... s (FASDs) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. Problems may include an abnormal appearance, short height, low body weight, small head size, poor coordination, low intelligence, behavior problems, and problems with hearing or seeing. Those affected are more likely to have trouble in school, legal problems, participate in high-risk behaviors, and have trouble with alcohol or other drugs. The most severe form of the condition is known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Other types include partial fetal alcohol syndrome (pFAS), alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) and alcohol-related birth defects (ARBD). Some accept only FAS as a diagnosis, seeing the evidence as inconclusive with respect to other types. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are caused by drinking alcohol during pregnancy. Surveys from the United States have found about 10% of pregnant women have drunk alcohol in the last month, and ...
... are health problems that are related to pregnancy. Complications that occur primarily during childbirth are termed obstetric labor complications, and problems that occur primarily after childbirth are termed puerperal disorders. Severe complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium are present in 1.6% of mothers in the US[1] and in 1.5% of mothers in Canada.[2] In the immediate postpartum period (puerperium), 87% to 94% of pregnant individuals report at least one health problem.[3][4] Long-term health problems (persisting after six months postpartum) are reported by 31% of pregnant individuals.[5] In 2016, complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium resulted globally in 230,600 deaths, down from 377,000 deaths in 1990. The most common causes of maternal mortality are maternal bleeding, maternal sepsis and other infections, hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, obstructed labor, and pregnancy ...
... (HG) is a pregnancy complication that is characterized by severe nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and possibly dehydration. Signs and symptoms may also include vomiting several times a day and feeling faint. Hyperemesis gravidarum is considered more severe than morning sickness. Often symptoms get better after the 20th week of pregnancy but may last the entire pregnancy duration. The exact causes of hyperemesis gravidarum are unknown. Risk factors include the first pregnancy, multiple pregnancy, obesity, prior or family history of HG, trophoblastic disorder, and a history of eating disorders. Diagnosis is usually made based on the observed signs and symptoms. HG has been technically defined as more than three episodes of vomiting per day such that weight loss of 5% or three kilograms has occurred and ketones are present in the urine. Other potential causes of the symptoms should be excluded including urinary tract ...
... , also known as tubal pregnancy, is a complication of pregnancy in which the embryo attaches outside the uterus.[4] Signs and symptoms classically include abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding.[1] Less than 50 percent of affected women have both of these symptoms.[1] The pain may be described as sharp, dull, or crampy.[1] Pain may also spread to the shoulder if bleeding into the abdomen has occurred.[1] Severe bleeding may result in a fast heart rate, fainting, or shock.[4][1] With very rare exceptions the fetus is unable to survive.[5]. Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy include: pelvic inflammatory disease, often due to Chlamydia infection, tobacco smoking, prior tubal surgery, a history of infertility, and the use of assisted reproductive technology.[2] Those who have previously had an ectopic pregnancy are at much higher risk of having another one.[2] Most ectopic pregnancies (90%) occur in the Fallopian tube which are known as tubal ...
Alcohol in pregnancy is the use of alcohol (also known formally as ethanol) during gestation. This also includes the time period between conception and awareness of the pregnancy. Alcohol use not only can result in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), but it can result in one or many other disorders and conditions. Not all women who consume alcohol during pregnancy will have a baby with all of the features and characteristics of FASP. Alcohol use during pregnancy also can cause spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, low birthweight, and prematurity. Not all infants exposed to alcohol in utero will have defects related to the alcohol consumption. Alcohol use during pregnancy can also result in the inability to care for an infant after the birth if the drinking continues. The use of alcohol during pregnancy is associated with domestic violence and potential harm to the infant. Different body systems in the ...
... is a form of counseling that provides information and support regarding a women's pregnancy. Woman seeking pregnancy options counseling are typically doing so in the case of an unintended pregnancy. Limited access to birth control and family planning resources, as well as misuse of birth control are some of the major contributing factors to unintended pregnancies around the world. In 2012, the global rate of unintended pregnancies was estimated to be 40 percent, or eighty-five million pregnancies. Pregnancy options counselors educate women about the different options that are available and help guide them to a decision on how to proceed with their pregnancy. The options include abortion, adoption, or parenting. The job of a pregnancy options counselor is to neither encourage nor discourage a woman's particular decision, nor do they profit from the woman's choice. Rather, they present unbiased ...
Most pregnant women can engage in sexual activity during pregnancy throughout gravidity. Most research suggests that, during pregnancy, sexual desire and frequency of sexual relations decrease. In context of this overall decrease in desire, some studies indicate a second-trimester increase, preceding a decrease. However, these decreases are not universal: a significant number of women report greater sexual satisfaction throughout their pregnancies. Sex during pregnancy is a low-risk behaviour except when the physician advises that sexual intercourse be avoided, because it may, in some pregnancies, lead to serious pregnancy complications or health issues such as a high-risk for premature labour or a ruptured uterus.[citation needed] Such a decision may be based upon a history of difficulties in a previous childbirth. However, it has been observed that evidence in this area is lacking and physicians' advice is more likely to be based on ...
... , that is the administration of a vaccine to a pregnant woman, is not a routine event as it is generally preferred to administer vaccines either prior to conception or in the postpartum period. When widespread vaccination is used, the risk for an unvaccinated pregnant patient to be exposed to a related infection is low, allowing for postponement, in general, of routine vaccinations to the postpartum period. Nevertheless, immunization during pregnancy may occur either inadvertently, or be indicated in a special situation, when it appears prudent to reduce the risk of a specific disease for a potentially exposed pregnant woman or her fetus. As a rule of thumb the vaccination with live virus or bacteria is contraindicated in pregnancy. BCG vaccine is used against tuberculosis and is contraindicated in pregnancy. Inactivated bacterial vaccine is used during pregnancy for women who have a specific risk of exposure and disease. Vaccination ...
Drug use during pregnancy can have temporary or permanent effects on the fetus. Any drug that acts during embryonic or fetal development to produce a permanent alteration of form or function is known as a teratogen. Drugs may refer to both pharmaceutical drug and recreational drugs. The apprehension is not necessarily data driven and is a cautionary response to the lack of clinical studies in pregnant women. The indication is a trade-off between the adverse effects of the drug, the risks associated with intercurrent diseases and pregnancy complications, and the efficiency of the drug to prevent or ameliorate such risks. In some cases, the use of drugs in pregnancy carries benefits that outweigh the risks. For example, high fever is harmful for the fetus in the early months, thus the use of paracetamol (acetaminophen) is generally associated with lower risk than the fever itself. Similarly, diabetes mellitus during pregnancy may need ...
Tobacco smoking and pregnancy is related to many effects on health and reproduction, in addition to the general health effects of tobacco. A number of studies have shown that tobacco use is a significant factor in miscarriages among pregnant smokers, and that it contributes to a number of other threats to the health of the fetus. Ideally, women should not smoke before, during or after pregnancy. If this is not the case, however, the daily number of cigarettes can be reduced to minimize the risks for both the mother and child. This is particularly important for women in developing countries where breastfeeding is essential for the child's overall nutritional status. It is recommended for women planning pregnancy to stop smoking. It is important to examine these effects because smoking before, during and after pregnancy is not an unusual behavior among the general population and can have detrimental health impacts, especially among both mother ...
... follows a system of behavior determined by local beliefs, traditions and attitudes, and is also affected by economic conditions and limitations of available health care facilities. In Haiti, infertility carries a negative social stigma; women are expected to bear children. The period of pregnancy and birth is viewed as a happy, celebratory time for a family, not a medical health problem. Pregnant women are expected to fulfill their work obligations up until their delivery. It is normal for pregnant women to experience an increase in salivation and to spit frequently, since they do not believe in swallowing their excess saliva. Women may sometimes carry a spit cup with them and feel no embarrassment in using it in public. Pregnant women are restricted from eating spices, which they believe may irritate the fetus. However, they are encouraged to eat vegetables and red fruits, which are believed to build up the blood of the fetus. Pregnant women are also encouraged to eat large ...
... is a Latin term literally meaning "in the womb" or "in the uterus". In biology, the phrase describes the state of an embryo or fetus. In legal contexts, the phrase is used to referred to an unborn child, i.e., gestational age until birth. Under common law, unborn children are still considered to exist for property transfer purposes. ...
目前科學界尚未就同性戀、雙性戀、異性戀的形成原因達成共識[42]。不過他們相信性傾向是由生物因子(包括基因)[43][44]和環境因子(包括出生順序、接觸特定的產前激素[45][46]、母親的產前壓力(英语:prenatal stress))的共同作用所促成[47][48][49]。 ...