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*  Neuromuscular junction
The presynaptic axons form bulges called terminal boutons (or presynaptic terminals) that project into the postjunctional folds ... The presynaptic terminals have active zones that contain vesicles, also called quanta, full of acetylcholine molecules. These ... Upon the arrival of an action potential at the presynaptic neuron terminal, voltage-dependent calcium channels open and Ca2+ ... Synaptic transmission at the neuromuscular junction begins when an action potential reaches the presynaptic terminal of a motor ...
*  Anion-conducting channelrhodopsin
"Biophysical constraints of optogenetic inhibition at presynaptic terminals". Nature Neuroscience. 19 (4): 554-556. doi:10.1038/ ... Axon terminals, however, have a higher chloride concentration and are therefore excited by ACRs. Due to their high light ...
*  KCNC1
... regulation of action potential duration in presynaptic terminals. Kv3.1 currents in heterologous systems are highly sensitive ... There are two transcript variants of Kv3.1 gene: Kv3.1a and Kv3.1b. Kv3.1 isoforms differ only in their C-terminal sequence. A ...
*  Synapsin
"Molecular determinants of synapsin targeting to presynaptic terminals". J. Neurosci. 24 (14): 3711-20. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI. ... Different neuron terminals will express varying amounts of each of these synapsin proteins and collectively these synapsins ... synapsins bind synaptic vesicles to components of the cytoskeleton which prevents them from migrating to the presynaptic ...
*  Calcium concentration microdomains
Llinas, R; Sugimori, M; Silver, R. (1 May 1992). "Microdomains of high calcium concentration in a presynaptic terminal". ... Thomsen, L. B. T. L. B.; Jorntell, H.; Midtgaard, J. (2010). "Presynaptic calcium signalling in cerebellar mossy fibres". ...
*  Squid giant synapse
Augustine, G.J.; Charlton, M.P.; Smith, S.J. (October 1985). "Calcium entry into voltage clamped presynaptic terminals of squid ... Llinás, R.; Steinberg, I.Z.; Walton, K. (March 1981a). "Presynaptic calcium currents in the squid giant synapse". Biophysical ... of transmission at this synapse by making simultaneous intracellular recording from the presynaptic and postsynaptic terminals ... Llinás, R.; Steinberg, I.Z.; Walton, K. (March 1981b). "Relationship between presynaptic calcium current and postsynaptic ...
*  Neurexin
... s are diffusely distributed in neurons and become concentrated at presynaptic terminals as neurons mature. There exists ... Their neuroligin partners can induce presynaptic terminals by recruiting neurexins. Synapse formation can therefore be ... Neurexin (NRXN) is a presynaptic protein that helps to connect neurons at the synapse. They are located mostly on the ... Thus neurexins play an important role in assembling presynaptic and postsynaptic machinery. Trans-synapse, the extracellular ...
*  False neurotransmitter
"Fluorescent False Neurotransmitters Visualize Dopamine Release from Individual Presynaptic Terminals". Science. 324 (5933): ...
*  Synaptic fatigue
Ikeda, K., & Bekkers, J. M. (2009). Counting the number of releasable synaptic vesicles in a presynaptic terminal. [Article]. ... Because each presynaptic cell can link up to thousands of connections with other neurons, synaptic fatigue and its recovery can ... The timing it takes for neurotransmitter to be released into the synaptic cleft and then be recycled back to the presynaptic ... One model predicts that the vesicle undergoes complete fusion with the presynaptic cellular membrane once all its contents have ...
*  Neuroligin
... is sufficient to form new functional presynaptic terminals in vitro. However, evidence suggests that additional ... "Gephyrin Clusters Are Absent from Small Diameter Primary Afferent Terminals Despite the Presence of GABAA Receptors". J. ... and modifying the binding of the neuroligin protein to its presynaptic partners, neurexins, thus interrupting essential ... "Neuroligin expressed in nonneuronal cells triggers presynaptic development in contacting axons". Cell. 101 (6): 657-69. doi: ...
*  Active zone
As an action potential propagates down an axon it reaches the axon terminal called the presynaptic bouton. In the presynaptic ... The periactive zone surrounds the active zone and is the site of endocytosis of the presynaptic terminal. In the periactive ... Zhai R. Grace; Bellen Hugo J. (2004). "The Architecture of the Active Zone in the Presynaptic Nerve Terminal". Physiology. 19 ( ... The Molecular Architecture of Ribbon Presynaptic Terminals.Mol Neurobiol (2009) 39:130-148 Gersdorff H. and Matthews G. (1994) ...
*  Complexin
... a protein associated with the docking/fusion complex in presynaptic terminals". Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 213 (3): 1107-14. ... Complexin stabilizes the C-terminal part of the SNARE complex. Complexin acts as a positive regulator of synaptic vesicle ... It is believed that the C-terminal domain of complexin is responsible for this inhibitory function. In several eukaryotic ... It is suggested that complexin's N-terminal alpha-helix domain incorporates itself into the SNARE complex helix bundle and ...
*  Vesicle (biology and chemistry)
Synaptic vesicles are located at presynaptic terminals in neurons and store neurotransmitters. When a signal comes down an axon ...
*  KCNC2
... and GABA release via regulation of action potential duration in presynaptic terminals. Kv3.2 currents in heterologous systems ... terminal fields of thalamocortical projections), and in retinal ganglion cells. Kv3.1/Kv3.2 conductance is necessary and ... Kv3.2 isoforms differ only in their C-terminal sequence. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000166006 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38 ...
*  Development of the nervous system
Partial blockage of the receptor leads to retraction of corresponding presynaptic terminals. Agrin appears not to be a central ... Neuroligins are concentrated at the postsynaptic site and act via neurexins concentrated in the presynaptic axons. SynCAM is a ... Scheiffele and colleagues have shown that neuroligins and SynCAM can act as factors that induce presynaptic differentiation. ...
*  CPLX1
... a protein associated with the docking/fusion complex in presynaptic terminals". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ...
*  Wade Regehr
Neuron 1991;7(3):451-9. Regehr W G; Tank D W (1991) Selective fura-2 loading of presynaptic terminals and nerve cell processes ... Regehr W G; Atluri P P (1995) Calcium transients in cerebellar granule cell presynaptic terminals. Biophysical Journal 1995;68( ... Regehr W G (1997)Interplay between sodium and calcium dynamics in granule cell presynaptic terminals. Biophysical Journal 1997; ... and residual calcium at three presynaptic terminals. Journal of Neuroscience 2000;20(4):1374-85. Kreitzer A C; Regehr W G (2000 ...
*  Rodolfo Llinás
Llinas, R; Sugimori, M; Silver, R. (1 May 1992). "Microdomains of high calcium concentration in a presynaptic terminal". ... Llinás, R.; Steinberg, I. Z.; Walton, K. (1976-08-01). "Presynaptic calcium currents and their relation to synaptic ... Direct demonstration of calcium concentration microdomains at the presynaptic active zone. Utilization of ... First determination of presynaptic calcium current, under voltage clamp, at the squid giant synapse. Discovery that vertebrate ...
*  Alpha-synuclein
Presynaptic terminals release chemical messengers, called neurotransmitters, from compartments known as synaptic vesicles. The ... Alpha-synuclein is specifically upregulated in a discrete population of presynaptic terminals of the brain during a period of ... studies suggest that it plays a role in maintaining a supply of synaptic vesicles in presynaptic terminals by clustering ... and N-terminal truncation and a 7.27 kDa C-terminal fragment (72-140). The 7.27 kDa fragment, which contains the majority of ...
*  Endocytic cycle
The membrane added to the presynaptic terminal is recovered by endocytosis and recycled to form fresh vesicles full of ... This release is effected by exocytosis at the presynaptic terminal. A vesicle full of transmitter, acetylcholine (for example ... in the presynaptic terminal fuses with its neighbouring plasma membrane and thereby releases a burst of acetylcholine into the ... but before this happens it activates acetylcholine receptors on the postsynaptic terminal and triggers an electrical impulse in ...
*  Neural facilitation
Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels are located within the presynaptic terminal. When an action potential invades the presynaptic ... Therefore, short-term facilitation (STF) results from a build up of Ca2+ within the presynaptic terminal when action potentials ... Each EPSC is triggered by pre-synaptic calcium concentrations and can be approximated by: EPSC = k([Ca2+]presynaptic)4 = k([ ... The inactivation of presynaptic Ca2+ channels after repeated action potentials also contributes to STD. Depression and ...
*  Synaptic vesicle
... from the presynaptic nerve terminal. It was thus reasonable to hypothesize that the transmitter substance (acetylcholine) was ... The area in the axon that holds groups of vesicles is an axon terminal or "terminal bouton". Up to 130 vesicles can be released ... "Counting the number of releasable synaptic vesicles in a presynaptic terminal". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 106 (8): 2945-50. doi ... Vesicles in the nerve terminal are grouped into three pools: the readily releasable pool, the recycling pool, and the reserve ...
*  Polydendrocytes
Electron microscopy revealed polydendrocyte membranes apposed to neuronal presynaptic terminals filled with synaptic vesicles. ... small membrane depolarizations when stimulated by glutamate or GABA that is vesicularly released from presynaptic terminals. ...
*  P2RX7
"Neuronal P2X7 receptors are targeted to presynaptic terminals in the central and peripheral nervous systems". J. Neurosci. 21 ( ...
*  Malleability of intelligence
This experience-driven activation causes axons to sprout new branches and develop new presynaptic terminals. These new branches ...
*  Cadherin-catenin complex in learning and memory
Evidence suggest that N-Cadherins stabilize the connection between the presynaptic terminal and postsynaptic spine and that ... β-catenin localizes reserve pool vesicles (RPVs) at presynaptic sites. The deletion of β-catenin in vivo results in a decrease ... Additionally, treating neurons with NMDAR agonist causes cleavage of the β-catenin N-terminus, and the C-terminal fragments ... N-cadherins are most commonly expressed on both the presynaptic active zone and postsynaptic density (PSD) regions, and contain ...
*  Synaptotropic hypothesis
The hypothesis predicts that regions with numerous prospective presynaptic terminals will attract more growing dendrites. ... because of synaptogenic presynaptic terminals). However, this biased distribution is lost as synapses form in the intermediate ... As a result, the hypothesis predicts that growth will be directed into regions containing more presynaptic elements. This ... The synaptotropic hypothesis proposes that input from a presynaptic to a postsynaptic cell (and maturation of excitatory ...