1950 Estes presented his influential stimulus sampling theory in the Psychological Review article Toward a Statistical theory ... Bower, G. H. (1994). "A turning point in mathematical learning theory". Psychological Review. 101 (2): 290-300. doi:10.1037/ ... Estes has had a major influence on theories of learning and memory, both in his own theorizing and in the theories of his many ... One of Estes' most famous contributions to learning theory was stimulus-sampling theory, which conceives of learning as ...
... at least in the early days of the theory, the theory was never adequately tested. One factor accounting for ambiguity in ... Explanatory style is a psychological attribute that indicates how people explain to themselves why they experience a particular ... Hopelessness theory also highlights perceived importance and consequences of a negative outcome in addition to causal ... Data have, however, been ambiguous, and some researchers believe that the theory is well-supported, some believe that it has ...
Lane, Harlan (1965). "The motor theory of speech perception: A critical review". Psychological Review. 72 (4): 275-309. doi: ... The behaviourist theory cites that the motor system has primary functioning during both speech perception and production. ... In the 1950s, the Motor theory of speech perception was also in development through Alvin Liberman and Franklin S. Cooper. It ... The mechanisms of speech shadowing could also be accounted for by the motor theory of speech perception. It states that ...
Australian Psychological Society (2015). "APS Position Statement on the use of psychological practices that attempt to change ... ISBN 0-8308-2379-4. Nicolosi, Joseph (2002). "A critique of Bem's "exotic becomes erotic" theory of sexual orientation ... It is also appropriate for psychological research to be undertaken on this topic. However, the Australian Psychological Society ... Psychological Science in the Public Interest: A Journal of the American Psychological Society. 17 (2): 85. doi:10.1177/ ...
Masters, Roger D. (1990), Evolutionary Biology and Political Theory. The American Political Science Review, Vol. 84, No. 1 ( ... Psychological Inquiry. 6 (1): 65-8. doi:10.1207/s15327965pli0601_12. Political Communication Masters, Roger D. (1981), Linking ... Masters, Roger D. (1982), Is Sociobiology Reactionary? The Political Implications of Inclusive-Fitness Theory. The Quarterly ... https://www.jstor.org/stable/2009448 Political Theory Masters, Roger D. (1977), The Case of Aristotle's Missing Dialogues: Who ...
Theories on this subject tend to fall into two different groups based on their underlying principles. Theories based on the " ... Kimball, Daniel R.; Smith, Troy A.; Kahana, Michael J. (2007). "The fSAM model of false recall". Psychological Review. 114 (4 ... These theories state that damage to the visual modality will result in a deficit of biological objects while damage to the ... In the theory of grounded cognition, the meaning of a particular word is grounded in the sensorimotor systems. For example, ...
Gyr John W (1972). "Is a Theory of Direct Visual Perception Adequate?". Psychological Bulletin. 77 (4): 246-261 [250]. doi: ... Corollary discharge theory Jeannerod, Marc (2003): "Action Monitoring and Forward Control of Movements". In: Michael Arbib (Ed ... The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks. Second Edition. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, pp. 83-85, here: p. 83. ...
Martin J.R. (1940). "Reminiscence and Gestalt Theory". Psychological Monographs. 52 (4): i-37. doi:10.1037/h0093575. Webster, J ... In a successful case of ego integrity theory the patient is at peace with the eventuality of death. This theory was developed ... In addition, depressive symptoms, psychological symptoms, psychological well-being, ego-integrity, meaning of/purpose in life, ... Ego Integrity Theory is based on the individual having a sense of fulfillment and success when looking back on their life and ...
... and Harary generalized Fritz Heider's psychological theory of balance in triangles of sentiments to a psychological theory of ... Cartwright, D.; Harary, F. (1956), "Structural balance: a generalization of Heider's theory", Psychological Review, 63 (5): 277 ... They appear in topological graph theory and group theory. They are a natural context for questions about odd and even cycles in ... a generalization of Heider's theory" (PDF). Psychological Review. 63 (5): 277-293. doi:10.1037/h0046049. Steven Strogatz (2010 ...
Goal seeking and human motivation became important in many theories. In 1959, White introduced a theory called "effectance ... This loss of perceived control has been found to correlate with greater psychological distress. A. Wallston, Kenneth; Strudler ... Reich; Infurna (2016). Perceived Control: Theory, Research, and Practice in the First 50 Years. Oxford Scholarship online. ISBN ... Current Psychology: A Journal for Diverse Perspectives on Diverse Psychological Issues Rodin, J. (1986). Aging and health: ...
From a psychological standpoint, friends and foes have been defined in a number of ways, but do not have a consistent ... According to this theory, negative stereotypes persist because information that is incongruent with a schema is not organized ... doi:10.1016/0163-6383(95)90009-8. Morton, J.; Johnson, M.H. (1991). "CONSPEC and CONLERN: A Two-Process Theory of Infant Face ... Gopie, N.; MacLeod, C. (2009). "Destination Memory: Stop Me if I've Told You This Before". Psychological Science. 20 (12): 1492 ...
Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change". Psychological Review. 84 (2): 191-215. doi:10.1037/0033-295x.84.2.191. PMID ...
Attachment theory One set of theorists believe that these self-associations take the form of an emotional attachment to the ... Symons, Cynthia S.; Johnson, Blair T. (May 1997). "The self-reference effect in memory: A meta-analysis". Psychological ... Self-referential memory theory Another set of theorists believe that ownership increases the perceived value of a good through ... Special Issue on the Application of Behavioral Decision Theory. 21 (4): 439-452. doi:10.1016/j.jcps.2011.01.002. ...
Existing social psychological theories, including cognitive dissonance, could not fully explain these phenomena. The desire to ... A social psychological perspective on mental health". Psychological Bulletin. 103 (2): 193-210. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.103.2.193 ... Much psychological research on the belief in a just world has focused on these negative social phenomena of victim blaming and ... This supports the theory of the just-world hypothesis because the powerless have had more personal and societal experiences ...
The 1950s saw a surge in mathematical theories of psychological processes, including Luce's theory of choice, Tanner and Swets ... Especially the developments in signal processing, information theory, linear systems and filter theory, game theory, stochastic ... Two seminal papers on learning theory in Psychological Review helped to establish the field in a world that was still dominated ... Estes, W. K. (1950). "Toward a statistical theory of learning". Psychological Review. 57 (2): 94-107. doi:10.1037/h0058559. ...
"A neuropsychological theory of positive affect and its influence on cognition". Psychological Review. 106 (3): 529-550. doi: ... 2015). "The relation between short-term emotion dynamics and psychological well-being: A meta-analysis" (PDF). Psychological ... and intellectual and psychological (e.g., resilience, optimism, and creativity). PA provides a psychological break or respite ... The broaden-and-build theory of PA suggests that PA broadens people's momentary thought-action repertoires and builds their ...
Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23, 302-307. doi: 10.1177/0963721414534256 Inzlicht, Michael; Schmeichel, Brandon ... Inzlicht, M. & Schmader, T. (2011). Stereotype Threat: Theory, Process, and Application. New York: Oxford University Press. ... Inzlicht, M.; Gutsell, J. N. (2007). "Running on empty: Neural signals for self-control failure". Psychological Science. 18 (11 ... American Psychological Association (Division 9) 2004-2006 - Fellow of the National Academy of Education/Spencer Foundation 2002 ...
If a phenomenon is sufficiently general and widely confirmed, it may be called a "law"; psychological theories serve to ... If a theory cannot be tested in any conceivable way then many scientists consider the theory to be meaningless. Testability ... Psychological Bulletin. 107 (1): 48-64. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.107.1.48. Torgerson, W. S. (1962) Theory and Methods of Scaling. ... Many psychological experiments yield numbers of this sort; for example, a participant might be able to rank odors such that A ...
The so-called regality theory describes how human psychological traits are responding to either a hostile or a peaceful ... Mesoudi, A. (2009). "How cultural evolutionary theory can inform social psychology and vice versa". Psychological Review. 116 ( ... The theory of cultural epidemiology was largely developed by Dan Sperber to study society and cultures. The theory has ... Evolutionary psychology Dual inheritance theory Theory of Regal and Kungic Societal Structures Culture Anthropology Tooby, J.; ...
Roeckelein, J. E. (2006). Elsevier's Dictionary of Psychological Theories. Elsevier. p. 147. ISBN 978-0-08-046064-2. Morewedge ... The endowment theory can be defined as "an application of prospect theory positing that loss aversion associated with ownership ... "Exchange Asymmetries Incorrectly Interpreted as Evidence of Endowment Effect Theory and Prospect Theory?". American Economic ... "Exchange Asymmetries Incorrectly Interpreted as Evidence of Endowment Effect Theory and Prospect Theory?" (PDF). American ...
However, the differential susceptibility theory (DST) and biological sensitivity to context theory (BSCT) and sensory ... Most components have been associated with traditionally accepted negative psychological outcomes including high stress levels, ... Aron, E.N. (2006). "The Clinical Implications of Jung's Concept of Sensitiveness". Journal of Jungian Theory and Practice. 8: ... Psychological Bulletin. 135 (6): 885-908. doi:10.1037/a0017376. PMID 19883141. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 7, ...
Biederman I (1987). "Recognition by components: A theory of human image understanding". Psychological Review. 94 (2): 115-147. ... viewpoint-dependent and multiple views theories. Viewpoint-invariant theories suggest that object recognition is based on ... This theory of recognition is based on a more holistic system rather than by parts, suggesting that objects are stored in ... Several theories have been generated to provide insight on how object constancy may be achieved for the purpose of object ...
Maslow, A. H. (1943). "A theory of human motivation". Psychological Review. 50 (4): 370-396. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.334.7586. doi: ... incentive theory, organizational justice theory, Herzberg's two-factor theory, and Theory X and Theory Y. Public relations is ... At least three theories are relevant here, theory of the firm, transaction cost economics, and agency theory. Theories ... a theory widely considered a precursor of Bertalanffy's general systems theory. One of the aims of general systems theory was ...
Freud's trauma theory, originally named "Seduction Theory" posits that childhood amnesia was the result of the mind's attempt ... Free recall refers to the specific paradigm in the psychological study of memory where participants study a list of items on a ... Notably, Freud himself abandoned this theory in the late 1800s. Freudian theory, including his explanation for childhood ... Using psychoanalytic theory, he postulated that early life events were repressed due to their inappropriately sexual nature. He ...
doi:10.1016/0191-8869(91)90182-B. Eysenck, Hans J. (1993). Creativity and Personality: Suggestions for a Theory. Psychological ... doi:10.1016/0191-8869(92)90236-I. Lester, D.(1989) Neurotransmitter bases for Eysenck's theory of personality. Psychological ... Eysenck's theoretical basis for the model was the theory of Einheitspsychosen (unitary psychosis) of the nineteenth-century ...
Two critiques of Bem's theory in the journal Psychological Review concluded that "studies cited by Bem and additional research ... The American Psychological Association (APA) takes the position that a variety of factors impact a person's sexuality. The most ... Biological theories for explaining the causes of sexual orientation are favored by scientists. These factors, which may be ... Socialization theories, which were dominant in the 1900s, favored the idea that children were born "undifferentiated" and were ...
Higgins, E.T. (1987). "Self-discrepancy: A theory relating self and affect". Psychological Review. 94 (3): 319-340. doi:10.1037 ... Consequently, the theory that the media directly influences low self-esteem and body image dissatisfaction may be too simple. ... Sociocultural theory maintains that current societal standards for beauty emphasize the desirability of thinness, and thinness ... Some of these indicate that after women are shown images of ultra-thin models, they experience psychological and behavioral ...
5], Theory of the Frequency Principle for General Deep Neural Networks. Crick, Francis (1989). "The recent excitement about ... Psychological Review. 65 (6): 386-408. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.588.3775. doi:10.1037/h0042519. PMID 13602029. Werbos, P.J. (1975). ... The basics of continuous backpropagation were derived in the context of control theory by Kelley in 1960 and by Bryson in 1961 ... VC Dimension uses the principles of measure theory and finds the maximum capacity under the best possible circumstances. This ...
Loevinger, Jane (1993). "Ego Development: Questions of Method and Theory". Psychological Inquiry. 4 (1): 58. doi:10.1207/ ... Through his emergent cyclical theory, Graves has primarily been influential in the area of management theory, both during his ... He called these 'express self' and 'deny self' systems, and the swing between them is the cyclic aspect of his theory. Graves ... "Review Of: A Theory of Everything". Integralis: Journal of Integral Consciousness, Culture, and Science. 1. Retrieved 12 Aug ...
Buss and Schmitt provided a Sexual Strategies Theory that describes the two sexes as having evolved distinct psychological ... A theory that can explain this finding from an evolutionary perspective is the parasite-stress theory which explains that an ... Life History theory (that includes Parental Investment Theory) provides an explanation for the above mechanisms and strategies ... These two theories explain why natural and sexual selection acts slightly differently on the two sexes so that they display ...
Michael A. Arbib; Shun-ichi Amari; Prudence H. Arbib (2002). The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks. Cambridge, ... Furthermore, these computational models frame hypotheses that can be directly tested by biological or psychological experiments ... In some cases the complex interactions between inhibitory and excitatory neurons can be simplified using mean field theory, ... In theory, computational neuroscience would be a sub-field of theoretical neuroscience which employs computational simulations ...
... the psychological effects on her childhood were profound, for "in one stroke she [Ruth] experienced the loss of the two most ... a theory which she championed in her 1934 Patterns of Culture. ... of culture-trait diffusion studies and towards theories of ...
... or whose theory and practice is not part of biomedicine,[n 2][n 4][n 5][n 6] or whose theories or practices are directly ... Any treatment - whether conventional or alternative - that has a biological or psychological effect on a patient may also have ... Martin, Hélène; Debons, Jérôme (2015). CAM and conventional medicine in Switzerland : divided in theory, united in practice. In ... Alternative medicine is defined loosely as a set of products, practices, and theories that are believed or perceived by their ...
psychological dependence - dependence that involves emotional-motivational withdrawal symptoms (e.g., dysphoria and anhedonia) ... Robinson TE, Berridge KC (1993). "The neural basis of drug craving: An incentive-sensitization theory of addiction". Brain Res ... Sensitization may also contribute to psychological disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder, panic anxiety and mood ... in line with the gateway drug theory - and also between sugar consumption and the self-administration of drugs of abuse.[20] ...
... and in theory have shorter work hours.[7] The laogai system is much larger than the re-education through labor system, with the ... "torture and severe psychological pressure."[48] In at least one instance, convicted individuals were sent to re-education ...
Certain brainwave frequencies are associated with general psychological processes. EEGs are used to measure the brain waves. ... Detection theory. *Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring. *Neurochip. *Neurodegeneration. *Neurodevelopmental disorder. ...
American Psychological Association. 90 (1): 60-77. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.90.1.60. hdl:2027.42/39168. PMID 16448310.. ... American Psychological Association. 81 (4): 599-615. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.81.4.599. ISSN 0022-3514. PMID 11642348.. ... American Psychological Association. 77 (6): 1121-1134. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.64.2655 . doi:10.1037/0022-3514.77.6.1121. PMID ... American Psychological Association. 84 (1): 5-17. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.84.1.5. PMID 12518967.. ...
One theory is that the face at the center of the stone represents Tonatiuh, the Aztec deity of the sun. It is for this reason ... Western psychological interpretationsEdit. According to art therapist and mental health counselor Susanne F. Fincher, we owe ... A. Wayman (1981). "Reflections on the Theory of Barabudur as a Mandala". Barabudur History and Significance of a Buddhist ... Tucci, Giuseppe (1973). The Theory and Practice of the Mandala trans. Alan Houghton Brodrick, New York, Samuel Weisner. ...
In the jargon of psychological measurement theory, IQ is an ordinal scale, where we are simply rank-ordering people. . . . It ... Scale types and Stevens's "operational theory of measurement"[edit]. The theory of scale types is the intellectual handmaiden ... Stevens proposed his typology in a 1946 Science article titled "On the theory of scales of measurement".[2] In that article, ... von Eye, A. (2005). "Review of Cliff and Keats, Ordinal measurement in the behavioral sciences". Applied Psychological ...
Some of the popular theories include: Introduction of artifacts in audio material[edit]. Musicality, especially on the radio, ... It is thought to be an extension of the quantifiable psychological perception of sound. Common groups at risk of becoming ...
Theories of technology often attempt to predict the future of technology based on the high technology and science of the time. ... that the inevitable result of such a society is to become evermore technological at the cost of freedom and psychological ... According to Alexis Madrigal's review of Morozov's theory, to ignore it will lead to "unexpected consequences that could ...
and Psychological Issues (Third ed.). New York: Harper & Row. p. 228.. *^ McGowan, Josephine (February 11, 1931). "A Decade of ... The education of women in the United States: A guide to theory, teaching, and research (Routledge, 2014). ...
Psychological color balance[edit]. Humans relate to flesh tones more critically than other colors. Trees, grass and sky can all ... Johannes von Kries, whose theory of rods and three color-sensitive cone types in the retina has survived as the dominant ... Blain Brown (2002). Cinematography: Theory and Practice : Imagemaking for Cinematographers, Directors, and Videographers. Focal ... Doing analogously for green and blue would result, at least in theory, in a color balanced image. In this type of ...
... etiology of FND was historically explained in the context of psychoanalytic theory as a physical manifestation of psychological ... There is very little supporting evidence for this theory.[29] The DSM-IV lists conversion disorders instead of the current FND ... The requirement of a history of psychological stressors and that the symptom is not fake was removed as well.[30] ... and given that a psychological cause cannot be identified in many cases, they may be more appropriate. Within DSM 5, patients ...
McGraw, K.O.; Wong, J.J. (1992). "A common language effect size statistic". Psychological Bulletin. 111 (2): 361-365. doi: ... Lehamnn, Erich L.; Elements of Large Sample Theory, Springer, 1999, p. 176 ...
... is a theory of brain development proposed by the British cognitive neuroscientist Mark Johnson, who ... Current Directions in Psychological Science. 15 (1): 24-28. doi:10.1111/j.0963-7214.2006.00400.x.. ... Other key influences include Gilbert Gottlieb's theory of Probabilistic Epigenesis ,[8] a framework that emphasizes the ...
1926). The Divining Rod: An Experimental and Psychological Investigation. Kessinger Publishing Reprint Edition, 2004. ... Conspiracy theory *9/11 conspiracy theories. *Chemtrail conspiracy theory. *Climate change denial ... The Divining Rod: An Experimental and Psychological Investigation. (1926) Kessinger Publishing, 2004: p.7 ...
2002) was to combine existing psychological theory and applied sport psychology in an attempt to bridge the gap between ... In: Mental toughness in sport : developments in research and theory. Gucciardi, Daniel F and Gordan, Sandy, eds. Routledge ... Psychological resilience Stress management Hardiness Resourcefulness Declan Connaughton,2008. The development and maintenance ... They have, using samples of athletes, shown a link between toughness, coping, emotional reactivity, psychological skills and ...
Goodin, Robert E. (2008). Innovating Democracy: Democratic Theory and Practice after the Deliberative Turn (Repr. ed.). Oxford ... Goodin, Robert E. (2008). Innovating democracy: democratic theory and practice after the deliberative turn (Repr. ed.). Oxford ... "Donald Trump's conspiracy theories sound anti-Semitic. Does he even realize it?". Washington Post. Retrieved May 1, 2017.. ...
There is some debate as to the reasons; one theory is that the trend is the result of improved diagnosis and reporting, since ... and even psychological symptoms such as depression and anxiety.[16] ...
In his theory of "The Ten Intellects", he viewed the human soul as the tenth and final intellect.[88][89] ... In Helena Blavatsky's Theosophy, the soul is the field of our psychological activity (thinking, emotions, memory, desires, will ... J. (1996). The Conscious Mind: In Search of a Fundamental Theory, New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. ... According to Plato's theory, the three-part soul is essentially the same thing as a state's class system because, to function ...
William Lamont Marshall; D.R. Laws; Howard E. Barbaree (21 November 2013). Handbook of Sexual Assault: Issues, Theories, and ... Vance SR, Ehrensaft D, Rosenthal SM (2014). "Psychological and medical care of gender nonconforming youth". Pediatrics. 134 (6 ...
a b c Teatero ML, Netley C. A Critical Review of the Research on the Extreme Male Brain Theory and Digit Ratio (2D:4D). „ ... Psychological Reports". 104 (3), s. 922-956, 2009. DOI: 10.2466/PR0.104.3.922-956. PMID: 19708418. ... W: Shackelford T, Weekes-Shackelford V (red.): Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science. Cham: Springer, 2018. ISBN ...
Fischer, K. W. (1980). A theory of cognitive development: The control and construction of hierarchies of skills. Psychological ... The theory of Kurt W FischerEdit. Kurt W. Fischer advanced a theory that integrates Piaget's notion of stages in cognitive ... Neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development criticize and build upon Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development. ... However, Fischer's theory differs from the other neo-Piagetian theories in a number of respects. One of them is in the way it ...
Psychological distress[edit]. Main article: Psychological distress. Longitudinal studies have suggested adverse working ... Part A, Theory and Practice, 7(7), 907-932. *^ Landsbergis, P., Dobson, M., Koutsouras, G., & Schnall, P. (2013). Job strain ... 165-183). Washington DC, American Psychological Association. *^ a b Richardson, K. M., & Rothstein, H. R. (2008). Effects of ... Psychological Medicine, 47, 1342-135. doi:10.1017/S003329171600355X *^ Ettner, S.L. (2011). Personality disorders and Work. In ...
Accounts of libertarianism subdivide into non-physical theories and physical or naturalistic theories. Non-physical theories ... Psychological Review. 107. *Schopenhauer, Arthur (1839). On the Freedom of the Will., Oxford: Basil Blackwell ISBN 0-631-14552- ... Frankfurt's theory can ramify to any number of levels. Critics of the theory point out that there is no certainty that ... In many ways, the Buddhist position is closer to a theory of "conditionality" than a theory of "causality", especially as it is ...
Psychological and social consequences[edit]. After sex reassignment surgery, transsexuals (people who underwent cross-sex ... Theory and concepts. *Ambiphilia, androphilia, gynephilia. *Childhood gender nonconformity. *Cisgender / cissexual. *Cross- ... For many individuals, these may require a minimum duration of psychological evaluation and living as a member of the target ... the American Psychological Association,[15] and the National Association of Social Workers.[16] ...
Goodman, K.D. (2011). Music Therapy Education and Training: From Theory to Practice. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas. ISBN ... Music interventions may have positive effects on psychological and physical outcomes in people with cancer.[51] A 2016 meta- ... Davis, William B., Kate E. Gfeller, and Michael H. Thaut (2008). An Introduction to Music Therapy: Theory and Practice. Third ... Davis, W. B., Gfeller, K. E., & Thaut, M. H. (2008). An Introduction to Music Therapy Theory and Practice-Third Edition: The ...
This theory consists of three subcategories: risky choice framing, attribute framing and goal framing.[7] Risky choice framing ...
"Imagination: A Psychological Critique" (1936). *"The Transcendence of the Ego" (1936). *"Sketch for a Theory of the Emotions" ( ... His work has also influenced sociology, critical theory, post-colonial theory, and literary studies, and continues to influence ... Imagination: A Psychological Critique / L'imagination (1936). *The Transcendence of the Ego / La transcendance de l'égo (1937) ... Sketch for a Theory of the Emotions / Esquisse d'une théorie des émotions (1939) ...