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*  Stoma
In plants with floating leaves, stomata may be found only on the upper epidermis and submerged leaves may lack stomata entirely ... Stomata are present in the sporophyte generation of all land plant groups except liverworts. In vascular plants the number, ... Light increases stomatal development in plants; while, plants grown in the dark have a lower amount of stomata. Auxin represses ... Most plants require the stomata to be open during daytime. The air spaces in the leaf are saturated with water vapour, which ...
*  Citrus canker
The bacteria infect new plants through stomata and wounds. The wound can be caused by pruning or hedging that could cut open ... Citrus canker bacteria can enter through a plant's stomata or through wounds on leaves or other green parts. In most cases, ... The planting sites are also chosen to minimize the favorable environmental condition for the introduction of X. axonopodis. For ... Plants infected with citrus canker have characteristic lesions on leaves, stems, and fruit with raised, brown, water-soaked ...
*  Evaporation
In hydrology, evaporation and transpiration (which involves evaporation within plant stomata) are collectively termed ...
*  Chloroplast
Unlike most epidermal cells, the guard cells of plant stomata contain relatively well-developed chloroplasts. However, exactly ... Plants lack specialized immune cells-all plant cells participate in the plant immune response. Chloroplasts, along with the ... If a plant is injured, or something else causes a plant cell to revert to a meristematic state, chloroplasts and other plastids ... In C3 plants, RuBisCO is abundant in all chloroplasts, though in C4 plants, it is confined to the bundle sheath chloroplasts, ...
*  Stomatophyta
The word stomatophyta means plant with stoma. An updated phylogeny of Embryophyta based on the work by Novíkov & Barabaš-Krasni ... Novíkov & Barabaš-Krasni (2015). "Modern plant systematics". Liga-Pres: 685. doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.4745.6164. ISBN 978-966-397- ... 2015 with plant taxon authors from Anderson, Anderson & Cleal 2007 and some clade names from Pelletier 2012 and Lecointre, et ...
*  Isoetes echinospora
European populations of the plant lack stomata, which are present in North American populations. Isoetes muricata and Isoetes ... braunii refer to the North American plants when they are considered to be distinct from the European plants. Spiny Quillwort at ... www.plant-identification.co.uk. Retrieved 26 Aug 2015. "Isoetes echinospora", Flora of North America spring quillwort in the ...
*  Coronatine
Melotto, Maeli; Underwood, William; He, Sheng Yang (2008). "Role of Stomata in Plant Innate Immunity and Foliar Bacterial ... It is involved in causing stomata to re-open after they close in response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns, as well as ...
*  Hydraulic redistribution
... when plant stomata are closed or in senesced plants. The pressure gradient is between soil layers with different water ... Hydraulic lift and water use by plants: implications for water balance, performance and plant-plant interactions, Oecologia, 95 ... Whether or not plants redistribute water through the soil layers can affect plant population dynamics, such as the facilitation ... It occurs in vascular plants that commonly have roots in both wet soil and extremely dry soil, especially plants with both ...
*  Hyaloperonospora parasitica
... will form out of the plant stomata bearing conidia. Sporulation occurs at night. The conidia disseminate in high humidity ... mustard plants, radish, and sweet alyssum. Although it is not significantly damaging on any one specific plant, the damage of H ... "Probing formation of cargo/importin-α transport complexes in plant cells using a pathogen effector". The Plant Journal. 81 (1 ... The Oomycete grows until it has penetrated through the entire leaf where conidiophores are then grown out of the stomata and ...
*  Photosynthetic efficiency
During the day, CAM plants close stomata and use stored acids as carbon sources for sugar, etc. production. The C3 pathway ... Many plants lose much of the remaining energy on growing roots. Most crop plants store ~0.25% to 0.5% of the sunlight in the ... Only if the light intensity is above a plant specific value, called the compensation point the plant assimilates more carbon ... C3 plants use the Calvin cycle to fix carbon. C4 plants use a modified Calvin cycle in which they separate Ribulose-1,5- ...
*  Ditylenchus dipsaci
D. dipsaci enters through stomata or plant wounds and creates galls or malformations in plant growth. This allows for the ... They enter through stomata or wounds. D. dipsaci feeds on the parenchymatous cells of the cortex once inside the plant. They ... Nearly 450 different plant species are susceptible to D. dipsaci due to the vast number of races. Many of these plants are ... It penetrates into plants from either the soil or infested planting material and occasionally from seeds. They live between the ...
*  Paphiopedilum
This means every plant is unique. Members of this genus have unusual stomata. Whereas most land plants' stomata have guard ... For example, most plants close their stomata in response to either blue or red light, but Paphiopedilum guard cells only ... Potted plants form a tight lump of roots that, when untangled, can be up to 1 m long. Members of this genus are considered ... Zeiger, E.; Assmann, S. M.; Meidner, H. (1983). "Photobiology of Paphiopedilum stomata: Opening under blue light but not red". ...
*  Hornwort
These pores superficially resemble the stomata of other plants. The horn-shaped sporophyte grows from an archegonium embedded ... Most plants are monoicous, with both sex organs on the same plant, but some plants (even within the same species) are dioicous ... As in mosses and liverworts, the flattened, green plant body of a hornwort is the gametophyte plant. Hornworts may be found ... instead of from its tip the way other plants do. Unlike liverworts, most hornworts have true stomata on their sporophyte as ...
*  Guard cell
Oxygen (O2), produced as a byproduct of photosynthesis, exits the plant via the stomata. When the stomata are open, water is ... The plant hormone ABA causes the stomatal pores to close in response to drought, which reduces plant water loss via ... Plant J 43:413-424. Bergmann DC & Sack FD (2007) Stomatal development. Annu Rev Plant Biol 58:163-181. Pillitteri LJ & Torii KU ... including stabilizing and protecting the plant from damage caused by desiccation and also controlling how much water plants ...
*  Moisture stress
... also has an effect on stomatal openings of a plant, mainly causing a closure in stomata as to reduce the amount ... Phenotypic response of plants to long-term water stress was measured in corn and showed that plants respond to water stress ... Plants that are subjected to mild stress can recover in 1-2 days however, plants subjected to severe water stress will only ... Nonlimiting water range Permanent wilting point Soil plant atmosphere continuum Stomata Waring, R. H.; Cleary, B. D. (1967). " ...
*  Guttation
At night, transpiration usually does not occur because most plants have their stomata closed. When there is a high soil ... Guttation is the exudation of drops of xylem sap on the tips or edges of leaves of some vascular plants, such as grasses. ... The water will accumulate in the plant, creating a slight root pressure. The root pressure forces some water to exude through ... Homeostasis Osmosis Soil plant atmosphere continuum Transpiration Goatley, James L.; Lewis, Ralph W. (March 1966). "Composition ...
*  Penman equation
... as is found inside plant stoma. ea = vapor pressure of free flowing air. es, mmHg = exp(21.07-5336/Ta), approximation by Merva ...
*  Leptosphaeria maculans
The ascospores enter through the stomata to infect the plant. Soon after the infection, gray lesions and black pycnidia form on ... It is suggested to have a 3-year crop rotation of canola and to plant non-host plants such as cereals in between these periods ... "A Systemic Pathway in the Infection of Oilseed Rape Plants by Leptosphaeria maculans" Plant Pathology, 1985, 34 (4), 557-565 ... Colonizing the plant tissue systematically, it begins its endophytic stage. When the growing season ends, the fungus causes ...
*  Pholisma sonorae
The plant obtains water not from its host plants, but through stomata in its leaves. The plant blooms in centimeter-wide ... Center for Plant Conservation Ethnobotany Jepson Manual Treatment - Pholisma sonorae USDA Plants Profile; Pholisma sonorae ... The plant is rare and declining as its habitat of shifting dune sands is lost to development and damaged by off-road vehicle ... It is a parasitic plant which attaches to the roots of various desert shrubs such as wild buckwheats, ragweeds, plucheas, and ...
*  Tomato leaf mold
The conidia produce mycelium that infects the plant through stomata when humidity is 85% or higher and produce conidiophores on ... Remove and destroy (burn) all plants debris after the harvest, scout for disease and rogue infected plants as soon as detected ... a large number of conidia are produced and these spores are easily spread from plant to plant by the wind, splash water, on ... P. fulva only attacks tomato plants, especially the foliage, and it is a common disease in the greenhouses, but can also occur ...
*  Dianne Edwards
... the description and analysis of stomata in early land plants, and very early liverwort-like plants. The charcoalified nature of ... Edwards, D.; Kerp, H.; Hass, H. (1998). "Stomata in early land plants: an anatomical and ecophysiological approach" (PDF). ... Her interest in early plants was initiated after she studied plant fossils preserved in three dimensions in the mineral pyrite ... She is the author or co-author of a considerable number of botanical names of fossil plants, such as Danziella D.Edwards (2006 ...
*  Exobasidium vexans
E. vexan can enter the host plant via the stomata or direct penetration with an appressoria and growth proliferates ... Detection of Tea Blister Blight is done via a visual inspection of the crop plants for the characteristic blisters. There are ... Plant Pathology, 64(6), 1471-1483. doi:10.1111/ppa.12364 Index Fungorum USDA ARS Fungal Database. ... Exobasidium vexans is a plant pathogen affecting tea. Blister blight caused by Exobasidium vexans is a devastating leaf disease ...
*  Glomerella graminicola
Conidial spores infect young plants through the epidermis or stomata. Anthracnose develops rapidly in cloudy, overcast ... This disease can affect all parts of the plant and can develop at any time during the growing season. This disease is typically ... The fungus can infect many different parts of the corn plant, typically the kernels, tassels, roots, leaves, stalk and husks. ... doi:10.1016/0048-4059(73)90056-8. Index Fungorum USDA ARS Fungal Database The Vaillancourt Lab Japanese Fungi on Plants No.36 ...
*  MAPK networks
The stomata are considered to be the entry point for pathogenic invaders because microbial invaders enter the plant at the ... The plant has these positive and negative mediators allowing for normal plant growth and development, which has been proven ... MAPK pathways in plants are known to regulate cell growth, cell development, cell death, and cell responses to environmental ... Plants have many protection mechanisms to cope with stresses from the environment, which include ultraviolet light, cold or hot ...
*  Transpiration stream
After this, the water leaves the leaf (and the whole plant) by diffusion through stomata. Soil plant atmosphere continuum for ... In plants, the transpiration stream is the uninterrupted stream of water and solutes which is taken up by the roots and ... It allows for plants to efficiently transport water up to their highest body organs, regulate the temperature of stem and ... It is driven by capillary action and in some plants by root pressure. The main driving factor is the difference in water ...
*  Rebutia
In the middle of the twentieth century there was a tendency to separate groups of plants within Rebutia as new genera, e.g. ... Rebutia knizei has yellow flowers with green stoma. Mediolobivia. Rebutia torquata with radial spines. Mediolobivia. Rebutia ... At the beginning of the twenty-first century there was a broad consensus, as reflected in Kew's list of Vascular Plant Families ... A very large number of plants that have been treated in cultivation as species of Rebutia are now generally regarded as ...