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*  List of Apis mellifera subspecies
... but have many negative qualities that argue against their being favored in the honey or pollination industry. Apis mellifera ...
*  Seedless fruit
Fruit development is triggered by pollination, so these plants must be grown alongside a diploid strain to provide pollen. ... or pollination triggers fruit development, but the ovules or embryos abort without producing mature seeds (stenospermocarpy). ... but will produce seeded fruit if pollination occurs. Lacking seeds, and thus the capacity to propagate via the fruit, the ...
*  Pollination syndrome
The "classical" pollination syndromes as they are currently defined (see below) were developed in the 19th century by the ... Pollination syndromes can be thought of as extremes of a continuum of greater or lesser specialization or generalization onto ... Pollination syndromes are suites of flower traits that have evolved in response to natural selection imposed by different ... Many species of plants have the back-up option of self-pollination, if they are not self-incompatible. Whilst it is clear that ...
*  Pollination
... pollination can be classified into abiotic pollination and biotic pollination. Self Pollination is the type of Pollination in ... Pollination can be accomplished by cross-pollination or by self-pollination: Cross-pollination, also called allogamy, occurs ... Ornithophily or bird pollination is the pollination of flowering plants by birds. Chiropterophily or bat pollination is the ... Pollination drops, pollen and insect pollination of Mesozoic gymnosperms. Taxon 56(3) 663-695. Sihag, R.C. 1997.Pollination ...
*  Hand-pollination
Hand pollination, also known as mechanical pollination is a technique that can be used to pollinate plants when natural or open ... honeybees or other pollinators are a more efficient approach to pollination management. Despite this, hand-pollination is a ... This method of pollination is done by manually transferring pollen from the stamen of one plant to the pistil of another. This ... For instance, hand-pollination is used with date palms to avoid wasting space and energy growing sufficient male plants for ...
*  Open pollination
This can be contrasted with cleistogamy, closed pollination, which is one of the many types of self pollination. When used in ... A second use of the term "open pollination" refers to pollination by insects, birds, wind, or other natural mechanisms. ... Hybrid pollination, a type of controlled pollination in which the pollen comes from a different strain (or species), can be ... open pollination may result in plants that vary widely in genetic traits. Open pollination may increase biodiversity. Some ...
*  Pollination network
A pollination network is a bipartite mutualistic network in which plants and pollinators are the nodes, and the pollination ... A pollination network is two-modal, i.e., it includes only links connecting plant and animal communities. A key feature of ... The pollination network is bipartite as interactions only exist between two distinct, non-overlapping sets of species, but not ... Another feature that is common in pollination networks is modularity. Modularity occurs when certain groups of species within a ...
*  Pollination bags
Pollination tents are also used for controlled pollination. Kraft paper: Pollination bags used in Sorghum and maize are made ... Pollination Cheating (biology) Domestication Fruit tree pollination Hand pollination Paul Knuth Hermann Müller (botanist) Plant ... Most pollination bags are produced by general paper bag manufacturers which have branched out into providing pollination bag ... are containers made of various different materials for the purpose of controlling pollination for plants. Pollination bags are ...
*  Pollination trap
... so as to enhance their effectiveness in pollination. The structures of pollination traps can include deep tubular corollas with ... Pollination traps or trap-flowers are plant flower structures that aid the trapping of insects, mainly flies, ... Broderbauer, D; A. Weber & Anita Diaz (2013). "The design of trapping devices in pollination traps of the genus Arum (Araceae) ... The general observation of insects being trapped and aiding pollination were made as early as 1872 by Thomas Frederic Cheeseman ...
*  Polli:Nation
... is a UK social movement which aims to help protect the future of pollinators. Polli:Nation is the name for schools ... Free' pollination by bees and other insects is worth over £400m to UK agriculture each year according to the UK National ... the demand from schools to broaden children and young people's understanding of the links between pollination and food security ... Ecosystem Assessment, 2011; Polli:Nation is a response to the decline in the abundance and diversity of pollinators in the UK, ...
*  Saturation pollination
... is a pollination technique for agricultural crops in areas dominated by non-crop plant species that are ... Saturation pollination is especially important for those with special pollination problems, such as crops with flowers that are ... Pollination management McGregor, S.E. 1976. Insect Pollination Of Cultivated Crop Plants. USDA [1] Whitcombe, Harry J. and John ... Saturation pollination is becoming increasingly required for many crops due to decline of wild pollinators and monocultured ...
*  Self-pollination
Pollination can also be accomplished by cross-pollination. Cross-pollination is the transfer of pollen, by wind or animals such ... Self-pollination can be an advantage when the number of flowers are small or widely spaced. During self-pollination, the pollen ... Self-pollination limits the variety of progeny and may depress plant vigor. However, self-pollination can be advantageous, ... Dandelions are also capable of self-pollination as well as cross-pollination. There are several advantages for self-pollinating ...
*  Buzz pollination
This resonant vibration is called buzz pollination. Honeybees cannot perform buzz pollination. About 8% of the flowers of the ... Greenhouse grown tomatoes are unproductive without aid in pollination. Traditionally, pollination has been done by shaking ... Thomas S. Woodcock (2012), Pollination in the Agricultural Landscape: Best Management Practices for Crop Pollination (PDF), ... Canadian Pollination Initiative (NSERC-CANPOLIN) Johnson, S.D. (1992). "Buzz pollination of Orpheum frutescens". Veld & Flora. ...
*  Pollination management
Association Pollination by Honey Bees Custom Pollination with Honey Bees in Manitoba Pollination Requirements of Vine Crops, ... Pollination management is the label for horticultural practices that accomplish or enhance pollination of a crop, to improve ... 1994, Bee pollination of Georgia crop plants. CES Bulletin 1106 Sihag, R.C. 1995.Pollination Biology: Environmental Factors and ... Pollination Biology: Pollination, Plant Reproduction and Crop Seed Production.Rajendra Scientific Publishers, Hisar, 210p. ...
*  Fruit tree pollination
In fruit trees, bees are an essential part of the pollination process for the formation of fruit. Pollination of fruit trees ... Managed honeybee hives at bloom time are often used to ensure adequate pollination. Abrol, Dharam (2015). Pollination Biology, ... by hand-pollination or by using a pollen sprayer). Cross pollination produces seeds with a different genetic makeup from the ... Citrus that requires pollination may be self-compatible, thus pollen must be moved only a short distance from the anther to the ...
*  Canadian Pollination Initiative
The Canadian Pollination Initiative (NSERC-CANPOLIN) is one of nine new Strategic Networks announced in September 2009 and ... The Network will also provide critical information on the economic aspects of pollination and future management needs based on ... enhance pollination by native pollinators and increase our knowledge of flower/pollinator interactions and gene flow in plants ... Welcome to the Canadian Pollination Initiative http://www.uoguelph.ca/canpolin/index.html NSERC News Release 24 September 2009 ...
*  Blueberry shock virus
... is pollen-borne and likely infects during pollination. Bees and other insects that come into contact with ... The blueberry shock virus spreads by pollination; therefore, spreading only occurs in spring when pollinators are active. Honey ... "Pollination". Illinois College of Agricultural Consumer & Environmental Sciences. Retrieved December 1, 2014. ...
*  Hydrophily
Surface pollination is more frequent, and appears to be a transitional phase between wind pollination and true hydrophily. In ... Hydrophily is a fairly uncommon form of pollination whereby pollen is distributed by the flow of waters, particularly in rivers ... 1911). "Pollination". Encyclopædia Britannica. 22 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 2-5. ... Cox, P.A. (1988). Hydrophilous pollination. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. 19. pp. 261-279. This article ...
*  Tetragonula iridipennis
Pollination". Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 17 (1): 86-91. doi:10.3923/pjbs.2014.86.91. Inoue, Tamiji; Sakagami, ... While they were shown to exhibit lower pollination efficiency, fruit sizes were not significantly affected. In addition, their ...
*  Glossary of biology
placebo . plant nutrition . plasmolysis . pollination . polygene . polymer . polymerase chain reaction . polyploid . population ...
*  Wasp
"Wasp Pollination". USDA Forest Service. Retrieved 5 August 2015. Sühs; Somavilla; Putzke; Köhler (2009). "Pollen vector wasps ( ... While the vast majority of wasps play no role in pollination, a few species can effectively transport pollen and pollinate ... to effect pollination. Many wasp species are parasitoids; the females deposit eggs on or in a host arthropod on which the ... therefore contributing for potential pollination of several plant species. Pollen wasps in the subfamily Masarinae gather ...
*  Seeds of Diversity
"Pollination Canada". Retrieved 16 November 2014. "Pollination Canada partners". "The Bauta Family Initiative on Canadian Seed ... Pollination Canada has 28 other partner organizations. In February 2013, Gretchen Bauta, Canadian philanthropist and daughter ... Seeds of Diversity initiated a project called Pollination Canada with the aim of increasing awareness of native bees and ... crop genetic diversity and the redesign of pollination strategies". Seeds of Diversity originated in 1984 as the Heritage Seed ...
*  Olaf Hagerup
Hagerup, O. (1951) Pollination in the Faroes - in spite of rain and poverty in insects. Biologiske Meddelelser, Kongelige ... Pollination in Liparis and Malaxis). Botanisk Tidsskrift 45: 396-402. Hagerup, O. (1942) The morphology and biology of the ... Ant pollination). Botanisk Tidsskrift 46: 116-123. Hagerup, O. (1944) Notes on some boreal polyploids. Hereditas 30: 152-160. ... Hagerup, O. (1932) On Pollination in the extremely hot air at Timbuctu. Dansk Botanisk Arkiv 8 (1): 1-20. Hagerup, O. (1933) ...
*  Bombus terrestris
It is one of the main species used in greenhouse pollination, and so can be found in many countries and areas where it is not ... "Natural pollination". Koppert Biological Systems. Koppert B.V. Retrieved 18 September 2011. Velthuis, H. H. W. and van Doorn, A ... If males also contribute to pollination, this might increase previously predicted pollen flow ranges based on worker flight ... This might have damaging effects on pollination efficiency if bees visit different flower species with similar, but distinct ...
*  Educational crossover
Crossover, sometimes referred to as cross-pollination, is a philosophical presupposition of Liberal arts, Great books, and ...