*Gamma delta T cell

... γδ T cells) are T cells that have a distinctive T-cell receptor (TCR) on their surface. Most T cells are αβ (alpha beta) T ... These Vγ9Vδ2 T cells can also behave like professional antigen-presenting cells (APC). It seems that human Vγ9Vδ2 T cells are ... Naive T cells Memory T cells Helper T cells Cytotoxic T cells Natural killer T cells Innate immune system Adaptive immune ... and present antigens to αβ T cells. This leads to turn of naïve CD4+ and CD8+ αβ T cells into effector cells. The ...

*Joel N. Blankson

"Superantigens and conventional antigens induce different responses in alpha beta T-cell receptor transgenic mice". Immunology. ... "The CD28/B7 pathway costimulates the response of primary murine T cells to superantigens as well as to conventional antigens". ... antigens in HIV-1-infected patients with immune reconstitution". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 183 (4): 657-661. doi: ... "Biphasic decay of latently infected CD4+ T cells in acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection". The Journal of ...

*TRA (gene)

Manolios N, Kemp O, Li ZG (1994). "The T cell antigen receptor alpha and beta chains interact via distinct regions with CD3 ... 1985). "Analysis of cDNA clones specific for human T cells and the alpha and beta chains of the T-cell receptor heterodimer ... "Locus of the alpha-chain of the T-cell receptor is split by chromosome translocation in T-cell leukemias". Science. 229 (4715 ... "TCR alpha-CD3 delta epsilon association is the initial step in alpha beta dimer formation in murine T cells and is limiting in ...

*OR6C4

1992). "Asymmetric selection of T cell antigen receptor alpha- and beta-chains in HLA-B27 alloreactivity". J. Immunol. 148 (11 ... Olfactory receptor 6C4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR6C4 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ...

*Chimeric antigen receptor

An antigen recognition domain from native T-cell receptor (TCR) alpha and beta single chains have been described, as have ... Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs, also known as chimeric immunoreceptors, chimeric T cell receptors, artificial T cell ... are engineered receptors which graft an arbitrary specificity onto an immune effector cell (T cell). Typically, these receptors ... The use of CARs in the clinic is based on reprogramming the T cell antigen receptor using a vector (for example viral) that is ...

*Harald von Boehmer

... generation of mature T cells requires an interaction of the alpha beta T cell receptor with major histocompatibility antigens. ... Transfer of specificity by marine alpha and beta T cell receptor genes. Nature 329, 232 (1986). Transfer of alpha and beta TCR ... Crucial role of the pre-T cell receptor in development of alpha beta but not gamma delta T cells. Nature 375, 795-798 (1995). ... Exclusion and inclusion of alpha and beta T cell receptor alleles. Cell 69, 529 (1992); Aifantis, I., Buer, J., von Boehmer, H ...

*Mucosal associated invariant T cell

"Analysis of T cell antigen receptor (TCR) expression by human peripheral blood CD4-8- alpha/beta T cells demonstrates ... MAIT cells constitute a subset of αβ T lymphocytes characterized by a semi-invariant T cell receptor alpha (TCRα) chain. The ... MAIT cells were initially specified as T cells that do not express the TCR co-receptors CD4 or CD8 on the cell surface. However ... While most T cell subsets have TCRs that recognize peptide or lipid-based antigens in association with MHC or CD1, MAIT cells ...

*CD79B

Ig-alpha and Ig-beta, which are necessary for expression and function of the B-cell antigen receptor. This gene encodes the Ig- ... 1995). "Reconstitution of the B cell antigen receptor signaling components in COS cells". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (45): 27072-8. doi ... "Interplay between the human TCR/CD3 epsilon and the B-cell antigen receptor associated Ig-beta (B29)". Immunol. Lett. 44 (2-3 ... 1994). "CD5 is associated with the human B cell antigen receptor complex". Eur. J. Immunol. 24 (4): 812-6. doi:10.1002/eji. ...

*Toxic shock syndrome

... in a groove formed by the alpha and beta chains of class II MHC, and recognized by an antigen-specific T-cell receptor. By ... In typical T-cell recognition, an antigen is taken up by an antigen-presenting cell, processed, expressed on the cell surface ... In patients with TSS, up to 20% of the body's T-cells can be activated at one time. This polyclonal T-cell population causes a ... disease progression stems from a superantigen toxin that allows the nonspecific binding of MHC II with T-cell receptors, ...

*T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 epsilon chain

... and the T-cell receptor alpha/beta and gamma/delta heterodimers, forms the T cell receptor-CD3 complex. This complex plays an ... "Interplay between the human TCR/CD3 epsilon and the B-cell antigen receptor associated Ig-beta (B29)". Immunology Letters. 44 ( ... "Specific interaction of topoisomerase II beta and the CD3 epsilon chain of the T cell receptor complex". The Journal of ... "Human immunodeficiency virus-1 glycoproteins gp120 and gp160 specifically inhibit the CD3/T cell-antigen receptor ...

*TRG (gene)

In a single cell, the T cell receptor loci are rearranged and expressed in the order delta, gamma, beta, and alpha. If both ... molecules at the surface of antigen presenting cells (APC) (APC). Each T cell receptor is a dimer consisting of one alpha and ... the cell proceeds to rearrange the beta and alpha loci. This region represents the germline organization of the T cell receptor ... T-cell receptor). T cell receptors recognize foreign antigens which have been processed as small peptides and bound to major ...

*CD247

T-cell receptor zeta, together with T-cell receptor alpha/beta and gamma/delta heterodimers and CD3-gamma, -delta, and -epsilon ... forms the T-cell receptor-CD3 complex. The zeta chain plays an important role in coupling antigen recognition to several ... T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 zeta chain also known as T-cell receptor T3 zeta chain or CD247 (Cluster of Differentiation 247 ... "Molecular cloning and chromosomal localization of the human T-cell receptor zeta chain: distinction from the molecular CD3 ...

*CD79

"Interplay between the human TCR/CD3 epsilon and the B-cell antigen receptor associated Ig-beta (B29)". Immunol Lett. 44 (2-3): ... formerly known as Ig-alpha and Ig-beta); these form a heterodimer on the surface of a B cell stabilized by disulfide bonding. ... "Comparison of human B cell antigen receptor complexes: membrane- expressed forms of immunoglobulin (Ig)M, IgD, and IgG are ... in a similar manner to CD3-generated signal tranduction observed during T cell receptor activation on T cells. Chu P, Arber D ( ...

*VLA-4

Integrin α4β1 (Very Late Antigen-4) is an integrin dimer. It is composed of CD49d (alpha 4) and CD29 (beta 1). Vascular cell ... adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 - an integrin receptor) located on an endothelial cell, binds to the integrin VLA-4 which are ... T-cells gain access to the brain by allowing the cells to penetrate the blood brain barrier that normally restricts immune cell ... One approach to prevent an autoimmune reaction has been to block the action of VLA-4 so that self-reactive T-cells are unable ...

*Immune repertoire

T cell receptors come in 4 types, labelled alpha, beta, gamma and delta. In an organism, each of the 6 types of protein, in ... or antigen binding tests. Every day, we are exposed to a wide range of disease causing organisms. thus, how well our immune ... 1999) estimated repertoire for TCR alpha and TCR beta in CD4+/CD8+ T-cells, as approx 100,000. The repertoire is generated, by ... implication for a limited T cell receptor alpha chain repertoire". J. Exp. Med. 196: 1163-73. doi:10.1084/jem.20021074. PMC ...

*Pathogenic Escherichia coli

Uropathogenic E. coli produce alpha- and beta-hemolysins, which cause lysis of urinary tract cells. Another virulence factor ... O antigen: part of lipopolysaccharide layer K antigen: capsule H antigen: flagellin For example, E. coli strain EDL933 is of ... Approximately 1% of the human population lacks this receptor,[citation needed] and its presence or absence dictates an ... The outer membrane of an E. coli cell contains millions of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules, which consists of: O antigen, a ...

*FCER1A

The IgE receptor consists of 3 subunits: alpha (this protein), beta, and gamma; only the alpha subunit is glycosylated. GRCh38 ... Le Coniat M, Kinet JP, Berger R (1990). "The human genes for the alpha and gamma subunits of the mast cell receptor for ... antigen) molecule. A perturbation occurs that brings about the release of histamine and proteases from the granules in the ... 1988). "Human and rat mast cell high-affinity immunoglobulin E receptors: characterization of putative alpha-chain gene ...

*Cytotoxic T cell

Most cytotoxic T cells express T-cell receptors (TCRs) that can recognize a specific antigen. An antigen is a molecule capable ... The vast majority of T cells express alpha-beta TCRs (αβ T cells), but some T cells in epithelial tissues (like the gut) ... cytolytic T cell, CD8+ T-cell or killer T cell) is a T lymphocyte (a type of white blood cell) that kills cancer cells, cells ... If that rearrangement is successful, the cells then rearrange their alpha-chain TCR DNA to create a functional alpha-beta TCR ...

*Allergic conjunctivitis

Beta chemokines such as eotaxin and MIP-1 alpha have been implicated in the priming and activation of mast cells in the ocular ... which promote the production of antigen specific immunoglobulin E (IgE). IgE then binds to IgE receptors on the surface of mast ... When histamine is released from mast cells, it binds to H1 receptors on nerve endings and causes the ocular symptom of itching ... Histamine also binds to H1 and H2 receptors of the conjunctival vasculature and causes vasodilatation. Mast cell-derived ...

*CD8A

The CD8 antigen, acting as a coreceptor, and the T-cell receptor on the T lymphocyte recognize antigen displayed by an antigen ... or a heterodimer composed of one alpha and one beta chain. Both alpha and beta chains share significant homology to ... "The T cell differentiation antigen Leu-2/T8 is homologous to immunoglobulin and T cell receptor variable regions". Cell. 40 (3 ... The CD8 antigen is a cell surface glycoprotein found on most cytotoxic T lymphocytes that mediates efficient cell-cell ...

*T cell receptor revision

T cells or even switch between T cell lineages such as T regulatory cells and Th17 cells or gamma/delta and alpha/beta T cells ... T cell receptor revision (alternative term: antigen receptor editing) is a process in the peripheral immune system which is ... The current knowledge on antigen receptor editing both in T cells and B cells is far from complete, but it has an essential ... It is not correct since dual receptor T cells do exist in the periphery and the single receptor T cells can modify its ...

*Index of biochemistry articles

... alpha adrenergic receptor - Alpha helix - alpha-1 adrenergic receptor - alpha-2 adrenergic receptor - alpha-beta T-cell antigen ... beta-2 microglobulin - beta adrenergic receptor - beta sheet - beta-1 adrenergic receptor - beta-2 adrenergic receptor - beta- ... CCR5 receptor - CD4 antigen - CD45 antigen - CD95 antigen - CDC28 protein kinase - cell - cell adhesion molecule - Cell biology ... cell cycle protein - cell membrane - cell membrane transport - cell nucleus - cell surface receptor - cellular respiration - ...

*CD79A

Flaswinkel H, Reth M (1992). "Molecular cloning of the Ig-alpha subunit of the human B-cell antigen receptor complex". ... "Ig beta tyrosine residues contribute to the control of B cell receptor signaling by regulating receptor internalization". The ... Cluster of differentiation CD79A also known as B-cell antigen receptor complex-associated protein alpha chain and MB-1 membrane ... "Association of SLP-65/BLNK with the B cell antigen receptor through a non-ITAM tyrosine of Ig-alpha". European Journal of ...

*T cell

The majority of human T cells rearrange their alpha and beta chains on the cell receptor and are termed alpha beta T cells (αβ ... Healthy cells typically express a large number of self derived pMHC on their cell surface and although the T cell antigen ... such as B cells and natural killer cells, by the presence of a T-cell receptor on the cell surface. They are called T cells ... Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) represent a small subset of T cells that possess a distinct T cell receptor (TCR) on their ...

*Neuroendocrine differentiation

As opposed to their normal neuroendocrine counterparts, tumor neuroendocrine cells express the beta-oxidative enzyme alpha- ... They are negative for androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and are positive for prostate acid phosphatase. ... Prostatic neuroendocrine cells, also known as endocrine-paracrine cells, are part of a larger regulatory cell population ... The open type cells may in addition receive regulatory signals from luminal molecules The developmental origin of these cells ...

*PSMD7

2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. The 19S regulator is composed of a base, ... the HIV-1 Tat protein and the 11S regulator subunit alpha is crucial for their effects on proteasome function including antigen ... UPS proteolysis plays a major role in responses of cancer cells to stimulatory signals that are critical for the development of ... sterol-regulated element-binding proteins and androgen receptors are all controlled by the UPS and thus involved in the ...

*V(D)J recombination

Most T cell receptors are composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. The T cell receptor genes are similar to immunoglobulin ... that are rearranged during the development of the lymphocyte to provide that cell with a unique antigen receptor. The T cell ... Antibody B cell B cell receptor T cell T cell receptor Recombination-activating gene NKT cell "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or ... and T cell receptors (TCRs) found on B cells and T cells, respectively. The process is a defining feature of the adaptive ...