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*  Protein primary structure
However, the complexity of protein folding currently prohibits predicting the tertiary structure of a protein from its sequence ... Protein primary structure is the linear sequence of amino acids in a peptide or protein. By convention, the primary structure ... tertiary structure). Protein sequence can be used to predict local features, such as segments of secondary structure, or trans- ... for example a member of the same protein family) allows highly accurate prediction of the tertiary structure by homology ...
*  Protein tertiary structure
A number of tertiary structures may fold into a quaternary structure. The science of the tertiary structure of proteins has ... Protein tertiary structure is the three dimensional shape of a protein. The tertiary structure will have a single polypeptide ... The interactions and bonds of side chains within a particular protein determine its tertiary structure. The protein tertiary ... Contemporary methods are able to determine, without prediction, tertiary structures to within 5 Å (0.5 nm) for small proteins ( ...
*  De novo protein structure prediction
... de novo protein structure prediction refers to an algorithmic process by which protein tertiary structure is predicted from its ... Protein structure prediction Protein structure prediction software Protein design "Editorial: So much more to know". Science. ... De novo protein structure prediction methods attempt to predict tertiary structures from sequences based on general principles ... Coarse-grained protein models allow for de novo structure prediction of small proteins, or large protein fragments, in a short ...
*  Non-covalent interactions
Single tertiary protein structures can also assemble to form protein complexes composed of multiple independently folded ... three-dimensional structures of proteins, known as secondary and tertiary structures, are stabilized by formation of hydrogen ... As a whole, this is called a protein's quaternary structure. The quaternary structure is generated by the formation of ... and angle strain also play major roles in the folding of a protein from its primary sequence to its tertiary structure. ...
*  Ram Samudrala
Xia Y, Huang ES, Levitt M, Samudrala R. Ab initio construction of protein tertiary structures using a hierarchical approach. ... Ab initio prediction of protein structure using a combined hierarchical approach. Proteins: Structure, Function, and Genetics ... A database of incorrect protein conformations to improve protein structure prediction. Protein Science 9: 1399-1401, 2000. Liu ... Handling context-sensitivity in protein structures using graph theory: bona fide prediction. Proteins: Structure, Function, and ...
*  Protein secondary structure
Predicting protein tertiary structure from only its amino acid sequence is a very challenging problem (see protein structure ... The Dictionary of Protein Secondary Structure, in short DSSP, is commonly used to describe the protein secondary structure with ... He had already introduced the concepts of the primary, secondary, and tertiary structure of proteins in the third Lane Lecture ... Accurate secondary-structure prediction is a key element in the prediction of tertiary structure, in all but the simplest ( ...
*  Template modeling score
... modeling score or TM-score is a measure of similarity between two protein structures with different tertiary structures. The TM ... RMSD - a different structure comparison measure GDT - a different structure comparison measure LCS - a different structure ... Proteins. 57 (4): 702-710. doi:10.1002/prot.20264. PMID 15476259. Zhang Y and Skolnick J (2005). "TM-align: a protein structure ... Xu J and Zhang Y (2010). "How significant is a protein structure similarity with TM-score = 0.5?". Bioinformatics. 26 (7): 889- ...
*  Globular protein
The spherical structure is induced by the protein's tertiary structure. The molecule's apolar (hydrophobic) amino acids are ... Even in the protein's denatured state, it can be folded into the correct structure. Globular proteins seem to have two ... Globular proteins or spheroproteins are spherical ("globe-like") proteins and are one of the common protein types (the others ... Regulatory roles are also performed by globular proteins rather than fibrous proteins. Structural proteins, e.g., actin and ...
*  Beta sheet
Tertiary Protein Structure and Folds: section 4.3.2.1. From Principles of Protein Structure, Comparative Protein Modelling, and ... See sections II B and III C, D in Richardson JS (1981). Anatomy and Taxonomy of Protein Structures. Advances in Protein ... Anatomy & Taxonomy of Protein Structures -survey NetSurfP - Secondary Structure and Surface Accessibility predictor. ... Hutchinson EG, Thornton JM (1990). "HERA--a program to draw schematic diagrams of protein secondary structures". Proteins. 8 (3 ...
*  Michael Levitt
Xia, Y.; Huang, E. S.; Levitt, M.; Samudrala, R. (2000). "Ab initio construction of protein tertiary structures using a ... He has also worked on simplified representations of protein structure for analysing folding and packing, as well as developing ... Hinds, D. A.; Levitt, M. (1994). "Exploring conformational space with a simple lattice model for protein structure". Journal of ... Brenner, S. E.; Koehl, P.; Levitt, M. (2000). "The ASTRAL compendium for protein structure and sequence analysis". Nucleic ...
*  Protein crystallization
This diffraction pattern can then be analyzed to discern the protein's tertiary structure. Protein crystallization is ... "The Protein Structure Project, 1950-1959: First Concerted Effort Of a Protein Structure Determination In the U.S". The Rigaku ... progress in determining protein structure was slow due to the difficulty inherent in crystallizing proteins. When the Protein ... Protein crystallization is the process of formation of a protein crystal. While some protein crystals have been observed in ...
*  Citrullination
Thus, arginine's positive charge (at physiological pH) is removed, altering the protein's tertiary structure. The reaction uses ... This increases the hydrophobicity of the protein, which can lead to changes in protein folding, affecting the structure and ... autoantibodies often attack citrullinated proteins. The presence of anti-citrullinated protein antibody is a standard test for ... Citrullinated proteins are also found in the cellular debris accompanying the destruction of cells in alzheimer disease, and ...
*  Jeffrey Skolnick
"TASSER: An automated method for the prediction of protein tertiary structures in CASP6". Proteins: Structure, Function, and ... "Protein study suggests drug side effects are inevitable". Drug Discovery Today. May 23, 2013. Zhang, Yang. "Protein structure ... and the exploration of the interplay between protein physics and evolution in determining protein structure and function. ... Skolnick was first to demonstrate that the library of single domain protein structures is likely complete and that the observed ...
*  Latisemin
... cysteines not oxidised to cystine and thus not providing disulfide bond support to tertiary protein structure). They are ... "Structure and function of snake venom cysteine-rich secretory proteins". Toxicon. 44 (3): 227-231. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon. ... Other snake venom proteins in the CRISP family: Ablomin from the Japanese Mamushi snake (Gloydius blomhoffi) Ophanin from the ... Latisemin is a cysteine-rich secretory protein that can be isolated from the venom of the Black-banded sea krait, a sea snake ...
*  Prion
Effective prion decontamination relies upon protein hydrolysis or reduction or destruction of protein tertiary structure. ... The "protein-only hypothesis" states that a protein structure can replicate without the use of nucleic acids. This was ... One idea, the "Protein X" hypothesis, is that an as-yet unidentified cellular protein (Protein X) enables the conversion of ... disease Prion pseudoknot Protein folding Protein misfolding cyclic amplification Proteopathy Spiroplasma Tertiary structure ...
*  Cystine
Lanthionine, similar with mono-sulfide link Protein tertiary structure Sullivan reaction Cystinosis Nelson, D. L.; Cox, M. M.; ... a site of redox reactions and a mechanical linkage that allows proteins to retain their three-dimensional structure. It is ... It was not recognized as being derived of proteins until it was isolated from the horn of a cow in 1899. Human hair and skin ... In cell biology, cystine (found in proteins) can only exist in non-reductive (oxidative) organelles, such as the secretory ...
*  Conalbumin
Disulfide groups stabilize the tertiary structures of proteins. Transferrins, are iron binding proteins and acute phase ... This process is determined by the structure of the protein backbone and the carbohydrate attachment site. In addition, ... Egg white albumen is composed of multiple proteins and ovotransferrin is the most heat reliable protein of them all. It has a ... Consequently, structurally this protein differs from its serum counterpart because of its glycosylation pattern. These proteins ...
*  Lattice protein
The relative positions of the beads in the native state constitute the lattice protein's tertiary structure. Lattice proteins ... Most researchers consider a lattice protein sequence protein-like only if it possesses a single structure with an energetic ... Lattice proteins are highly simplified computer models of proteins which are used to investigate protein folding. Because ... some researchers have claimed that they can be extrapolated onto real protein structures which do include secondary structure, ...
*  Cysteine
... disulfide bridges between cysteine residues within a polypeptide support the protein's tertiary structure. Insulin is an ... Gorga, Frank R. (1998-2001). "Introduction to Protein Structure--Non-Polar Amino Acids". Archived from the original on 2012-09- ... Disulfide bonds play an important role in the folding and stability of some proteins, usually proteins secreted to the ... Cysteine residues play a valuable role by crosslinking proteins, which increases the rigidity of proteins and also functions to ...
*  Protein structure
Proteins are often thought of as relatively stable structures that have a set tertiary structure and experience conformational ... The sequence of a protein is unique to that protein, and defines the structure and function of the protein. The sequence of a ... There are four distinct levels of protein structure. The primary structure of a protein refers to the sequence of amino acids ... The generation of a protein sequence is much easier than the determination of a protein structure. However, the structure of a ...
*  WHAT IF software
... homology modeling of protein tertiary structures and quaternary structures; validating protein structures, notably those ... Hooft, RW; Vriend, G; Sander, C; Abola, EE (23 May 1996). "Errors in protein structures". Nature. 381 (6580): 272. doi:10.1038/ ... correcting protein structures; visualising macromolecules and their interaction partners (for example, lipids, drugs, ions, and ... WHAT IF is a computer program used in a wide variety of computational (in silico) macromolecular structure research fields. The ...
*  Hans Frauenfelder
Within biophysics, he is known for experiment and theory in understanding the dynamical behavior of protein tertiary structure ... and the biophysics of protein folding and motions. In 1992, Frauenfelder moved to the Los Alamos National Laboratory where he ...
*  Protein domain
A protein domain is a conserved part of a given protein sequence and (tertiary) structure that can evolve, function, and exist ... motif Protein Protein structure Protein structure prediction Protein structure prediction software Protein superfamily Protein ... The overall 3D structure of the polypeptide chain is referred to as the protein's tertiary structure. Domains are the ... However, sequence similarities can be extremely low between proteins that share the same structure. Protein structures may be ...
*  List of MeSH codes (G06)
... protein structure, tertiary MeSH G06.184.603.790.709.610.380 --- hmg-box domains MeSH G06.184.603.790.709.610.480 --- kringles ... protein conformation MeSH G06.184.603.790.709.550 --- protein structure, quaternary MeSH G06.184.603.790.709.600 --- protein ... protein processing, post-translational MeSH G06.535.770.871.790.600.400 --- protein isoprenylation MeSH G06.535.770.871.790.600 ... protein MeSH G06.184.842.550 --- sequence homology, nucleic acid MeSH G06.184.842.550.830 --- synteny MeSH G06.184.850.400 --- ...
*  Kaj Ulrik Linderstrøm-Lang
... tertiary and quaternary structure. Linderstrøm-Lang devoted himself unstintingly to protein science and trained a whole ... 1992) "Contribution of physical chemistry to an understanding of protein structure and function", Protein Sci., 1, 691-693. ... Linderstrøm-Lang is justly famous for his organization of protein structure into four levels: primary, secondary, tertiary and ... His most notable scientific contributions were the development of sundry physical techniques to study protein structure and ...
*  Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2
The tertiary and quaternary structures of PTGS1 (COX-1) and PTGS2 (COX-2) enzymes are almost identical. Each subunit has three ... Picot D, Loll PJ, Garavito RM (January 1994). "The X-ray crystal structure of the membrane protein prostaglandin H2 synthase-1 ... PTGS (COX, which can be confused with "cytochrome oxidase") enzymes are monotopic membrane proteins; the membrane-binding ... of the protein. The catalytic domain is homologous to mammalian peroxidases such as myeloperoxidase. It has been found that ...