*  Carbonylation
... is known as protein carbonylation. Oxidative stress, often metal catalyzed, leads to protein carbonylation. W. Bertleff; M. ... The term carbonylation also refers to oxidation of protein side chains. Several industrially useful organic chemicals are ... "Protein carbonylation, cellular dysfunction, and disease progression". Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine. 10 (2): 389- ... Carbonylations produce organic carbonyls, i.e., compounds that contain the C=O functional group such as aldehydes, carboxylic ...
*  Post-translational modification
Carbonylation is one example that targets the modified protein for degradation and can result in the formation of protein ... carbamylation the addition of Isocyanic acid to a protein's N-terminus or the side-chain of Lys. carbonylation the addition of ... refers to the covalent and generally enzymatic modification of proteins following protein biosynthesis. Proteins are ... Attachment of lipid molecules, known as lipidation, often targets a protein or part of a protein attached to the cell membrane ...
*  Pathology of multiple sclerosis
... like increased protein carbonylation and high levels of Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), which in NAGM areas comes ... Bizzozero OA, DeJesus G, Callahan K, Pastuszyn A (2005). "Elevated protein carbonylation in the brain white matter and gray ... Also Th1 and Th17 could be implicated A protein called Interleukin 12 is responsible for the differentiation of naive T cells ... An over production of this protein is what causes the increased inflammation in MS patients. Under normal circumstances, these ...
*  Biotin hydrazide
... is a biotinyl derivative that can be used as a probe for the determination of protein carbonylation. It ... Madian, AG; Regnier, FE (2010). "PROTEOMIC IDENTIFICATION OF CARBONYLATED PROTEINS AND THEIR OXIDATION SITES". J. Proteome Res ...
*  Oxidative stress
"Protein carbonylation, cellular dysfunction, and disease progression" Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 2006, volume ... Excessive oxidative-damage leads to protein degradation or aggregation. The reaction of transition metals with proteins ... The presence of such metals in biological systems in an uncomplexed form (not in a protein or other protective metal complex) ... Oxidation of methionine is shown to inhibit the phosphorylation of adjacent Ser/Thr/Tyr sites in proteins. This gives a ...
*  List of MeSH codes (G06)
... protein carbonylation MeSH G06.535.723.110 --- anaerobic threshold MeSH G06.535.723.620 --- respiratory burst MeSH G06.535. ... protein conformation MeSH G06.184.603.790.709.550 --- protein structure, quaternary MeSH G06.184.603.790.709.600 --- protein ... protein MeSH G06.184.842.200 --- sequence homology, amino acid MeSH G06.184.842.200.820 --- structural homology, protein MeSH ... protein processing, post-translational MeSH G06.535.770.871.790.600.400 --- protein isoprenylation MeSH G06.535.770.871.790.600 ...
*  Myosin binding protein C, cardiac
Aryal B, Jeong J, Rao VA (Feb 2014). "Doxorubicin-induced carbonylation and degradation of cardiac myosin binding protein C ... Bennett P, Craig R, Starr R, Offer G (Dec 1986). "The ultrastructural location of C-protein, X-protein and H-protein in rabbit ... "Protein Information - Myosin-binding protein C, cardiac-type". Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB). NHLBI ... protein kinase D (PKD), and protein kinase C (PKC). Furthermore, GSK3β was described as another protein kinase to phosphorylate ...
*  Greenland shark
TMAO also counteracts the protein-destabilizing tendencies of urea and of deep-water pressure. Its presence in the tissues of ... These three types show very similar oxygenation and carbonylation properties, which are unaffected by urea, an important ... Bennion, Brian J.; Daggett, Valerie (2004). "Counteraction of urea-induced protein denaturation by trimethylamine N-oxide: a ...
*  Nuclear chemistry
For instance a palladium catalysed carbonylation reaction in a microfluidic device has been used to rapidly form amides and it ... It is incorporated mainly into proteins. Radioactive isotopes have the advantages of being detectable in very low quantities, ...
*  Carboxylic acid
Carbonylation is versatile method when coupled to the addition of water. This method is effective for alkenes that generate ... Carboxylic acids occur widely and include the amino acids (which make up proteins) and acetic acid (which is part of vinegar ... Acetic acid and formic acid are produced by the carbonylation of methanol, conducted with iodide and alkoxide promoters, ... of fatty acids are the main components of lipids and polyamides of aminocarboxylic acids are the main components of proteins. ...
*  Thioester
In addition, thioesters play an important role in the tagging of proteins with ubiquitin, which tags the protein for ... They also arise via carbonylation of alkynes and alkenes in the presence of thiols. The carbonyl center in thioesters is ... doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(01)81842-6. Bertleff, W.; Roeper, M.; Sava, X. (2005), "Carbonylation", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of ...
*  Succinic acid
The G-protein coupled receptor, GPR91 also known as SUCNR1, serves as the detector of extracellular succinate. Arg99, His103, ... and carbonylation of ethylene glycol. Succinate is also produced petrochemically from butane via maleic anhydride. Additionally ... Depending on the cell type, GPR91 can interact with multiple G proteins, including Gs, Gi and Gq, and enabling a multitude of ... SUCNR1 is one of the highest expressed G protein-coupled receptors on human platelets, present at levels similar to P2Y12, ...
*  Catalysis
Most carbonylation processes require metal catalysts, examples include the Monsanto acetic acid process and hydroformylation. ... In biology, enzymes are protein-based catalysts in metabolism and catabolism. Most biocatalysts are enzymes, but other non- ... protein-based classes of biomolecules also exhibit catalytic properties including ribozymes, and synthetic deoxyribozymes. ...
*  Osmium tetroxide
OsO4 stabilizes many proteins by transforming them into gels without destroying structural features. Tissue proteins that are ... OsO4 + 4 H2 → Os + 4 H2O OsO4 undergoes "reductive carbonylation" with carbon monoxide in methanol at 400 K and 200 bar of ...
*  DuPont Central Research
Substantial success was also achieved in the synthesis of unnatural peptides and proteins to accomplish specific functions and ... and butadiene carbonylation to nylon intermediates. Approaches to catalyst systems have included homogeneous organometallic ...
*  Sodium formate
In structural biology, sodium formate can be used as a cryoprotectant for X-ray diffraction experiments on protein crystals, ... HCO2Na Because of the low-cost and large-scale availability of formic acid by carbonylation of methanol and hydrolysis of the ...