*Proopiomelanocortin

Millington GW (May 2006). "Proopiomelanocortin (POMC): the cutaneous roles of its melanocortin products and receptors". ... POMC variant may be involved in the natural history of polygenic obesity, contributing to the link between type 2 diabetes and ... However, there are at least eight potential cleavage sites within the polypeptide precursor and, depending on tissue type and ... These findings support the hypothesis that the melanocortin pathway may modulate glucose metabolism in obese subjects ...

*Stichodactyla toxin

Therefore, ShK, as a Kv3.2 blocker, might be useful in the treatment of type-2 diabetes, although inhibition of the delayed- ... "The cysteine-rich secretory protein domain of Tpx-1 is related to ion channel toxins and regulates ryanodine receptor Ca2+ ... "Kv1.3 gene-targeted deletion alters longevity and reduces adiposity by increasing locomotion and metabolism in melanocortin-4 ... ShK-186, due to its durable pharmacological action, is effective in ameliorating disease in rat models of delayed type ...

*Ocular albinism type 1

This receptor has been shown to be similar to class C G- protein coupled receptors (GPCR). OA1 receptor has a characteristic ... Furthermore, OA1 was found to be stimulated by α-melanocortin stimulating hormone but inhibited by agouti signal protein. The ... Ocular albinism type 1 (OA1), also called Nettleship-Falls syndrome, is the most common type of ocular albinism, with a ... Localization patterns of wild type OA1-GFP and mutated OA1-GFP were compared. The wild type OA1 localized to late endosomal or ...

*Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor

... in expression of human melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R)". Life Sci. 71 (18): 2171-9. doi:10.1016/S0024-3205(02)01996-3. PMID ... The term "lineage-specific", since it relates to MITF, means genes or traits that are only found in a certain cell type. ... Mutations in the MITF gene have been found in certain patients with Waardenburg syndrome, type II. Mutations that change the ... controls expression of the ocular albinism type 1 gene: link between melanin synthesis and melanosome biogenesis". Mol. Cell. ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543)

... receptor, melanocortin, type 1 MeSH D12.776.543.750.100.430.750 -- receptor, melanocortin, type 2 MeSH D12.776.543.750.100.430. ... receptor, melanocortin, type 1 MeSH D12.776.543.750.720.600.285.500.750 -- receptor, melanocortin, type 2 MeSH D12.776.543.750. ... receptor, melanocortin, type 1 MeSH D12.776.543.750.750.555.285.500.750 -- receptor, melanocortin, type 2 MeSH D12.776.543.750. ... receptor, melanocortin, type 1 MeSH D12.776.543.750.750.660.285.500.750 -- receptor, melanocortin, type 2 MeSH D12.776.543.750. ...

*Dark skin

"High polymorphism at the human melanocortin 1 receptor locus". Genetics. 151 (4): 1547-1557. ISSN 0016-6731. PMC 1460552 . PMID ... However, these cancer types usually affect people at the end or after their reproductive career and could have not been the ... As a consequence of vitamin D deficiency, they are at a higher risk of developing rickets, and numerous types of cancers, [but ... Of all the major skin cancer types, only malignant melanoma have a major effect in a person's reproductive age. The mortality ...

*Secretin

This type of substance is now called a hormone, a term coined by Bayliss in 1905. Secretin is initially synthesized as a 120 ... Chu JY, Chung SC, Lam AK, Tam S, Chung SK, Chow BK (2007). "Phenotypes developed in secretin receptor-null mice indicated a ... This function of the peptide is mediated by the central melanocortin system. Secretin is used in a diagnostic tests for ... In the absence of secretin or its receptor in the gene knockout animals, central injection of angiotensin II was unable to ...

*Ligand (biochemistry)

Homobivalent ligands target two of the same receptor types. Heterobivalent ligands target two different receptor types. Bitopic ... and melanocortin receptor systems, and for GPCR-LIC systems (D2 and nACh receptors). Bivalent ligands usually tend to be larger ... A ligand that can bind to a receptor, alter the function of the receptor, and trigger a physiological response is called an ... alkane-type agonists of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors: Synthesis, in vitro functional characterization, and in vivo ...

*ACTH receptor

... hormone receptor or ACTH receptor also known as the melanocortin receptor 2 or MC2 receptor is a type of melanocortin receptor ... ACTH receptors are the shortest of the melanocortin receptor family and are the smallest known G-coupled receptors. Both human ... ACTH receptors also require the binding of melanocortin-2 receptor accessory protein-1 (MRAP1) without which ACTH receptors ... Lipolytic activity due to melanocortin receptors has been demonstrated in several types of test animals: rats and hamsters ...

*Rhodopsin-like receptors

Melanocortin/ACTH receptor InterPro: IPR001671 Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R, MSHR) Melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3R) Melanocortin ... IPR000248 Angiotensin II receptor, type 1 (AGTR1, AG2S) Angiotensin II receptor, type 2 (AGTR2, AG22) Apelin receptor (AGTRL1, ... Endothelin receptor InterPro: IPR000499 Endothelin receptor type A (EDNRA, ET1R) Endothelin receptor type B (EDNRB, ETBR) GPR37 ... Melanocortin 5 receptor (MC5R) ACTH receptor (MC2R), ACTR) GPR3 (GPR3) GPR6 (GPR6) GPR12 (GPR12, GPRC) Eicosanoid receptor ...

*KCNA3

In children with type-1 diabetes mellitus, the disease-associated insulin- and GAD65-specific T cells isolated from the blood ... Kv1.3 is physically coupled through a series of adaptor proteins to the T-cell receptor signaling complex and it traffics to ... "Kv1.3 gene-targeted deletion alters longevity and reduces adiposity by increasing locomotion and metabolism in melanocortin-4 ... This member contains six membrane-spanning domains with a shaker-type repeat in the fourth segment. It belongs to the delayed ...

*Equine coat color genetics

... for melanocortin 1 receptor proteins (MC1R). MC1R relies on α-MSH to halt production of red-yellow pheomelanin, and initiate ... The combination of the extension and agouti loci determine the base coat of a horse.Bay is the original "wild type" color of ... "Melanocortin 1 receptor variation in the domestic dog". Mammalian Genome. 11 (1): 24-30. doi:10.1007/s003350010005. PMID ... less working melanocortin-1-receptor function due to the Ee-allele (Table 2). However, this result might be biased by the ...

*Melanocortin 3 receptor

"Melanocortin-3 receptor gene variants in a Maori kindred with obesity and early onset type 2 diabetes". Diabetes Research and ... "Melanocortin Receptors: MC3". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... Melanocortin receptor 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MC3R gene. This gene encodes MC3, a G-protein coupled ... "Localization of the genes encoding the melanocortin-2 (adrenocorticotropic hormone) and melanocortin-3 receptors to chromosomes ...

*Gyrfalcon

Molecular work suggests plumage color is associated with the melanocortin 1 receptor gene (MC1R), where a nonsynonymous point ... The Iceland types are presumed to have less gene flow with their neighbors; they show less variation in plumage colors. ... analysis of the melanocortin-1 receptor gene". Journal of Heredity. 103 (3): 315-321. doi:10.1093/jhered/ess023. PMID 22504110 ... type locality, Sweden), as well as F. r. intermedius and F. r. grebnitzkii (Siberia) all tend towards more or less dark "silver ...

*Chromatophore

MCH and melatonin receptors have been identified in fish and frogs, including a homologue of MC1R, a melanocortin receptor ... A related type of chromatophore, the leucophore, is found in some fish, in particular in the tapetum lucidum. Like iridophores ... Melanocortins result in the dispersion of pigment, while melatonin and MCH results in aggregation. Numerous melanocortin, ... "The structure and evolution of the melanocortin and MCH receptors in fish and mammals". Genomics. 81 (2): 184-91. doi:10.1016/ ...

*Adipose tissue

Farooqi IS, O'Rahilly S (Oct 2008). "Mutations in ligands and receptors of the leptin-melanocortin pathway that lead to obesity ... The two types of adipose tissue are white adipose tissue (WAT), which stores energy, and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which ... Several mutations of genes involving the melanocortins (used in brain signaling associated with appetite) and their receptors ... is controlled through the balanced control of lipolytic B-adrenergic receptors and a2A-adrenergic receptor-mediated ...

*MRNA surveillance

A second type of NSD has been observed in yeast. In this mechanism, the absence of Ski7 results in the loss of poly-A tail ... melanocortin-4-receptor). When the ribosome reaches a PTC the translation factors eRF1 and eRF3 interact with retained EJC ... This suggests that this NMD avoidance mechanism may be prevalent in other tissue types for a variety of genes. The current ... To this end, extensive BLAST searches have been performed to determine the prevalence of the proteins in various types of ...

*Cushing's syndrome

... can act on the melanocortin 1 receptor. A variant of Cushing's disease can be caused by ectopic, i.e. extrapituitary, ACTH ... Mifepristone is a powerful glucocorticoid type II receptor antagonist and, since it does not interfere with normal cortisol ... homeostatis type I receptor transmission, may be especially useful for treating the cognitive effects of Cushing's syndrome. ... Cushing's disease is a specific type of Cushing's syndrome caused by a pituitary tumor leading to excessive production of ACTH ...

*MRAP2

"Regulation of G protein-coupled receptor signaling: specific dominant-negative effects of melanocortin 2 receptor accessory ... encoding a new interacting partner of the ACTH receptor, cause familial glucocorticoid deficiency type 2". Nat. Genet. 37 (2): ... Melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRAP2 gene. MRAP2 interacts directly ... Gorrigan RJ, Guasti L, King P, Clark AJ, Chan LF (June 2011). "Localisation of the melanocortin-2-receptor and its accessory ...

*Leptin

The leptin receptor is found on a wide range of cell types. It is a single-transmembrane-domain type I cytokine receptor, a ... "Diet-induced obesity causes severe but reversible leptin resistance in arcuate melanocortin neurons". Cell Metab. 5 (3): 181-94 ... similar to the post-insulin receptor defect seen in type 2 diabetes. When leptin binds with the leptin receptor, it activates a ... Leptin interacts with six types of receptors (Ob-Ra-Ob-Rf, or LepRa-LepRf), which in turn are encoded by a single gene, LEPR. ...

*Skin whitening

The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) is a transmembrane and G-protein coupled receptor expressed in melanocytes. MC1R is an ... to produce cAMP as an intracellular second message via a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-type activation. cAMP activates ... When binding to its receptor, melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R), on the membrane of melanocytes, the hormone activates adenylate ... Activation of 5-HT2B receptors with BW-723C86 inhibits melanogenesis while activation of 5-HT2A receptors with the amphetamine ...

*Amelanism

Melanocytes depend on the Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) to signal the production of eumelanin. Loss of melanocortin 1 receptor ... An extremely uncommon type of chromatophore, the cyanophore, produces a very vivid blue pigment. Amelanism in fishes, ... Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) binds to the Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) and commits melanocytes to the production of ... Phaeomelanin is produced by melanocytes in the absence of melanocortin 1 receptor. This absence is mediated by agouti ...

*Chromosome 16 (human)

... melanocortin 1 receptor MCOPCT1: Microphthalmia with cataract 1 MT1G: encoding protein Metallothionein-1G METRN: encoding ... type 1 HIRIP3: encoding protein HIRA-interacting protein 3 HN1L: encoding protein Hematological and neurological expressed 1- ... encoding protein SplA/ryanodine receptor domain and SOCS box containing 3 SRCAP: encoding enzyme Helicase SRCAP TANGO6: ... Walters, et.al., R. G. (4 February 2010). "A new highly penetrant form of obesity due to deletions on chromosome 16p11.2". ...

*G protein-coupled receptor

The binding of ligands to the receptor may shift the equilibrium toward the active receptor states. Three types of ligands ... melanocortins, neuropeptide Y, opioid peptides, opsins, somatostatin, GH, tachykinins, members of the vasoactive intestinal ... transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein-linked receptors ( ... G protein-coupled receptors database List of MeSH codes (D12.776) Metabotropic receptor Orphan receptor Pepducins, a class of ...

*Rudolph Leibel

... confirmed cloning of the leptin receptor by demonstrating that an apparent leptin receptor cloned from a choroid plexus library ... Leibel also serves as one of four Scientific Steering Committee members of the Type 1 Diabetes Research Consortium, a multi- ... improves insulin sensitivity in mice with mutations in the melanocortin signaling pathway independently of effects on adiposity ... Leibel's co-discovery at Rockefeller University of the hormone leptin, and cloning of the leptin and leptin receptor genes, has ...

*Cat coat genetics

A mutation at the extension locus E/e (the melanocortin receptor) changes black pigment to amber or light amber. This ... This is one type of unpatterned tabby; the other type of unpatterned tabby is the shaded/chinchilla. See inhibited pigment gene ... but consisted only of down type hairs with a normal down type helical curl, which varied as in normal down hairs. Whiskers were ... New types of rex arise spontaneously in random-bred cats now and then. Here are some of the rex genes that breeders have ...