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*  Tongue
The tongue is equipped with many taste buds on its dorsal surface, and each taste bud is equipped with taste receptor cells ... Umami receptor cells are the least understood and accordingly are the type most intensively under research. The tongue is an ... Chemicals that stimulate taste receptor cells are known as tastants. Once a tastant is dissolved in saliva, it can make contact ... Distinct types of taste receptor cells respectively detect substances that are sweet, bitter, salty, sour, spicy, or taste of ...
*  Cell surface receptor
Cell surface receptors (membrane receptors, transmembrane receptors) are receptors that are embedded in the membranes of cells ... Receptor protein: cells must have cell surface receptor proteins which bind to the signaling molecule and communicate inward ... receptors Integrins Low Affinity Nerve Growth Factor Receptor NMDA receptor Several Immune receptors Toll-like receptor T cell ... Adrenergic receptor, Olfactory receptors, Receptor tyrosine kinases Epidermal growth factor receptor Insulin Receptor ...
*  Bissulfosuccinimidyl suberate
cell-surface receptor-ligand studies; crosslinking biomolecules on cells; fixation of protein complexes prior to protein ... it cannot freely pass through cellular membranes which makes it an ideal crosslinker for cell surface proteins. ... Non-cleavable: The BS3 crosslinker has an 8-atom spacer is non-cleavable and the molecule is not cell membrane permeable. BS3 ... Because of the ability of DSS to cross cell membranes, it is best suited for applications where intracelluclar crosslinking is ...
*  Inositol trisphosphate
Michell, RH (1975). "Inositol phospholipids and cell surface receptor function". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 415 (1): 81-147 ... Once at the ER, IP3 is able to bind to the Ins3P receptor (Ins3PR) on a ligand-gated Ca2+ channel that is found on the surface ... In heart muscle cells this increase in Ca2+ activates the ryanodine receptor-operated channel on the SR, results in further ... There is evidence that IP3 receptors play an important role in the induction of plasticity in cerebellar Purkinje cells. The ...
*  Picornavirus
The viral particle binds to cell surface receptors. Cell surface receptors are characterized for each serotype of ... poliovirus couldn't be made in many laboratories until transgenic mice having a CD155 receptor on their cell surface were ... For example, poliovirus receptor is glycoprotein CD155 which is special receptor for human and some other primate species. For ... These acids form a pore in the cell membrane through which RNA is injected [2]. Once inside the cell, the RNA un-coats and the ...
*  Albumin
... binds to the cell surface receptor albondin. Serum albumin is the main protein of human blood plasma. It binds water, ... This is because retinol causes cells to swell with water (this is also the reason too much Vitamin A is toxic). This swelling ... zinc and tocopherol on retinol-induced damage in human lymphoblastoid cells". The Journal of Nutrition. 114 (12): 2256-61. PMID ...
*  Cytokine
Each cytokine has a matching cell-surface receptor. Subsequent cascades of intracellular signalling then alter cell functions. ... the presence and abundance of the complementary receptor on the cell surface, and downstream signals activated by receptor ... and various stromal cells; a given cytokine may be produced by more than one type of cell. They act through receptors, and are ... including immune cells like macrophages, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes and mast cells, as well as endothelial cells, fibroblasts ...
*  Vasoconstriction
These compounds interact with cell surface adrenergic receptors. Such stimuli result in a signal transduction cascade that ... Smooth muscle cells are capable of generating action potentials, but this mechanism is rarely utilized for contraction in the ... This makes the skin turn paler because less blood reaches the surface, reducing the radiation of heat. On a larger level, ... within vascular smooth muscle cells. However, the specific mechanisms for generating an increased intracellular concentration ...
*  Vocal folds
CD44 is a cell surface receptor for HA. Cells such as fibroblasts are responsible for synthesizing ECM molecules. Cell surface ... In the end, cell-surface receptors close the loop by giving feedback on the surrounding ECM to the cells, affecting also their ... They have identified the presence of androgen, estrogen, and progesterone receptors in epithelial cells, granular cells and ... matrix receptors in return, feed back to the cells through cell-matrix interaction, allowing the cell to regulate its ...
*  Butyrophilin, subfamily 1, member A1
It may have a cell surface receptor function. The human butyrophilin gene is localized in the major histocompatibility complex ... 1999). "Cloning, expression analysis, and chromosomal localization of a novel butyrophilin-like receptor". J. Hum. Genet. 44 (4 ... "Cloning and sequence analysis of human butyrophilin reveals a potential receptor function". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1306 (1): 1 ... modulates the encephalitogenic T cell response to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in experimental autoimmune ...
*  DmX gene
Signals are transduced by the cell-surface receptor Notch. During Notch synthesis there are three independent cleavage events. ... Notch signalling is an important pathway involved in cell-cell communication. The pathway regulates the proliferation, ... rabconnectin-3a is involved in neural crest migration by playing a role in endosomal maturation in neural crest cells. The DmX ... Developmental Cell. 17 (3): 387-402. doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2009.07.001. Kraemer, Christiane; Enklaar, Thorsten; Zabel, Bernhard ...
*  Ligand (biochemistry)
"Heterobivalent ligands target cell-surface receptor combinations in vivo". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of ... A ligand that can bind to a receptor, alter the function of the receptor, and trigger a physiological response is called an ... Homobivalent ligands target two of the same receptor types. Heterobivalent ligands target two different receptor types. Bitopic ... and melanocortin receptor systems, and for GPCR-LIC systems (D2 and nACh receptors). Bivalent ligands usually tend to be larger ...
*  Arginylglycylaspartic acid
"Identification and isolation of a 140 kd cell surface glycoprotein with properties expected of a fibronectin receptor". Cell. ... Hynes, R. "Integrins: A family of cell surface receptors". Cell. 48 (4): 549-554. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(87)90233-9. Ruoslahti, ... "Corning® Cell Culture Surfaces Selection Guide" (PDF). 2017-10-31. Meyers, Steven R.; Grinstaff, Mark W. (2012-03-14). " ... These foundational studies also identified of the cellular receptors that recognize the sequence; these receptors were later ...
*  HLA-DP
... is an αβ-heterodimer cell-surface receptor. Each DP subunit (α-subunit, β-subunit) is composed of a α-helical N-terminal ... class II receptor/antigens to a great many T-cells, each with unique T-cell receptor (TCR) variants. A few TCR variants that ... HLA DP functions as a cell surface receptor for foreign or self antigens. The immune system surveys antigens for foreign ... These T-cells, called T-helper (Th) cells, can promote the amplification of B-cells that recognize a different portion of the ...
*  ZNF259
"Vav family proteins couple to diverse cell surface receptors". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 20 (17): 6364-73. doi:10.1128/ ... "The cytoplasmic zinc finger protein ZPR1 accumulates in the nucleolus of proliferating cells". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 9 ... "Interaction of ZPR1 with translation elongation factor-1alpha in proliferating cells". The Journal of Cell Biology. 143 (6): ... Gangwani L (December 2006). "Deficiency of the zinc finger protein ZPR1 causes defects in transcription and cell cycle ...
*  HAVCR2
... regulatory T-cells, and innate immune cells (DCs, NK cells, monocytes). HAVCR2 belongs to TIM family cell surface receptor ... T-cell exhaustion is mediated by several inhibitory receptors including programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), TIM3, and ... HAVCR2 was first described in 2002 as a cell surface molecule expressed on IFNγ producing CD4+ Th1 and CD8+ Tc1 cells. Later, ... Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2 (HAVCR2), also known as T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain containing-3 (TIM-3), is a ...
*  Link domain
... the main cell surface receptor for HA. Hyaladherin "Link domain signature and profile". PROSITE. December 2004. Retrieved 30 ... which may be involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions during inflammation and tumourigenesis; CD44 antigen, ... a hyaluronan-binding domain involved in extracellular matrix stability and cell migration". Cell. 86 (5): 767-75. doi:10.1016/ ... It is important in blood cell migration and apoptosis. The link domain is found in some extracellular proteins in vertebrates ...
*  Rintatolimod
TLR-3 receptors are located on cell surfaces. They are part of a family of "pattern recognition" receptors that detect ... Degradation of RNA prevents viral and cell replication, and destruction of all RNA within a virus or cell is the last step ... These receptors are critical to the first line of immunological defense against a broad range of pathogens, including otherwise ... When rintatolimod binds to TLR-3 receptors, the virus cannot do so, and the body is able to marshal its defenses and launch an ...
*  Parathyroid hormone
Parathyroid cells express calcium-sensing receptors on the cell surface. PTH is secreted when [Ca2+] is decreased (Calcitonin ... The G-protein coupled calcium receptors bind extracellular calcium and may be found on the surface on a wide variety of cells ... Stimulation is indirect since osteoclasts do not have a receptor for PTH; rather, PTH binds to osteoblasts, the cells ... Estrogen suppresses T cell TNF production by regulating T cell differentiation and activity in the bone marrow, thymus, and ...
*  5-HT2C receptor
At the cell surface the receptor exists as a homodimer. 5-HT2C receptors are located mainly in the choroid plexus, and in rats ... Editing is also thought to function in cell surface expression of the receptor subtype. The fully edited VGV, which has the ... 5-HT2C receptors are also found on epithelial cells lining the ventricles. The 5-HT2C receptor is one of the many binding sites ... Third, RNA editing controls the ultimate physiological output of constitutively active receptors by affecting the cell surface ...
*  Chemerin
RARRES2 is thought to act as a cell surface receptor. Chemerin is a chemoattractant protein that acts as a ligand for the G ... These effects are mediated by specific nuclear receptor proteins that are members of the steroid and thyroid hormone receptor ... "Selection of cDNAs encoding putative type II membrane proteins on the cell surface from a human full-length cDNA bank". Gene. ... "Entrez Gene: RARRES2 retinoic acid receptor responder (tazarotene induced) 2". Zabel BA, Allen SJ, Kulig P, Allen JA, Cichy J, ...
*  Caspase 11
Extracellular LPS binds specifically to the cell surface receptor TLR4. LPS binding to TLR4 subsequently causes initiation of ... Casson, C. N.; Shin, S. (2013). "Inflammasome-mediated cell death in response to bacterial pathogens that access the host cell ... These results suggest that TLR4 is not the sole LPS receptor but that caspase-11 also responds to the presence of LPS. Caspase- ... Until recently, TLR4 was considered the sole receptor for LPS. However, in 2013 it was shown that TLR4 knockout mice treated ...
*  PRKCH
"Human immunodeficiency virus induces phosphorylation of its cell surface receptor". Nature. 333 (6170): 278-80. doi:10.1038/ ... 1992). "The protein kinase C-related PKC-L(eta) gene product is localized in the cell nucleus". Mol. Cell. Biol. 12 (3): 1304- ... Each member of the PKC family has a specific expression profile and is believed to play a distinct role in cells. The protein ... Ruegg CL, Strand M (1990). "Inhibition of protein kinase C and anti-CD3-induced Ca2+ influx in Jurkat T cells by a synthetic ...
*  PRKCQ
"Human immunodeficiency virus induces phosphorylation of its cell surface receptor". Nature. 333 (6170): 278-80. doi:10.1038/ ... It is required for the activation of the transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1, and may link the T cell receptor (TCR) ... and 14-3-3 tau in T cells: 14-3-3 overexpression results in inhibition of PKC theta translocation and function". Mol. Cell. ... Ruegg CL, Strand M (1990). "Inhibition of protein kinase C and anti-CD3-induced Ca2+ influx in Jurkat T cells by a synthetic ...
*  VAV2
2000). "Vav family proteins couple to diverse cell surface receptors". Mol. Cell. Biol. 20 (17): 6364-73. doi:10.1128/MCB.20.17 ... Smit L, van der Horst G, Borst J (1996). "Sos, Vav, and C3G participate in B cell receptor-induced signaling pathways and ... Marignani PA, Carpenter CL (2001). "Vav2 is required for cell spreading". J. Cell Biol. 154 (1): 177-86. doi:10.1083/jcb. ... Cell. Biol. 22 (8): 2487-97. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.8.2487-2497.2002. PMC 133724 . PMID 11909943. Tamás P, Solti Z, Bauer P, et al ...
*  Phage display
Then the expression of single chain Fv's (scFv), and single chain T cell receptors (scTCR) were expressed both with and without ... By immobilizing a relevant DNA or protein target(s) to the surface of a microtiter plate well, a phage that displays a protein ... The disadvantage of using T7 is that the size of the protein that can be expressed on the surface is limited to shorter ... The use of a helper phage can be eliminated by using 'bacterial packaging cell line' technology. Elution can be done combining ...
*  Neuropeptide
... s modulate neuronal communication by acting on cell surface receptors. Many neuropeptides are co-released with ... Peptides are unique among these cell-cell signaling molecules in several respects. One major difference is that peptides are ... These extracellular processing events add to the complexity of neuropeptides as cell-cell signaling molecules. Many populations ... and signal to neighboring cells (primarily neurons). In contrast, peptide hormones are secreted from neuroendocrine cells and ...