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*  Glutamate receptor
Excessive glutamate, or excitotoxins acting on the same glutamate receptors, overactivate glutamate receptors (specifically ... aspartic acid Glutamate transporter Metabotropic glutamate receptor Synaptic plasticity Neurodegeneration Glutamate receptor- ... Research shows that glutamate receptors are present in CNS glial cells as well as neurons. These glutamate receptors are ... Glutamate receptors are synaptic receptors located primarily on the membranes of neuronal cells. Glutamate (the conjugate base ...
*  Excitotoxicity
This occurs when receptors for the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate (glutamate receptors) such as the NMDA receptor and ... Common excitotoxins include glutamate analogs that mimic the action of glutamate at glutamate receptors, including AMPA and ... that glutamate agonists were as neurotoxic as their efficiency to activate glutamate receptors, and that glutamate antagonists ... This results in a buildup of glutamate and further damaging activation of glutamate receptors. On the molecular level, calcium ...
*  Ionotropic glutamate receptor
AMPA receptors, kainate receptors, NMDA receptors and delta receptors (see below). AMPA receptors are the main charge carriers ... Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are ligand-gated ion channels that are activated by the neurotransmitter glutamate. ... "Glutamate receptor ion channels: structure, regulation, and function". Pharmacol. Rev. 62 (3): 405-496. doi:10.1124/pr. ... "Glutamate receptor ion channels: structure, regulation, and function". Pharmacol. Rev. 62 (3): 405-496. doi:10.1124/pr. ...
*  Metabotropic glutamate receptor
The metabotropic glutamate receptors, or mGluRs, are a type of glutamate receptor that are active through an indirect ... Metabotropic glutamate receptors are known to act as modulators of (affect the activity of) other receptors. For example, group ... Like all glutamate receptors, mGluRs bind with glutamate, an amino acid that functions as an excitatory neurotransmitter. The ... Unlike ionotropic receptors, metabotropic glutamate receptors are not ion channels. Instead, they activate biochemical cascades ...
*  Metabotropic glutamate receptor 7
"Entrez Gene: GRM7 glutamate receptor, metabotropic 7". Li X, Gardner EL, Xi ZX (2008). "The Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 7 ( ... Metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRM7 gene. L-glutamate is the major excitatory ... The metabotropic glutamate receptors are a family of G protein-coupled receptors, that have been divided into 3 groups on the ... Scherer SW, Duvoisin RM, Kuhn R, Heng HH, Belloni E, Tsui LC (1997). "Localization of two metabotropic glutamate receptor genes ...
*  Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4
GRM4 glutamate receptor, metabotropic 4". Chaudhari N, Landin AM, Roper SD (Feb 2000). "A metabotropic glutamate receptor ... Together with GRM6, GRM7 and GRM8 it belongs to group III of the metabotropic glutamate receptor family. Group III receptors ... "Regulation of mGlu4 metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling by type-2 G-protein coupled receptor kinase (GRK2)". Molecular ... Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRM4 gene. ...
*  Metabotropic glutamate receptor 8
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRM8 gene. L-glutamate is the major excitatory ... The metabotropic glutamate receptors are a family of G protein-coupled receptors, that have been divided into 3 groups on the ... a potent and selective mGlu8a receptor agonist, activates metabotropic glutamate receptors on primary afferent terminals in the ... a potent and selective mGlu8a receptor agonist, activates metabotropic glutamate receptors on primary afferent terminals in the ...
*  Metabotropic glutamate receptor 3
... has been shown to interact with: GRIP1, PICK1, and PPM1A. Metabotropic glutamate receptor ... Metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRM3 gene. L-glutamate is the major excitatory ... The metabotropic glutamate receptors are a family of G protein-coupled receptors, that have been divided into 3 groups on the ... "Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors: mGlu3". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and ...
*  Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2
The metabotropic glutamate receptors are a family of G protein-coupled receptors, that have been divided into 3 groups on the ... "Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors: mGlu2". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and ... Are Selective Agonists at Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Subtype 2 or Selective Agonists at Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor ... "Metabotropic glutamate 2 receptor potentiators: receptor modulation, frequency-dependent synaptic activity, and efficacy in ...
*  Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5
... is a G protein-coupled receptor that in humans is encoded by the GRM5 gene. The amino acid L- ... The metabotropic glutamate receptors are a family of G protein-coupled receptors, that have been divided into 3 groups on the ... "Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors: mGlu5". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and ... "Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors mediate a dual role of glutamate in T cell activation". The Journal of Biological ...
*  Metabotropic glutamate receptor 6
Glutamate receptor, metabotropic 6, also known as GRM6, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the GRM6 gene. L-glutamate ... The metabotropic glutamate receptors are a family of G protein-coupled receptors, that have been divided into 3 groups on the ... Metabotropic glutamate receptor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000113262 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... 2001). "Identification of novel alternatively-spliced mRNA isoforms of metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 gene in rat and human ...
*  Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1
The glutamate receptor, metabotropic 1, also known as GRM1, is a human gene which encodes the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 ... The metabotropic glutamate receptors are a family of G protein-coupled receptors, that have been divided into 3 groups on the ... "Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors: mGlu1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and ... "Homer binds a novel proline-rich motif and links group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors with IP3 receptors". Neuron. 21 (4): ...
*  Anti-glutamate receptor antibodies
The first anti-glutamate receptor antibody was shown by McNamara JO and colleagues to be directed against the GluR3 subunit of ... Anti-glutamate receptor antibodies are autoantibodies detected in serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid samples of a variety of ... Anti-glutamate receptor antibodies are also detected in various non-immunological neurological diseases such as stroke and ... Anti-NR2 glutamate receptor antibodies and cognitive function in systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol. 2006 Aug;33(8):1553 ...
*  Glutamate receptor-interacting protein
... (GRIP) refers to either a family of proteins that bind to the glutamate receptor or ... The discovery of the Glutamate Receptor Interacting Protein (GRIP-1) came as a result of the observation that Glutamate ... 1 August 1999). "Association of AMPA receptors with a subset of glutamate receptor-interacting protein in vivo". Journal of ... Research on NMDA receptor localization paved the way for research on non-NMDA receptors such as AMPA receptors. Similar to NMDA ...
*  Quisqualic acid
... and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors. It is one of the most potent AMPA receptor agonists known. It causes ... Insect glutamate receptors. Advances in Insect Biochemistry and Physiology. 24: 309-341.. ... Ion dependence of ligand binding to metabotropic glutamate receptors. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 2006 ... The relationship between agonist potency and AMPA receptor kinetics. Biophysical Journal. 2006 Aug 15;91(4):1336-46. PMID ...
*  Eglumegad
"Neuroprotection by metabotropic glutamate receptor glutamate receptor agonists: LY354740, LY379268 and LY389795". Eur. J. ... is a potent and highly selective group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist in cells expressing human glutamate receptors ... "In vitro and in vivo evidence for a lack of interaction with dopamine D2 receptors by the metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptor ... Allen JW, Ivanova SA, Fan L, Espey MG, Basile AS, Faden AI (July 1999). "Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor activation ...
*  Molecular neuroscience
Various metabotropic receptors can include certain glutamate receptors, muscarinic ACh receptors, GABAB receptors, and receptor ... Ionotropic glutamate receptors can include NMDA, AMPA, and kainate receptors. These receptors are named after agonists that ... Nicotinic, GABA, and Glutamate receptors are among some of the cell surface receptors regulated by ligand-gated ion channel ... GABAA and GABAC receptors are known to be ionotropic, while the GABAB receptor is metabotropic. GABAA receptors mediate fast ...
*  Targeted temperature management
doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60837-5. Lau, Anthony; Tymianski, Michael (2010-07-01). "Glutamate receptors, neurotoxicity and ... Overt activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors following brain injuries can lead to calcium entry which triggers ... reducing the production of neurotransmitters like glutamate, as well as reducing free radicals that might damage the brain. The ...
*  CECXG
Glutamate and gaba receptors and transporters: structure, function and pharmacology. pp 171-173. Taylor & Francis, 2002. ISBN 0 ... doi:10.1016/S0968-0896(02)00387-5. Ure, J.; Baudry, M.; Perassolo, M. (2006). "Metabotropic glutamate receptors and epilepsy". ... is a research drug which acts as a potent and selective antagonist for the group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2/3 ... glycines as High-Affinity Group II Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Ligands". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 11: 197-205. ...
*  Peptide microarray
"NMDA Receptor Activation Dephosphorylates AMPA Receptor Glutamate Receptor 1 Subunits at Threonine 840". Journal of ...
*  Post-traumatic epilepsy
Overactivation of glutamate receptors damages neurons; for example it leads to the formation of free radicals. Excitotoxicity ... TBI may lead to the excessive release of glutamate and other excitatory neurotransmitters (those that stimulate brain cells and ... damage to brain cells through overactivation of the biochemical receptors that bind and respond to excitatory neurotransmitters ... increase the likelihood that they will fire). This excessive glutamate release can lead to excitotoxicity, ...
*  Neuron
Glutamate acts on several different types of receptors, and have effects that are excitatory at ionotropic receptors and a ... Glutamate is one of two primary excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter, the other being Aspartate. Glutamate receptors are one ... The function of NMDA receptors is dependant on Glycine receptor binding as a co-agonist within the channel pore. NMDA receptors ... they lack the typical ionotropic glutamate receptors and instead express a class of inhibitory metabotropic glutamate receptors ...
*  Kaitocephalin
Glutamate receptors are classified as either metabotropic or ionotropic. The ionotropic receptors are further divided into NMDA ... Kaitocephalin acts by inhibiting glutamate receptors. Glutamate is the most abundant neurotransmitter in the vertebrate nervous ... so binding of glutamate to its receptors increases ion flow through the postsynaptic membrane. Excess glutamate can lead to ... Kaitocephalin is a non-selective ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonist, meaning it blocks the action of the neurotransmitter ...
*  GABAB receptor
GABAB Receptors are similar in structure to and in the same receptor family with metabotropic glutamate receptors. There are ... GABA receptor GABAA receptor GABAA-ρ receptor Chen K, Li HZ, Ye N, Zhang J, Wang JJ (2005). "Role of GABAB receptors in GABA ... Thus GABAB receptors are considered inhibitory receptors.[by whom?] GABAB receptors can also reduce the activity of adenylyl ... Glutamate receptors: Structures and functions. University of Brisotol Centre for Synaptic Plasticity. Purves D., Augustine G.J ...
*  N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid
Unlike glutamate, NMDA only binds to and regulates the NMDA receptor and has no effect on other glutamate receptors (such as ... They are commonly referred to as NMDA receptor antagonists. NMDA receptor NMDA receptor antagonist Anti-NMDA-receptor ... glutamate, and dopamine. Therefore the action of glutamate specifically through NMDA receptors can be investigated by injecting ... Dingledine, R; Borges K (Mar 1999). "The glutamate receptor ion channels". Pharmacol. Rev. 51 (1): 7-61. PMID 10049997. Liu, Y ...
*  Brain ischemia
Consequently, there is a massive influx of calcium into the cytosol, a massive release of glutamate from synaptic vesicles, ... depression and focal brain ischemia induce cyclooxygenase-2 in cortical neurons through N-methyl-D-aspartic acid-receptors and ...
*  Ampakine
... s work by allosterically binding to a type of ionotropic glutamate receptor, called AMPA receptors. The ampakines are ... They are also known as "CX compounds". Ampakines take their name from the AMPA receptor (AMPAR), a type of ionotropic glutamate ... Staubli, U.; Rogers, G.; Lynch, G. (1994). "Facilitation of glutamate receptors enhances memory" (pdf). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S ... 1994). "Centrally active modulators of glutamate receptors facilitate the induction of long-term potentiation in vivo" (pdf). ...