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*  Farnesyltransferase
This process, called farnesylation (which is a type of prenylation), causes farnesylated proteins to become membrane-associated ... S-farnesyl protein + diphosphate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are farnesyl diphosphate and protein-cysteine, whereas ... Farnesyltransferase posttranslationally-modifies proteins by adding an isoprenoid lipid called a farnesyl group to the -SH of ... There are four binding pockets in FTase, which accommodate the last four amino acids on the carboxyl-terminus of a protein. ...
*  Rab geranylgeranyltransferase
Rab GGTase is "responsible for the largest number of individual protein prenylation events in the cell," probably due to this ... Instead Rab proteins are bound by the Rab escort protein (REP) over a more conserved region of the Rab protein and then ... it is in the protein prenyltransferase family along with two other enzymes (protein farnesyltransferase and protein ... The C-terminus of Rab proteins varies in length and sequence and is referred to as hypervariable. Thus Rab proteins do not have ...
*  Protein primary structure
prenylation and palmitoylation − C ( = O ) − ( C H 2 ) 14 − C H 3 {\displaystyle \mathrm {-C(=O)-\left(CH_{2}\right)_{14}-CH_{3 ... Protein primary structure is the linear sequence of amino acids in a peptide or protein. By convention, the primary structure ... The protein is activated by cleaving off the inhibitory peptide. Some proteins even have the power to cleave themselves. ... The colloidal protein hypothesis stated that proteins were colloidal assemblies of smaller molecules. This hypothesis was ...
*  Lapaquistat
... from protein prenylation to immunomodulation". Nat. Rev. Immunol. 6 (5): 358-70. doi:10.1038/nri1839. PMID 16639429. Takeda ... including protein prenylation). On March 28, 2008, Takeda halted further development of lapaquistat. While effective at ...
*  Prenylation
The Rab proteins usually terminate in a CC or CXC motif. Instead, Rab proteins are bound by the Rab escort protein (REP) over a ... Prenyl groups have been shown to be important for protein-protein binding through specialized prenyl-binding domains. Protein ... It is an important process to mediate protein-protein interactions and protein-membrane interactions. Farnesyltransferase and ... Proteins that undergo prenylation include Ras, which plays a central role in the development of cancer. This suggests that ...
*  Lipid-anchored protein
The prenylation motif "CAAX box" is the most common prenylation site in proteins, that is, the site where farnesyl or ... but the site where the lipid binds to the protein depends both on the lipid group and protein. prenylated proteins are proteins ... Lipid-anchored proteins (also known as lipid-linked proteins) are proteins located on the surface of the cell membrane that are ... Overall, there are three main types of lipid-anchored proteins which include prenylated proteins, fatty acylated proteins and ...
*  Michael Stuart Brown
... protein prenylation) in cancer. In 1984 he was awarded the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University together with ... Nov 1984). "The human LDL receptor: a cysteine-rich protein with multiple Alu sequences in its mRNA". Cell. 39 (1): 27-38. doi: ... Reiss Y, Goldstein JL, Seabra MC, Casey PJ, Brown MS (Jul 1990). "Inhibition of purified p21ras farnesyl:protein transferase by ... Oct 1993). "SREBP-1, a basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper protein that controls transcription of the low density lipoprotein ...
*  Mevalonate kinase deficiency
Prenylation refers to addition of hydrophobic residues to proteins) ] and non-sterol isoprenoids, such as farnesyl ... an increased IL-1β secretion and mevalonate kinase deficiency in MKD is most likely mediated by defective protein prenylation ( ... is a protein produced by a certain type of white blood cells. There are five classes of Immunoglobin like IgG, IgA and IgM, IgE ... reactive protein (CRP) also increases. [9]. The CRP is released by liver which causes inflammation[13]. Mevalonate kinase ...
*  Bisphosphonate
While inhibition of protein prenylation may affect many proteins found in an osteoclast, disruption to the lipid modification ... This phenomenon is known as prenylation, and is important for proper sub-cellular protein trafficking (see "lipid-anchored ... These proteins can affect both osteoclastogenesis, cell survival, and cytoskeletal dynamics. In particular, the cytoskeleton is ... that are essential for connecting some small proteins to the cell membrane. ...
*  Lorena S. Beese
She is also interested in protein prenylation enzymes as targets for structure-based discovery of anticancer therapeutics and ... Taylor, J.S.; Reid, T.S.; Terry, K.L.; Casey, P.J.; Beese, L.S. (2003). "Structure of mammalian protein ... Structural biology of protein farnesyltransferase and geranylgeranyltransferase type I". Journal of Lipid Research. 47 (4): 681 ... Hast, M.A.; Beese, L.S. (2008). "Structure of protein geranylgeranyltransferase-I from the human pathogen Candida albicans ...
*  Amino acid
doi:10.1016/S0009-2614(04)01565-9. Magee T, Seabra MC (April 2005). "Fatty acylation and prenylation of proteins: what's hot in ... These properties are important for protein structure and protein-protein interactions. The water-soluble proteins tend to have ... Suchanek M, Radzikowska A, Thiele C (April 2005). "Photo-leucine and photo-methionine allow identification of protein-protein ... Doolittle RF (1989). "Redundancies in protein sequences". In Fasman, G.D. Predictions of Protein Structure and the Principles ...
*  Oxysterol
Cholesterol homeostasis Atherosclerosis Sphingolipid metabolism Platelet aggregation Apoptosis Protein prenylation It is ...
*  Non-mevalonate pathway
... molecules used in processes as diverse as protein prenylation, cell membrane maintenance, the synthesis of hormones, protein ...
*  GGPS1
GGPP is an important molecule responsible for the C20-prenylation of proteins and for the regulation of a nuclear hormone ... This gene is a member of the prenyltransferase family and encodes a protein with geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) synthase ...
*  PTP4A2
1997). "Prenylation of oncogenic human PTP(CAAX) protein tyrosine phosphatases". Cancer Lett. 110 (1-2): 49-55. doi:10.1016/ ... Protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTP4A2 gene. The protein encoded by this ... PTPs in this class contain a protein tyrosine phosphatase catalytic domain and a characteristic C-terminal prenylation motif. ... 2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi: ...
*  Choroideremia
REP1 assists the prenylation of Rab G-proteins by binding and presenting them to the Rab geranylgeranyltransferase subunit. ... Choroideremia is caused by a loss-of-function mutation in the CHM gene which encodes Rab escort protein 1 (REP1), a protein ... "Multiple factors contribute to inefficient prenylation of Rab27a in Rab prenylation diseases". The Journal of Biological ... While the complete mechanism of disease is not fully understood, the lack of a functional protein in the retina results in cell ...
*  Geranylgeranyltransferase type 1
This process, called prenylation, causes prenylated proteins to become membrane-associated due to the hydophobic nature of the ... Most prenylated proteins are involved in cellular signaling, wherein membrane association is critical for function. ... Structural biology of protein farnesyltransferase and geranylgeranyltransferase type I". J. Lipid Res. 47 (4): 681-99. doi: ... El Oualid F, Cohen LH, van der Marel GA, Overhand M (2006). "Inhibitors of protein: geranylgeranyl transferases". Curr. Med. ...
*  FNTA
1996). "Prenylation of an interferon-gamma-induced GTP-binding protein: the human guanylate binding protein, huGBP1". J. Leukoc ... 2000). "Prenylation-dependent association of protein-tyrosine phosphatases PRL-1, -2, and -3 with the plasma membrane and the ... 2000). "Structure of human guanylate-binding protein 1 representing a unique class of GTP-binding proteins". Nature. 403 (6769 ... Protein farnesyltransferase/geranylgeranyltransferase type-1 subunit alpha is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FNTA ...
*  PTP4A3
2000). "Prenylation-dependent association of protein-tyrosine phosphatases PRL-1, -2, and -3 with the plasma membrane and the ... Protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTP4A3 gene. The protein encoded by this ... 2006). "Identification of integrin alpha1 as an interacting protein of protein tyrosine phosphatase PRL-3". Biochem. Biophys. ... This class of PTPs contain a PTP domain and a characteristic C-terminal prenylation motif. Studies of this class of PTPs in ...
*  Nuclear prelamin A recognition factor
However, another role for prenylation appears to be its importance in protein-protein interactions. The only nuclear proteins ... Several proteins have been found to be prenylated and methylated at their carboxyl-terminal ends. Prenylation was initially ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/ ... The encoded protein is located in the nucleus, where it partially colocalizes with the nuclear lamina. It shares limited ...
*  PTP4A1
2000). "Prenylation-dependent association of protein-tyrosine phosphatases PRL-1, -2, and -3 with the plasma membrane and the ... 1997). "Prenylation of oncogenic human PTP(CAAX) protein tyrosine phosphatases". Cancer Lett. 110 (1-2): 49-55. doi:10.1016/ ... Protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTP4A1 gene. The protein encoded by this ... The surface membrane association of this protein depends on its C-terminal prenylation. Overexpression of this gene in ...
*  UBL3
2006). "MUBs, a family of ubiquitin-fold proteins that are plasma membrane-anchored by prenylation". J. Biol. Chem. 281 (37): ... Ubiquitin-like protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the UBL3 gene. In melanocytic cells UBL3 gene expression may ... 2001). "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs ... 2001). "Systematic subcellular localization of novel proteins identified by large-scale cDNA sequencing". EMBO Rep. 1 (3): 287- ...
*  FNTB
1996). "Prenylation of an interferon-gamma-induced GTP-binding protein: the human guanylate binding protein, huGBP1". J. Leukoc ... 2000). "Prenylation-dependent association of protein-tyrosine phosphatases PRL-1, -2, and -3 with the plasma membrane and the ... 2000). "Structure of human guanylate-binding protein 1 representing a unique class of GTP-binding proteins". Nature. 403 (6769 ... 2002). "Evaluation of farnesyl:protein transferase and geranylgeranyl:protein transferase inhibitor combinations in preclinical ...
*  GBP1
1996). "Prenylation of an interferon-gamma-induced GTP-binding protein: the human guanylate binding protein, huGBP1". J. Leukoc ... Interferon-induced guanylate-binding protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GBP1 gene. It belongs to the ... Guanylate binding protein expression is induced by interferon. Guanylate binding proteins are characterized by their ability to ... 2000). "Structure of human guanylate-binding protein 1 representing a unique class of GTP-binding proteins". Nature. 403 (6769 ...
*  PDE6B
PDE6β is the only protein that undergoes the two types of post-translational modification, prenylation and carboxymethylation. ... PDE6 is a protein complex located on the photoreceptor's outer segment, and plays an important role in the phototransduction ... Anant JS, Ong OC, Xie HY, Clarke S, O'Brien PJ, Fung BK (Jan 1992). "In vivo differential prenylation of retinal cyclic GMP ... PDE6 is a highly concentrated protein in retinal photoreceptors. With the presence of the GAF domain, PDE6 can actively bind to ...
*  Cannabigerol
Al (1998). "Prenylation of olivetolate by a hemp transferase yields cannabigerolic acid, the precursor of tetrahydrocannabinol ... The biosynthesis of CBG begins by loading hexanoyl-CoA onto a polyketide synthase assembly protein and subsequent condensation ...
*  Protein geranylgeranyltransferase type II
"Prenylation of Rab8 GTPase by type I and type II geranylgeranyl transferases". Biochem. J. 333 (Pt 3): 497-504. PMC 1219609 . ... S-geranylgeranyl-protein + diphosphate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are geranylgeranyl diphosphate and protein- ... protein-, and cysteine geranyltransferase. Casey PJ, Seabra MC (1996). "Protein prenyltransferases". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (10): ... In enzymology, a protein geranylgeranyltransferase type II (EC 2.5.1.60) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ...