Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry. 40 (2): 192-209. Bibcode:2002JPoSA..40..192K. doi:10.1002/pola.10090.. ... Polymers[edit]. 2-Oxazolines, such as 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline, can undergo living cationic ring-opening polymerisation to form poly ... Hoogenboom, Richard (12 October 2009). "Poly(2-oxazoline)s: A Polymer Class with Numerous Potential Applications". Angewandte ... as protecting groups for carboxylic acids and increasingly as monomers for the production of polymers. ...
Polymer coated carbon[edit]. This is a process by which a porous carbon can be coated with a biocompatible polymer to give a ... Activated carbon can be nitrogenated by natural products or polymers[43][44] or processing of carbon with nitrogenating ...
Organic/polymer solar cells[edit]. Main articles: Organic solar cell and Polymer solar cell ... "Organic polymers create new class of solar energy devices". Kurzweil Accelerating Institute. 31 May 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2013 ... Mayer, A.; Scully, S.; Hardin, B.; Rowell, M.; McGehee, M. (2007). "Polymer-based solar cells". Materials Today. 10 (11): 28. ... Organic solar cells and polymer solar cells are built from thin films (typically 100 nm) of organic semiconductors including ...
Polymer fibers. *Polymer fibers are a subset of man-made fibers, which are based on synthetic chemicals (often from ... Silicon carbide fibers, where the basic polymers are not hydrocarbons but polymers, where about 50% of the carbon atoms are ... Carbon fibers are often based on oxidized and via pyrolysis carbonized polymers like PAN, but the end product is almost pure ... Coextruded fibers have two distinct polymers forming the fiber, usually as a core-sheath or side-by-side. Coated fibers exist ...
Plastic and polymer[edit]. *Cellulose acetate. *Optyl, a type of hypoallergenic material made especially for eyeglass frames. ...
Polymers[edit]. Many engineering polymers are hygroscopic, including nylon, ABS, polycarbonate, cellulose, and poly(methyl ... Other polymers, such as polyethylene and polystyrene, do not normally absorb much moisture, but are able to carry significant ...
8 creates a polymer on the surface of the substrate, and the second gas composition (SF. 6 and O. 2) etches the substrate. The ... Polymers[edit]. Even though the electronics industry provides an economy of scale for the silicon industry, crystalline silicon ... Since the polymer only dissolves very slowly in the chemical part of the etching, it builds up on the sidewalls and protects ... Polymers on the other hand can be produced in huge volumes, with a great variety of material characteristics. MEMS devices can ...
Filled polymer rheology[edit]. The incorporation of various types of fillers into polymers is a common means of reducing cost ... Polymers[edit]. Examples may be given to illustrate the potential applications of these principles to practical problems in the ... Polymers constitute the basic materials of the rubber and plastic industries and are of vital importance to the textile, ... It applies to substances that have a complex microstructure, such as muds, sludges, suspensions, polymers and other glass ...
Polymers in condensed formulas[edit]. For polymers in condensed chemical formulas, parentheses are placed around the repeating ...
Polymer fibers. *Polymer fibers are a subset of man-made fibers, which are based on synthetic chemicals (often from ... Hollaway, C. (1990). Polymers and Polymer Composites in Construction. Great Britain: Bulter and Tanner Ltd. p. 209. ISBN 978-0- ... Silicon carbide fibers, where the basic polymers are not hydrocarbons but polymers, where about 50% of the carbon atoms are ... Shenoy, Aroon (1999). Rheology of Filled Polymer Systems. Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-0-412-83100-3.. ...
Precursor to polymers[edit]. In the plastic industry, ethylene glycol is an important precursor to polyester fibers and resins ...
The term "additives" in polymer science refers to the chemicals and compounds added to the polymer base to modify its material ... pulling in relatively new polymer engineering and polymer science; recombining from the previous, as well as chemistry, ... Polymers are the raw materials (the resins) used to make what are commonly called plastics and rubber. Plastics and rubber are ... Polymers are chemical compounds made up of a large number of identical components linked together like chains. They are an ...
The material itself is made of chemical photo-reactive polymers. These compounds use a polymer mixture combined with a ... Digital Shape-Memory Polymers[edit]. A time-lapse of an SMP gripper that Qi Ge et al. developed for grabbing and releasing an ... Hydro-reactive polymers/hydrogels[edit]. Skylar Tibbits is the director of the Self-Assembly Lab at MIT, and worked with the ... Thermo-reactive polymers/hydrogels[edit]. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), or pNIPAM, is a commonly used thermo-responsive material ...
Types of branched polymers include star polymers, comb polymers, polymer brushes, dendronized polymers, ladder polymers, and ... Randomly oriented polymer Interlocking of several polymers *Disordered polymers: In the solid state, atactic polymers, polymers ... slightly cross-linked polymer (elastomer) highly cross-linked polymer (thermoset) Polymer architecture. Main article: Polymer ... "Polymer - Definition of polymer". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 23 July 2013.. *^ "Define polymer". Dictionary Reference. ...
... (in polymer science): Process in which a polymer melt changes on cooling to a polymer glass or a polymer glass ... Polymers[edit]. In polymers the glass transition temperature, Tg, is often expressed as the temperature at which the Gibbs free ... The addition of nonreactive side groups to a polymer can also make the chains stand off from one another, reducing Tg. If a ... Nicholson, John W. (2011). The Chemistry of Polymers (4, Revised ed.). Royal Society of Chemistry. p. 50. ISBN 9781849733915. ...
polymer resins[edit]. Amalgam is tolerant to a wide range of clinical placement conditions and moderately tolerant to the ... Mercury has properties of a bacteriostatic agent whereas certain methacrylate polymers (for example TEGMA, triethylene glycol ...
Polymer flooding[edit]. Polymer flooding consists in mixing long chain polymer molecules with the injected water in order to ... Surfactants may be used in conjunction with polymers; They decrease the surface tension between the oil and water. This reduces ... Hakiki, F., Maharsi, D.A. and Marhaendrajana, T. (2016). Surfactant-Polymer Coreflood Simulation and Uncertainty Analysis ... Injection of a dilute solution of a water-soluble polymer to increase the viscosity of the injected water can increase the ...
Synthetic polymers[edit]. Many polymers are strengthened by hydrogen bonds within and between the chains. Among the synthetic ... Hydrogen bonds in polymers[edit]. Hydrogen bonding plays an important role in determining the three-dimensional structures and ... Some polymers are more sensitive than others. Thus nylons are more sensitive than aramids, and nylon 6 more sensitive than ... Hydrogen bonds are important in the structure of cellulose and derived polymers in its many different forms in nature, such as ...
Role in polymers[edit]. Ethylenediamine, because it contains two amine groups, is a widely used precursor to various polymers. ...
Polymer adsorption[edit]. Main article: polymer adsorption. Adsorption of molecules onto polymer surfaces is central to a ... Polymer-based compounds - Are polar or non-polar functional groups in a porous polymer matrix. ... Polymers may also be adsorbed to surfaces through polyelectrolyte adsorption. Adsorption in viruses[edit]. Adsorption is the ... Cheraghian, Goshtasp (2017). "Evaluation of Clay and Fumed Silica Nanoparticles on Adsorption of Surfactant Polymer during ...
Entrapment of hydrogenase in polymers[edit]. There are many ways to adsorb hydrogenases onto carbon electrodes that have been ... An alternative is to form films with graphite particles adsorbed with hydrogenase inside a polymer matrix. The graphite ... Another solution includes the entrapment of hydrogenase in a conductive polymer.[12] ... modified with polymers. An example is a study done by Morozov et al. where they inserted NiFe hydrogenase into polypyrrole ...
Natural polymers[edit]. Biopolymers of sugars are common in nature. Through photosynthesis, plants produce glyceraldehyde-3- ... Starch, consisting of two different polymers of glucose, is a readily degradable form of chemical energy stored by cells, and ... can be converted to other types of energy.[48] Another polymer of glucose is cellulose, which is a linear chain composed of ...
Other polymers[edit]. Other polymers, including polyetheretherketone and polybutylene terephthalate, have also been used.[8][9] ... To help solve the corrosion problem strings are either metal plated or polymer coated. The polymer coating is claimed to reduce ... Among strings coated with a polymer, (polytetrafluoroethylene) Teflon is the most commonly used. Teflon is resistant to many ... is another polymer that is sometimes used to coat strings. It is abrasion and cut resistant and has many characteristics ...
Two main groups of polymers exist: synthetic polymers and biopolymers. Synthetic polymers are artificially manufactured, and ... Both synthetic and natural rubber are polymers.[citation needed] Varieties of each synthetic polymer product may exist, for ... Since the invention of the first synthetic polymer product, bakelite, synthetic polymer products have frequently been invented. ... Common synthetic organic polymers are polyethylene (polythene), polypropylene, nylon, teflon (PTFE), polystyrene, polyesters, ...
Two main groups of polymers exist: those artificially manufactured are referred to as industrial polymers [4] or synthetic ... Common synthetic organic polymers are polyethylene or polythene, polypropylene, nylon, teflon or PTFE, polystyrene, polyesters ... Further, secondary component(s) may be added to create a heteropolymer (co-polymer) and the degree of clustering of the ... The process is called polymerization and the chains or networks polymers, while the source compound is a monomer. ...