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*  Protein folding
FoldIt - Folding Protein Game Folding@Home Rosetta@Home Human Proteome Folding Project BHAGEERATH-H: Protein tertiary structure ... which assist other proteins both in folding and in remaining folded. Some proteins never fold in cells at all except with the ... Folding@Home Foldit computer game Potential energy of protein Protein dynamics Protein misfolding cyclic amplification Protein ... A recent review summarizes the available computational methods for protein folding. The protein folding phenomenon was largely ...
*  Protein fold class
They are one of the common types of protein along with soluble globular proteins, fibrous proteins, and disordered proteins. ... known as protein redesign). Rational protein design approaches make protein-sequence predictions that will fold to specific ... Common examples include the bromodomain, the globin fold and the homeodomain fold. An all-β proteins is a class of structural ... Protein classes are broad categories of protein topologies. They describe groups of proteins that share similar amino acid and ...
*  Hydrophobic-polar protein folding model
The hydrophobic-polar protein folding model is a highly simplified model for examining protein folds in space. First proposed ... Protein structure prediction Lattice proteins Dill K.A. (1985). "Theory for the folding and stability of globular proteins". ... Even though the HP model abstracts away many of the details of protein folding, it is still an NP-hard problem on both 2D and ... Yue K.; Fiebig K.M.; Thomas P.D.; Chan H.S.; Shakhnovich E.I.; Dill K.A. (1995). "A test of lattice protein folding algorithms ...
*  Metallo-beta-lactamase protein fold
The metallo-beta-lactamase protein fold is a protein domain contained in class B beta-lactamases and a number of other proteins ... Except for the competence protein these proteins bind two zinc ions per molecule as cofactor. Metallo-beta-lactamases are ... "The 3-D structure of a zinc metallo-beta-lactamase from Bacillus cereus reveals a new type of protein fold". EMBO J. 14 (20): ... These proteins include thiolesterases, members of the glyoxalase II family, that catalyse the hydrolysis of S-D-lactoyl- ...
*  Max Planck Research Unit for Enzymology of Protein Folding
The Max Planck Research Unit for Enzymology of Protein Folding is located in Halle (Saale), Germany. It was founded in 1996. It ...
*  Schellman loop
Protein Folding. Amsterdam: Elsevier. pp. 53-61. Milner-White, E J (1988-02-05). "Recurring loop motif in proteins that occurs ... Leader, DP; Milner-White, EJ (2011). "The structure of the ends of alpha-helices in globular proteins". Proteins. 79 (3): 1010- ... Two websites are available for examining small motifs in proteins, Motivated Proteins: [1]; or PDBeMotif: [2]. The majority of ... Leader, DP; Milner-White (2009). "Motivated Proteins: A web application for studying small three-dimensional protein motifs". ...
*  Aprotinin
... it was later discovered that the precursor sequence folds more easily in vivo). BPTI was the cover image on a protein folding ... Richardson, J.S. (1981). "Anatomy and Taxonomy of Protein Structure". Advances in Protein Chemistry. Advances in Protein ... BPTI was important in the development of knowledge about the process of protein folding, the self-assembly of a polypeptide ... Thomas E. Creighton (1992). Protein Folding. W. H. Freeman. ISBN 978-0-7167-7027-5. Xu CY (Feb 2014). "permeability of blood- ...
*  Structural biology
See protein folding. A third approach that structural biologists take to understanding structure is bioinformatics to look for ... 3D encyclopedia of proteins and other molecules. Protein structure prediction Banaszak, Leonard J. (2000). Foundations of ... See protein structure prediction. In the past few years it has become possible for highly accurate physical molecular models to ... Examples of these models can be found in the Protein Data Bank. Biology portal Molecular and cellular biology portal Primary ...
*  Familial amyloid neuropathy
Dobson CM (December 2003). "Protein folding and misfolding". Nature. 426 (6968): 884-90. doi:10.1038/nature02261. PMID 14685248 ... These proteins include: transthyretin (ATTR, the most commonly implicated protein), apolipoprotein A1, and gelsolin. Due to the ... Ghoshdastider U, Popp D, Burtnick LD, Robinson RC (2013). "The expanding superfamily of gelsolin homology domain proteins". ... The aggregation of one precursor protein leads to peripheral neuropathy and/or autonomic nervous system dysfunction. ...
*  Anfinsen's dogma
Also, some proteins need the assistance of another protein called a chaperone protein to fold properly. It has been suggested ... How the protein reaches this structure is the subject of the field of protein folding, which has a related concept called ... they seem to work primarily by preventing aggregation of several protein molecules before the protein is folded. Prions are an ... "Protein Folding and Misfolding". Yale University Rhoades Lab. Archived from the original on 2012-07-19. Retrieved 2012-08-24. ...
*  International Max Planck Research School for Molecular and Cellular Life Sciences
... protein structure & protein folding; 2.) neurobiology & neurodegeneration; 3.) chromatin & DNA biology; 4.) signaling & cell ...
*  List of unsolved problems in chemistry
June 2008). "The Protein Folding Problem". Annu Rev Biophys. 37: 289-316. doi:10.1146/annurev.biophys.37.092707.153558. PMC ... King, Jonathan (2007). "MIT OpenCourseWare - 7.88J / 5.48J / 7.24J / 10.543J Protein Folding Problem, Fall 2007 Lecture Notes ... Inverse protein-folding problem: Is it possible to design a polypeptide sequence which will adopt a given structure under ... Protein folding problem: Is it possible to predict the secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure of a polypeptide sequence ...
*  Hydrogen bond
See also protein folding). The role of hydrogen bonds in protein folding has also been linked to osmolyte-induced protein ... Protective osmolytes, such as trehalose and sorbitol, shift the protein folding equilibrium toward the folded state, in a ... Wool, being a protein fibre, is held together by hydrogen bonds, causing wool to recoil when stretched. However, washing at ... A protein backbone hydrogen bond incompletely shielded from water attack is a dehydron. Dehydrons promote the removal of water ...
*  Amine
ISBN 1-57259-153-6. Dill, Ken A. (1990). "Dominant forces in protein folding". Biochemistry. 29 (31): 7133-55. doi:10.1021/ ... Protonated amino groups (-NH+ 3) are the most common positively charged moieties in proteins, specifically in the amino acid ... The anionic polymer DNA is typically bound to various amine-rich proteins. Additionally, the terminal charged primary ammonium ... Andrade, Miguel A.; O'Donoghue, Seán I.; Rost, Burkhard (1998). "Adaptation of protein surfaces to subcellular location". ...
*  Coarse-grained modeling
... prediction of protein interactions and molecular dynamics simulations of protein folding. In 2013, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry ... Levitt, Michael; Warshel, Arieh (1975-02-27). "Computer simulation of protein folding". Nature. 253 (5494): 694-698. doi: ... Their early works on coarse-grained protein modeling have been recognized by the Nobel Prize Committee as an important step in ... They are usually dedicated to computational modeling of specific molecules: proteins, nucleic acids, lipid membranes, ...
*  Prefoldin
... is a family of proteins used in protein folding complexes. It is classified as a heterohexameric molecular chaperone ... They are implicated in the folding of most other proteins. In archaea, prefoldins are believed to function in combination with ... Prefoldin acts in combination with other molecules to promote protein folding in cells where there are many other competing ... This solution contained an excess of cytosolic chaperonin (C-CPN), a eukaryotic chaperone protein necessary for actin folding. ...
*  GridRepublic
Rosetta@home protein folding research. SETI@home Searching radio and light data for signs of Intelligent Life. GridRepublic is ...
*  Disulfide oxidoreductase D
Collet, Jean-Francois; Bardwell, James C. A. (2002). "Oxidative protein folding in bacteria". Molecular Microbiology. 44 (1): 1 ... All of these last three proteins (DsbC, DsbE (CcmG) and DsbG) can donate electrons to oxidized disulfide-containing proteins in ... The best characterized member of the DsbD family is DsbD of E. coli (TC# 5.A.1.1.1). The DsbD protein is membrane-embedded with ... A representative list of proteins belonging to the DsbD family can be found in the Transporter Classification Base. Homologues ...
*  Molten globule
Bieri O, Kiefhaber T (2000-12-15). "Kinetic models in protein folding". In RH Pain. Mechanisms in Protein Folding (2nd ed.). ... is also used to refer to certain protein folding intermediates corresponding to the narrowing region of the folding funnel ... The folding of some proteins can be modeled as a three-state kinetic process: U ↔ MG ↔ N One of the difficulties in de novo ... The term "molten globule" is extended to include various types of partially folded protein states found in mildly denaturing ...
*  Ribosome-nascent chain complex
Cabrita, Lisa D.; Dobson, Christopher M.; Christodoulou, John (2010). "Protein folding on the ribosome". Current Opinion in ... folding and interactions of both the ribosome and proteins undergoing synthesis. ... protein) that it is synthesising. The synthesis of the nascent polypeptide may be stalled by one of several methods. RNCs are ...
*  Evolutionary capacitance
Chaperones assist in protein folding. The need to fold proteins correctly is a big restriction on the evolution of protein ... Similarly, binding proteins may spend some proportion of their time bound to off-target proteins. These reactions or ... Sup35p is a yeast protein involved in recognising stop codons and causing translation to stop correctly at the ends of proteins ... It has been proposed that the presence of chaperones may, by providing additional robustness to errors in folding, allow the ...
*  Alan Fersht
... activity and folding of proteins. He has developed methods for the resolution of protein folding in the sub-millisecond time- ... Fersht, Alan (1999). Structure and mechanism in protein science: a guide to enzyme catalysis and protein folding. San Francisco ... Structure and mechanism in protein science : a guide to enzyme catalysis and protein folding. New Jersey. ISBN 9789813225190. ... Theory of protein engineering analysis of stability and pathway of protein folding". Journal of Molecular Biology. 224 (3): 771 ...
*  Predictions made by Ray Kurzweil
In 2010, a supercomputer simulated protein folding for a very small protein at an atomic level over a period of a millisecond. ... The protein folded and unfolded, with the results closely matching experimental data. The biyearly protein structure prediction ... Kurzweil predicted that, in 2005, supercomputers with the computational capacities to simulate protein folding will be ... "Supercomputer sets protein-folding record". Nature. doi:10.1038/news.2010.541. Retrieved January 8, 2011. Deep Fritz Draws: Are ...
*  Molecular dynamics
Examples of applications of coarse-graining: protein folding and protein structure prediction studies are often carried out ... In How Fast-Folding Proteins Fold, researchers Kresten Lindorff-Larsen, Stefano Piana, Ron O. Dror, and David E. Shaw discuss " ... "How Fast-Folding Proteins Fold". Science. 334 (6055): 517-520. Bibcode:2011Sci...334..517L. doi:10.1126/science.1208351. PMID ... the main factor that destabilizes protein structure) and hydrophobic effects (the main driving forces of protein folding). ...
*  Gaussian network model
"Microscopic theory of protein folding rates. I. fine structure of the free energy profile and folding routes from a variational ... doi:10.1016/s1359-0278(97)00024-2. Haliloglu, T. Bahar; Erman, B. (1997). "Gaussian dynamics of folded proteins". Phys. Rev. ... doi:10.1016/s1359-0278(97)00024-2. Haliloglu, T. Bahar; Erman, B (1997). "Gaussian dynamics of folded proteins". Phys. Rev. ... 2002). "Crucial stages of protein folding through a solvable model: predicting target sites for enzyme-inhibiting drugs". Prot ...