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*  Pyramidal cell
Pyramidal cells are among the largest neurons in the brain. Both in humans and rodents, pyramidal cell bodies (somas) average ... Ion channels within pyramidal cell dendrites have different properties from the same ion channel type within the pyramidal cell ... Pyramidal cell axons follow cues such as growth factors to make specific connections. With proper connections, pyramidal cells ... Due to branching, the total dendritic length of a pyramidal cell may reach several centimeters. The pyramidal cell's axon is ...
*  Gene therapy for epilepsy
It is primarily found in interneurons that modulates the firing rates of pyramidal cells primarily at a local level. They feed- ... The theory in utilizing somatostatin is that if pyramidal cells are eliminated, then the feed forward, otherwise known as ... forward inhibit pyramidal cells. In a series of studies where somatostatin was expressed in a rodent kindling model, it was ... Naegele, Janice; Xu M; Yang J; Royston S; Ribeiro E (September 2009). "Recent advancements in stem cell and gene therapies for ...
*  KCNK9
TASK-3 channels are also expressed in the hippocampus; both on pyramidal cells and interneurons. It is thought that these ... some cells in the neocortex, habenula, olfactory bulb granule cells, and cells in the external plexiform layer of the olfactory ... "Melanoma cells exhibit strong intracellular TASK-3-specific immunopositivity in both tissue sections and cell culture". Cell. ... TASK 3 is coexpressed with TASK 1 (KCNK3) in the cerebellar granule cells, locus coeruleus, motor neurons, pontine nuclei, ...
*  Hippocampus anatomy
Each CA1 Pyramidal cell also sends an axonal branch to fimbria. Hilar mossy cells and CA3 Pyramidal cells are the main origins ... Pyramidal cells of CA3 send their axons to CA1. Pyramidal cells of CA1 send their axons to the subiculum and deep layers of the ... Like mossy cells, a single CA3 Pyramidal cell contributes to both commissural and associational fibers, and they terminate on ... The basal dendrites of Pyramidal neurons are also found here, where they receive input from other Pyramidal cells, septal ...
*  Temporal lobe epilepsy
Verbal memory deficit correlates with pyramidal cell loss in TLE. This is more so on the left in verbal memory loss. Neuronal ... mossy cells normally excite basket cells which in turn, inhibit granule cells. Loss of mossy cells lowers the threshold of ... It has been found that GABA reversal potential is depolarising in the subpopulation of the pyramidal cells due to the lack of ... Lillis, Kyle P.; Kramer, Mark A.; Mertz, Jerome; Staley, Kevin J.; White, John A. (2012-09-01). "Pyramidal cells accumulate ...
*  Hirano body
They are frequently seen in hippocampal pyramidal cells. An experimental model of Hirano body formation has been reported, ... Hirano bodies are intracellular aggregates of actin and actin-associated proteins first observed in neurons (nerve cells) by ... Hirano bodies are found in the nerve cells of individuals afflicted with certain neurodegenerative disorders, such as ... J.Cell Sci. 115, 1939-1952. Gibson, P. H.; Tomlinson, B. E. (1977). "Numbers of Hirano bodies in the hippocampus of normal and ...
*  Neurotoxin
"Intraventricular Kainic Acid Preferentially Destroys Hippocampal Pyramidal Cells". Nature. 271 (5646): 676-77. doi:10.1038/ ... Thus, protective cells termed astrocytes surround the capillaries in the brain and absorb nutrients from the blood and ... As calcium flux is necessary for proper excitability of a cell, any significant inhibition could prevent a large amount of ... This α7-nAChR functions to allow calcium ion influx into cells, and thus when blocked by ingested bungarotoxin will produce ...
*  SPOCK1
Association with the postsynaptic area of hippocampus pyramidal cells". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (8): 4373-80. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.8. ... Marr HS, Basalamah MA, Edgell CJ (1998). "Endothelial cell expression of testican mRNA". Endothelium. 5 (3): 209-19. doi: ... 2001). "Distribution of testican expression in human brain". Cell Tissue Res. 302 (2): 139-44. doi:10.1007/s004410000277. PMID ... a multidomain testicular proteoglycan resembling modulators of cell social behaviour". Eur. J. Biochem. 214 (1): 347-50. doi: ...
*  Oskar Vogt
"The giant cells" were cortical pyramidal cells of unusual size. There were also particularities in layer 3. In 1925 Vogt ... He found that Lenin's brain showed a great number of "giant cells", which Vogt saw as a sign of superior mental function. " ... The Salk Institute for Biological Studies where she worked on viral transformation and cellular immortalization of cancer cells ...
*  Neuron
... examples are pyramidal cells, Purkinje cells, and anterior horn cells. Golgi II: neurons whose axonal process projects locally ... Pyramidal cells, neurons with triangular soma, a type of Golgi I. Renshaw cells, neurons with both ends linked to alpha motor ... researchers have converted connective tissue cells found in skin into heart cells, blood cells, and liver cells. Missing or ... Granule cells, a type of Golgi II neuron. Anterior horn cells, motoneurons located in the spinal cord. Spindle cells, ...
*  Isothalamus
The second kind of corticothamic axons is the Rockland type II (1994). This emanates from larger pyramidal cells and is much ...
*  Neuronal tracing
"Disynaptic Inhibition between Neocortical Pyramidal Cells Mediated by Martinotti Cells". Neuron. 53 (5): 735-746. doi:10.1016/j ... Many of the known neuron types, such as pyramidal neurons and Chandelier cells, were described based on their morphological ... for labeling from the cell body to synapse; Retrograde tracing, for labeling from the synapse to cell body; Viral neuronal ... Other more sophisticated neuron formats have separate geometrical modeling of the neuron cell body and neuron processes using ...
*  Large irregular activity
When LIA is present large numbers of pyramidal cells are activated. There is always a delay of a few seconds between the onset ... LIA is often accompanied by ripples in the pyramidal cell layer. When the neural circuitry of the hippocampus is activated it ... the presence of LIA and think that theta ordinarily provides an inhibitory process which locks most of the pyramidal cells so ...
*  Optogenetics
"Optical activation of lateral amygdala pyramidal cells instructs associative fear learning". Proceedings of the National ... Dec 1996). "Subregion- and cell type-restricted gene knockout in mouse brain". Cell. 87 (7): 1317-26. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00 ... Cellular scale modifications including manipulation of contractile forces relevant to cell migration, cell division and wound ... Cell. 121 (1): 141-152. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.02.004. PMID 15820685. Boyden, E. S.; Zhang, F.; Bamberg, E.; Nagel, G.; ...
*  Feature detection (nervous system)
One class of pyramidal cell, E-cells, respond to increases; a second, I-cells, respond to decreases in stimulus amplitude ... Beyond pyramidal cells and spherical cells, a more complex feature detector exists in the dorsal torus semicurcularis of the ... where spherical cells relay phase or time information to higher centers and pyramidal cells code for amplitude information. As ... More specifically, pyramidal cells are considered feature detectors that respond to the amplitude of the stimulus. ...
*  Glucocorticoids in hippocampal development
Granular cells populate the hippocampus slightly after pyramidal cell migration. These cells have farther distance to travel ... Pyramidal CA1 and CA3 precursor cells, therefore, do not have to migrate far to reach their final destination. The figure to ... Reelin knockout mice lack a single, distinct pyramidal cell body layer due to excess migration. Unexpectedly, these mice have ... the right indicates migration of pyramidal neurons forming the CA3 (orange) and CA1 (red) cell body layers. These cells ...
*  Apical dendrite
... smooth IPSPs in pyramidal cells and slow spiking cells (these produce large, fast-rising IPSPs in the pyramidal cell target). ... and they distinguish the pyramidal cells from spiny stellate cells in the cortices. Pyramidal cells are found in the prefrontal ... These pyramidal cells then project into the superficial entorhinal layer II and III cells. Layer V EC cells have strong ... Layer II is densely packed with pyramidal and semilunar cells. Layer III contains mostly pyramidal cells in its superficial ...
*  Sharp waves and ripples
Discharge of pyramidal cells of CA3 region also activates the GABAergic interneurons. Sparse firing of CA1 pyramidal cells and ... Population burst of pyramidal cells in the CA3 region of the hippocampus via CA3 collaterals cause depolarization of pyramidal ... Pyramidal cells of CA3 and CA1 dendritic layer region are important in generating these waves, and they affect the subiculum, ... These fast ripples are field potentials of hyper-synchronous bursting of excitatory neurons pyramidal cells at frequencies ...
*  Jamming avoidance response
Amplitude-coding P-units converge onto pyramidal cells, also in the ELL. Two types of pyramidal cells exist: 1) excitatory E- ... Spherical cells and pyramidal cells then project to the torus semicircularis (TS), a structure with many laminae, or layers. ... any given sign-selective cell will fire in one case but not for the other. Sign-selective cells input into the nucleus ... The time-coding T-units converge onto neurons called spherical cells in the electrosensory lateral line lobe (ELL). By ...
*  Neural backpropagation
Buzsáki, G; Kandel, A (1998). "Somadendritic backpropagation of action potentials in cortical pyramidal cells of the awake rat ... Stuart, G. Sakmann B. (1994). "Active propagation of somatic action potentials into neocortical pyramidal cell dendrites". ... requires the postsynaptic cell to be slightly depolarized when EPSPs are elicited, backpropagation can serve as the means of ... It is thought that this is due to the fact that each neuronal cell type contains varying numbers of the voltage-gated channels ...
*  HCN1
"Polarized and compartment-dependent distribution of HCN1 in pyramidal cell dendrites". Nature Neuroscience. 5 (11): 1185-93. ... Cell. 93 (5): 717-29. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81434-8. PMID 9630217. Hofmann F, Biel M, Kaupp UB (Dec 2005). "International ... in surviving dentate gyrus granule cells of human and experimental epileptic hippocampus". The Journal of Neuroscience. 23 (17 ...
*  Trisynaptic circuit
... granule cells, CA3 ("Cornu Ammonis" area 3) pyramidal neurons, and CA1 ("Cornu Ammonis" area 1) pyramidal cells. The ... Cells within the CA1 are mostly pyramidal cells, similar to those in CA3. The CA1 completes the circuit by feeding back to the ... The dentate gyrus then synapses on pyramidal cells in CA3 via mossy cell fibers. CA3 then fires to CA1 via Schaffer collaterals ... Information from the DG is directed to the pyramidal cells of CA3 through mossy fibres. Neurons within the DG are famous for ...
*  Upper motor neuron
... and are a type of giant pyramidal cell called Betz cells. The cell bodies of these neurons are the largest in the brain, ... The pyramidal cells of the precentral gyrus are also called upper motor neurons. The fibers of the upper motor neurons project ... also known as pyramidal insufficiency, occurs in the neural pathway above the anterior horn of the spinal cord. Such lesions ...
*  Hippocampus proper
Its pyramidal cells are more like those in CA3 than those in CA1. It is often ignored due to its small size. CA3 receives input ... The pyramidal cells in CA3 send some axons back to the dentate gyrus hilus, but they mostly project to regions CA2 and CA1 via ... Unlike the pyramidal neurons in CA1 and CA3, the neurons here contain mossy cells refs that primarily receive inputs from the ... CA3 uniquely, has pyramidal cell axon collaterals that ramify extensively with local regions and make excitatory contacts with ...
*  Mechanism of anoxic depolarization in the brain
Anoxia-prone cells in the brain include the hippocampal pyramidal cells of CA1, cerebellar purkinje cells, pyramidal ... the hippocampal pyramidal cells have been identified as the most vulnerable cells to ischemia. One possible explanation for why ... While basal ganglia, cerebellar purkinje cells, hippocampal, and neocortical cells are more vulnerable to transient ischemic ... "The role of pannexin hemichannels in the anoxic depolarization of hippocampal pyramidal cells". Brain. 133 (Pt 12): 3755-3763. ...
*  Racemization
However, bacteria produce D-amino acid residues that polymerize into short polypeptides which can be found in bacterial cell ... if the carbanion is planar or if it cannot maintain a pyramidal structure, then racemization should occur, though not always. ...