrome

Other retrospective studies have shown that there is no difference in outcome in surgically versus nonsurgically treated ... Studies are limited, and no randomized controlled trials have been performed regarding the treatment of AIN syndrome. While the ... Nerve conduction studies may be normal or show pronator quadratus latency.⁠⁠ Electromyography (EMG) is generally most useful ... natural history of AIN syndrome is not fully understood, studies following patients who have been treated without surgery show ...

*Henipavirus

Retrospective studies demonstrate that viral spillover into pigs may have been occurring in Malaysia since 1996 without ... Ribavirin, an antiviral drug, was tested in the Malaysian outbreak, and the results were encouraging, though further studies ...

*Terminal illness

"Retrospective studies of end-of-life resource utilization and costs in cancer care using health administrative data: A ... Many recent studies have shown that palliative care and hospice options as an alternative are much less expensive for end-of- ... Some studies suggest that oral opioids may help with breathlessness. However, due to lack of consistent reliable evidence, it ... A meta-analysis of 34 studies including 11,326 patients from 11 countries found that less than half of all terminal patients ...

*Endogenous retrovirus

This study stated that retrospective studies are limited to find the true incidence of infection or associated clinical ... Most studies in this area have focused on the genomes of humans and higher primates, but other vertebrates, such as mice and ... Immunological studies have shown some evidence for T cell immune responses against HERVs in HIV-infected individuals. The ... Nevertheless, it is clear from studies in birds and non-human mammal species including mice, cats and koalas, that younger (i.e ...

*Candida dubliniensis

Retrospective studies have shown that previously it had been commonly identified as Candida albicans, with which C. ... The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center also conducted several studies, both retrospective and prospective. In 974 germ-tube ...

*Jaap Schreurs

After he had finished his studies, he installed himself as a professional painter, and led the life of a poor but hard-working ... Laansma, Klazien (1994) 'De eeuwige vragen van Jaap Schreurs', opening speech at the retrospective exhibition in Stadsmuseum ...