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*  Pattern recognition receptor
Upon ligand recognition, the plant PRRs transduce "PAMP-triggered immunity" (PTI). Plant immune systems also encode resistance ... This family of proteins is greatly expanded in plants, and constitutes a core component of plant immune systems. The ligands ... Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 15 (4): 358-366. doi:10.1016/j.pbi.2012.05.002. Dardick C, Ronald P (January 2006). "Plant ... PRRs were first discovered in plants. Since that time many plant PRRs have been predicted by genomic analysis (370 in rice; 47 ...
*  Damage-associated molecular pattern
Immunity. 38 (2): 209-23. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2013.02.003. PMID 23438821. Krysko, Dmitri V; Garg, Abhishek D; Kaczmarek, ... important apparently for both plant and animal resistance to pathogens and the response to cellular injury or damage. Although ... triphosphate and adenosine as endogenous signaling molecules in immunity and inflammation". Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 112 (2 ...
*  Plant disease resistance
This is a form of adaptive immunity. Plant immune systems also can respond to an initial infection in one part of the plant by ... appropriate planting date and plant density, control of field moisture, and pesticide use. Plant cuticle/surface Plant cell ... The two above-described tiers are central to plant immunity but do not fully describe plant immune systems. In addition, many ... Moore, J. W.; Loake, G. J.; Spoel, S. H. (12 August 2011). "Transcription Dynamics in Plant Immunity". The Plant Cell. 23 (8): ...
*  Dicarboxylic acid
"Priming in Systemic Plant Immunity". Science. 324 (3 April 2009): 89-91. Bibcode:2009Sci...324...89W. doi:10.1126/science. ... Azelaic acid was identified as a molecule that accumulated at elevated levels in some parts of plants and was shown to be able ... This dicarboxylic acid was shown to be a potent wound healing agent in plant that stimulates cell division near a wound site, ... It was the first plant carotenoid to be recognized as early as 1818 while the history of saffron cultivation reaches back more ...
*  Azelaic acid
"Priming in Systemic Plant Immunity". Science. 324 (5923): 89-91. Bibcode:2009Sci...324...89W. doi:10.1126/science.1170025. PMID ... In plants, azelaic acid serves as a "distress flare" involved in defense responses after infection. It serves as a signal that ... induces the accumulation of salicylic acid, an important component of a plant's defensive response. Esters of this dicarboxylic ...
*  Natural antisense short interfering RNA
"A pathogen-inducible endogenous siRNA in plant immunity". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103 (47): 18002- ... natsiRNA has also been shown to alter gene expression in plants responding to environmental stressors. Moldovan, D.; Spriggs, A ... Zhang, Xiaoming; Xia, Jing (22 March 2012). "Genome-wide analysis of plant nat-siRNAs reveals insights into their distribution ... natsiRNA has been implicated in several developmental and response mechanisms in plants, such as pathogen resistance, salt ...
*  RNA interference
"A pathogen-inducible endogenous siRNA in plant immunity". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 103 (47): 18002-7. Bibcode:2006PNAS.. ... Plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana express multiple dicer homologs that are specialized to react differently when the plant is ... Not long after, plant virologists working on improving plant resistance to viral diseases observed a similar unexpected ... This phenomenon has since been recognized as a feature of the plant adaptive immune system and allows the entire plant to ...
*  Botrytis-induced kinase 1
Dodds, Peter N.; Rathjen, John P. (August 2010). "Plant immunity: towards an integrated view of plant-pathogen interactions". ... Root systems in plants with an expressed BIK1 gene and in plants with a loss-of-function mutant show that without an expressed ... and PAMP-Triggered Immunity in Arabidopsis". The Plant Cell. Vol. 23: 2831-2849. Retrieved 5 October 2017. Xu, Jinhua; Wei, ... Flowering plants that lack a functional BIK1 gene flower an average of six days before those with a functional BIK1 gene and ...
*  Jane Glazebrook
The CALMODULIN-BINDING PROTEIN60 family includes both negative and positive regulators of plant immunity. Plant Physiology. ... Pattern-Triggered Immunity Suppresses Programmed Cell Death Triggered by Fumonisin B1. PLoS ONE. 2013; 8(4). "Molecular Plant- ... Arabidopsis PECTIN METHYLESTERASEs contribute to immunity against Pseudomonas syringae. Plant Physiology. 2014; 164(2):1093- ... She received her Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1991 and is now a Professor of Plant Biology at the ...
*  Cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel
"The Role of Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Ion Channels in Plant Immunity". Molecular Plant. 4 (3): 442-452. doi:10.1093/mp/ssr018. ... CNG channels play a large role in plant immunity and response to pathogens or external infectious agents. They have also been ... CNG ion channels are also thought to be involved in pollen development in plants, however its exact role in this mechanism is ... The amino acid sequence of the pore sequence in plant CNG channels lacks the selectivity filter found in animal CNG channels as ...
*  Penicillium oxalicum
L.J.C. van Loon (2009). Plant Innate Immunity. Academic Press. ISBN 0-08-088879-8. List of Penicillium species MycoBank ... "Plant Growth-promoting Fungus Penicillium oxalicum Enhances Plant Growth and Induces Resistance in Pearl Millet Against Downy ... Plant Disease. 89 (12): 1317-1323. doi:10.1094/PD-89-1317. Sabuquillo, P.; Cal, A. D.; Melgarejo, P. (2006). "Biocontrol of ... Plant Disease. 89 (12): 1317-1323. doi:10.1094/PD-89-1317. Pascual, S.; Melgarejo, P.; Magan, N. (1997). "Induction of ...
*  Respiratory burst
... and in plant immunity the subunits RbohD and RbohF have overlapping functions but are expressed in different tissues and in ... "The Arabidopsis NADPH oxidasesRbohDandRbohFdisplay differential expression patterns and contributions during plant immunity". ... These substances can also be released from plant cells. Respiratory burst plays an important role in the immune system. It is a ... Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants are important in various signaling cascades and are continuously produced by cells as ...
*  MACPF
Many proteins belonging to the MACPF superfamily play key roles in plant and animal immunity. Complement proteins C6-C9 all ... The plant protein CAD1 (TC# 1.C.39.11.3) functions in the plant immune response to bacterial infection. The sea anemone ... "Salicylic acid and a chitin elicitor both control expression of the CAD1 gene involved in the plant immunity of Arabidopsis". ... Archetypal members of the family are complement C9 and perforin, both of which function in human immunity. C9 functions by ...
*  EFR (EF-Tu receptor)
... thaliana is in the study of plant immunity. Plant pathogens are able to travel through a plant's vascular system, but plants do ... Plants also do not have an adaptive immune system, so other forms of immunity are required. One is the use of pattern- ... This form of immunity acts on intercellular pathogens, which are ones outside of individual plant cells. PRRs are transmembrane ... This receptor is an important part of the plant immune system as it allows the plant cells to recognize and bind to EF-Tu, ...
*  Effector-triggered immunity
... (ETI) is a property of the innate immune system. ETI was first identified in plants but has also ... "Effector-Triggered Immunity Signaling: From Gene-for-Gene Pathways to Protein-Protein Interaction Networks". Molecular Plant- ... Spoel, SH (February 2012). "How do plants achieve immunity? Defence without specialized immune cells". Nature Reviews ... Rajamuthiah, Rajmohan (May 2014). "Effector triggered immunity: Activation of innate immunity in metazoans by bacterial ...
*  Pamela Ronald
"Plant Innate Immunity: Perception of Conserved Microbial Signatures". Annual Review of Plant Biology. 63 (1): 451-482. doi: ... She went on to earn an M.A. in Biology from Stanford University in 1984 and an M.S. from Uppsala University, Sweden in plant ... In addition to being a professor in the Genome Center and the Department of Plant Pathology at UC Davis, Ronald is the founding ... Pamela C. Ronald (born 1961) is an American plant pathologist and geneticist. She is a professor in the Genome Center and the ...
*  Sophoraflavanone G
Regarding how phytoncides effect a plant's immunity, for example, 1 hectare of pine forest will release approximately 5 kg of ... Phytoncides play an important role in plant immunity and in the relationships between organisms within an ecosystem. The ... Flavonoids are a class of secondary metabolites found in plants that fulfill a wide variety of functions. They are most ... 1st discovered by B.P. Tokin, the word "phytoncide" literally means, exterminated by the plant. Phytoncides are a biologically ...
*  Guard theory
Plant Cell 20, 2009-2017 (2008). Dodds, Peter N., and John P. Rathjen. "Plant immunity: towards an integrated view of plant- ... "Plant immunity: towards an integrated view of plant-pathogen interactions." Nature Reviews Genetics 11.8 (2010): 539+. Health ... "Plant immunity: towards an integrated view of plant-pathogen interactions." Nature Reviews Genetics 11.8 (2010): 539+. Health ... "Plant immunity: towards an integrated view of plant-pathogen interactions." Nature Reviews Genetics 11.8 (2010): 539+. Health ...
*  Sweet potato feathery mottle virus
However, as SPFMV is the most widely spread offender, it is a well-researched target for plant immunity. Genetic modification ... many studies are directed toward creating immunity to SPFMV in susceptible plants. One such method is the creation of transgene ... which cuts off vines of already existing plants and uses them to establish more; if the original plant already has the disease ... an ipomovirus and a potyvirus in coinfected sweetpotato plants". Plant Pathology. 55 (3): 458-67. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2006. ...
*  Cytokinin
"The cytokinin-activated transcription factor ARR2 promotes plant immunity via TGA3/NPR1-dependent salicylic acid signaling in ... Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 52 (1): 89-118. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.52.1.89. PMID 11337393. Sakakibara H (2006). " ... Cytokinins (CK) are a class of plant growth substances (phytohormones) that promote cell division, or cytokinesis, in plant ... While cytokinin action in vascular plants is described as pleiotropic, this class of plant hormones specifically induces the ...
*  Firuddin Babayev
He has lectured and conducted workshops on plant pathology and plant immunity in many parts of the world. He was awarded a ... His doctoral advisor was a prominent scientist and plant pathologist, head of plant pathology at the Russian State Agricultural ... B.A.Rubin, at the Department of Plant Physiology of ASU, under the supervision of Academician M.G.Abutalibov, Pr. A.X.Tagizadeh ... F.A.Babayev was invited to the University of California in the United States to give lectures on plant pathology. And also, for ...
*  Nikolai Vavilov
1919 - theory of the immunity for plants. 1920 - formulation of the law of homology series in genetical mutability. mid 1920s ... Spread of Crops Vavilov Centre for Plant Industry Genetic Resources of Leguminous Plants in the N.I. Vavilov Institute of Plant ... From 1913 to 1914 he travelled in Europe and studied plant immunity, in collaboration with the British biologist William ... 1940) (The theory of origins of cultivated plants after Darwin) The Origin, Variation, Immunity and Breeding of Cultivated ...
*  Coronatine
Melotto, Maeli; Underwood, William; He, Sheng Yang (2008). "Role of Stomata in Plant Innate Immunity and Foliar Bacterial ...
*  Leucine-rich repeat receptor like protein kinase PEPR1
... receptor kinase that play critical roles in plant innate immunity. Plants have evolved intricate immunity mechanism to combat ... Recent studies in Arabidopsis have provided important details on plant innate immunity. Plant membrane PRR mainly consist of ... Menezes, Hércules; Jared, Carlos (May 2002). "Immunity in plants and animals: common ends through different means using similar ... Nürnberger, Thorsten; Brunner, Frédéric; Kemmerling, Birgit; Piater, Lizelle (April 2004). "Innate immunity in plants and ...
*  Panchagavya
Helps in plant growth and immunity. The medicinal usage of panchagavya, particularly cow urine, is practiced in Ayurveda. ... "Modified Panchakavya to boost plant and animal productivity". The Hindu. India. 5 June 2003. "Panchagavya: low cost organic ...
*  Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974
Insurers operating ERISA plans enjoy several immunities not available to other types of insurance companies. ERISA preempts all ... closed its plant in 1963. Its pension plan was so poorly funded that Studebaker could not afford to provide all employees with ...
*  Pathogen-associated molecular pattern
... considering their recognition to be the first step in plant immunity, PTI (PAMP-triggered immunity), a relatively weak immune ... They are recognized by toll-like receptors (TLRs) and other pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in both plants and animals. A ... Mahla, RS (2 September 2013). "Sweeten PAMPs: Role of Sugar Complexed PAMPs in Innate Immunity and Vaccine Biology". Front ... Free full text available) Jones DG, Dangl JL (2006). "The plant immune system". Nature. 444 (7117): 323-329. Bibcode:2006Natur. ...