Phentermine. References[edit]. *^ US patent 3415937, "The Suppression of Appetite with 1-(o-Chlorophenyl)-2-Methyl-2- ... chloro analogue of the better known appetite suppressant phentermine, and is the 2-chloro positional isomer of chlorphentermine ...
... ("3,4-MDPEA" or just "MDPEA"), also known as homopiperonylamine, is a substituted phenethylamine formed by adding a methylenedioxy group to phenethylamine. It is structurally similar to MDA, but without the methyl group at the alpha position. According to Alexander Shulgin in his book PiHKAL, MDPEA appears to be biologically inactive. This is likely because of extensive first-pass metabolism by the enzyme monoamine oxidase. However, if MDPEA were either used in high enough of doses (e.g., 1-2 grams), or in combination with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), it is probable that it would become sufficiently active, though it would likely have a relatively short duration of action. This idea is similar in concept to the use of selective MAOA inhibitors and selective MAOB inhibitors in augmentation of dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and phenethylamine (PEA), respectively. ...
Alexander Shulgin conducted research on methylenedioxy compounds in the 1960s. In a 1967 lab notebook entry, Shulgin briefly mentioned a colleague's report of no effect from the substance with a 100 mg dose.[4] Shulgin later characterized the substance in his book PiHKAL.[3] In the United States, MDEA was introduced recreationally in 1985 as a legal substitute to the newly banned MDMA.[2] MDEA was made a Schedule 1 substance in the United States on August 13, 1987 under the Federal Analog Act.[1] ...
... (also known as 3-FMC) is a chemical compound of the phenethylamine, amphetamine, and cathinone classes that has been sold online as a designer drug.[1][2] It is a structural isomer of flephedrone (4-fluoromethcathinone). 3-Fluoroisomethcathinone is produced as a by-product when 3-FMC is synthesized, the activity of this compound is unknown.[3] ...
... emerged as a new legal high in the United Kingdom only months after the ban of similar drug mephedrone (which was also a cathinone derivative). Until July 2010 the substance was not controlled by the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 and was therefore not illegal for someone to possess. The Medicines Act prevented naphyrone from being sold for human consumption, and therefore it was sometimes sold as 'pond cleaner' or as another substance not normally consumed by humans. In response to this emerging trend of new designer drugs, Home Office Minister James Brokenshire said, "action to address the issue of emerging legal highs coming on to the market is a priority for the government."[12][unreliable source?] A study by researchers at Liverpool John Moores University found that only one out of ten products labelled as "NRG-1" actually contained naphyrone when they were subjected to laboratory analysis. Compounds found in products labelled NRG-1 included MDPV, flephedrone, mephedrone, butylone and ...
... is a synthetic form of the isolated major active metabolite of venlafaxine, and is categorized as a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI). When most normal metabolizers take venlafaxine, approximately 70% of the dose is metabolized into desvenlafaxine, so the effects of the two drugs are expected to be very similar.[5] It works by blocking the "reuptake" transporters for key neurotransmitters affecting mood, thereby leaving more active neurotransmitters in the synapse. The neurotransmitters affected are serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). It is approximately 10 times more potent at inhibiting serotonin uptake than norepinephrine uptake.[6]. ...
3,4-Methylenedioxy-N,N-dimethylamphetamine (MDDM) is a lesser-known psychedelic drug. It is also the N,N-dimethyl analog of 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA). MDDM was first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin. In his book PiHKAL (Phenethylamines i Have Known And Loved), the dosage is unspecified and the duration unknown. MDDM produces only mild effects that are not well characterized in PiHKAL. Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of MDDM. This compound is however occasionally encountered as an impurity in 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) which has been synthesized by methylation of MDA using methylating reagents such as methyl iodide. An excess of reagent or a reaction temperature that is too high results in some double methylation of the amine nitrogen, yielding MDDM as well as MDMA. The presence of MDDM as an impurity can thus reveal which synthetic route was used to manufacture seized samples of MDMA. ...
... acts as a potent agonist for the 5HT2A receptor,[1][2] with a Ki of 0.061 nM at the human 5HT2A receptor, similar to the better-known compound 25I-NBOMe, making it some twelve times the potency of 2C-I itself. Although in vitro tests show this compound acts as an agonist, animal studies to confirm these findings have not been reported. While the N-benzyl derivatives of 2C-I had significantly increased binding to 5HT2A receptor fragments, compared to 2C-I, the N-benzyl derivatives of DOI were less active compared to DOI.[3] 25I-NBOH is notable as one of the most selective agonist ligands for the 5-HT2A receptor with an EC50 value of 0.074 nM with more than 400 times selectivity over the 5-HT2C receptor.[4] ...
... (DOPR) is a psychedelic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes. It was first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin, and was described in his book PiHKAL (Phenethylamines i Have Known And Loved). Shulgin described DOPR is a "heavy duty psychedelic", complete with alterations of the thought process and visual distortion.[1] Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of DOPR. The alternative structural isomer DOIP, with a 4-isopropyl substitution, is also known but is around ten times weaker than DOPR, with an active dose of some 20-30 mg (as compared to 2-5 mg for DOPR).[1] ...
Djaldetti Ruth; Giladi Nir; Hassin-Baer Sharon; Shabtai Hertzel; Melamed Eldad (November-December 2003). "Pharmacokinetics of Etilevodopa Compared to Levodopa in Patient's With Parkinson's Disease: An Open-label, Randomized, Crossover Study". Clinical Neuropharmacology. 26 (6): 322-326. doi:10.1097/00002826-200311000-00012. PMID 14646613 ...
... (2-FA) is a stimulant drug from the amphetamine family which has been sold as a designer drug.[1] 2-Fluoroamphetamine differs from 3- and 4-fluoroamphetamine in the position of the fluorine atom on the aromatic ring, making them positional isomers of one another. The replacement of a hydrogen atom with a fluorine atom in certain compounds to facilitate passage through the blood-brain barrier, as is desirable in central nervous system pharmaceutical agents, is a common practice due to the corresponding increase in lipophilicity granted by the substitute.[2][3] ...
Difluoromethylenedioxyamphetamine (DiFMDA) is a substituted derivative of 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), which was developed by Daniel Trachsel and coworkers, along with the corresponding fluorinated derivatives of MDMA, MDEA, BDB and MBDB, with the aim of finding a non-neurotoxic drug able to be used as a less harmful substitute for entactogenic drugs such as MDMA. Since a major route of the normal metabolism of these compounds is scission of the methylenedioxy ring, producing neurotoxic metabolites such as alpha-methyldopamine, it was hoped that the difluoromethylenedioxy bioisostere would show increased metabolic stability and less toxicity.[1][2] These compounds have not yet been tested in animals to verify whether they show similar pharmacological activity to the non-fluorinated parent compounds, although in vitro binding studies show DFMDA to have a SERT affinity in between that of MDA and MDMA.[3] However, there is known to be a lack of bulk tolerance at this position of the ...
... (MDMP), or 3,4-methylenedioxy-α,α,N-trimethylphenethylamine, is a lesser-known ...
... (MDMEO, MDMEOA, or MDMeOA) is a lesser-known psychedelic drug and a substituted amphetamine. It is also the N-methoxy analogue of MDA. MDMEO was first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin. In his book PiHKAL (Phenethylamines i Have Known And Loved), the minimum dosage is listed as 180 mg. MDMEO may be found as white crystals. It produces few to no effects. Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of MDMEO. ...
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Schedule I in Sweden. 2C-T-2 was first classified as "health hazard" under the act Lagen om förbud mot vissa hälsofarliga varor (translated Act on the Prohibition of Certain Goods Dangerous to Health) as of April 1, 1999, under SFS 1999:58[6] that made it illegal to sell or possess. The Riksdag added 2C-T-2 to Narcotic Drugs Punishments Act under Swedish schedule I ("substances, plant materials and fungi which normally do not have medical use") as of March 16, 2004, published by Medical Products Agency (MPA) in regulation LVFS 2004:3 listed as 2C-T-2, 2,5-dimetoxi-4-etyltiofenetylamin.[7] ...
In the United Kingdom, 2C-E is a Class A controlled substance. The UK has the strictest laws in the EU on designer drugs. The Misuse Of Drugs Act was amended in 2002 to include a "catch most" clause outlawing every drug, and possible future drug, from the LSD (ergoline) and MDMA (phenethylamine) chemical families (including 2C-E). The amendment is a near verbatim quote from the books of the American biochemist Alexander Shulgin, who obtained a PhD from the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Shulgin, a former research chemist at the Dow Chemical Company, re-discovered the synthesis for MDMA in 1976 and published the syntheses for more than 200 phenethylamine compounds of his own invention, and 55 tryptamine compounds many of which were also his own invention. The Shulgins were motivated to release the synthesis information as a way to protect the public's access to information about psychedelic compounds, a goal Alexander Shulgin has noted many times. ...
N,α-Diethylphenylethylamine (N,α-DEPEA, 2-ethylamino-1-phenylbutane, EAPB) is a close chemical analog of methamphetamine which has been sold as a designer drug.[1][2][3] It was originally patented by Knoll Pharma as one of several analogs for pharmaceutical applications. In animals models these analogs showed properties of cognitive enhancement and increased pain tolerance.[4] Nevertheless, this class of compounds was never developed into a medicine. N,α-DEPEA has not been studied in humans, but experts such as Pieter Cohen of Harvard Medical School expect it to be less potent than methamphetamine, but greater than ephedrine.[5] ...
Phentermine. References[edit]. *^ Swiss Pharmaceutical Society (2000). Index Nominum 2000: International Drug Directory (Book ...
... (C-(4,5,6-trimethoxyindan-1-yl)methanamine) is a conformationally-restricted derivative of the cactus-derived hallucinogen mescaline, which was discovered in 2006 by a team at Purdue University led by David E. Nichols. It acts as a potent agonist for the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors with the more active (R)-enantiomer having a Ki of 69 nM at the human 5-HT2A receptor, and around three times the potency of mescaline in drug-substitution experiments in animals.[1] This discovery that the side chain of the phenethylamine hallucinogens could be constrained to give chiral ligands with increased activity then led to the later development of the super-potent benzocyclobutene derivative TCB-2.[2][3] ...
... (MDPPP) is a stimulant designer drug. It was sold in Germany in the late 1990s and early 2000s as an ingredient in imitation ecstasy (MDMA) pills.[1] It shares a similar chemical structure with α-PPP and MDPV,[2][3][4] and has been shown to have reinforcing effects in rats.[5] ...
... is a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI) under development by Jazz Pharmaceuticals for the treatment of excessive sleepiness associated with narcolepsy and sleep apnea. It is derived from phenylalanine and its chemical name is (R)-2-amino-3-phenylpropylcarbamate hydrochloride.[1] The drug was discovered by a subsidiary of SK Group, which licensed rights outside of 11 countries in Asia to Aerial Pharma in 2011.[2] Aerial ran two Phase II trials of the drug in narcolepsy[3] before selling the license to solriamfetol to Jazz in 2014; Jazz paid Aerial $125 million up front and will pay Aerial and SK up to $272 million in milestone payments, and will pay double digit royalties to SK.[2][4] Solriamfetol had also been tested in animal models of depression, but as of 2017 that work had not been advanced to clinical trials.[5] During development it has been called SKL-N05, ADX-N05, ARL-N05, and JZP-110.[6] In March 2018 the FDA accepted SK's and Jazz' NDA for use of ...
The full name of the chemical is 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromoamphetamine. DOB has a stereocenter and R-(-)-DOB is the eutomer. This is an important finding as it is suggestive that it is targeting different receptors relative to most other phenethylamines (e.g. MDMA) where the R-isomer serves as the distomer. The toxicity of DOB is not fully known, although high doses may cause serious vasoconstriction of the extremities. DOB is one of the most potent compounds in PiHKAL; while the active dose is similar to that of DOI, another psychedelic amphetamine, DOB has been shown to have a higher efficacy in triggering downstream effects mediated by 5-HT2 receptors,[4] making it likely to be slightly more dangerous than DOI in overdose, due to greater vasoconstrictive action. Omission of the amphetamine related α-methyl leads to 2C-B, a compound that possesses a lower affinity for the 5-HT2A receptor and is a weaker receptor agonist which results in drastically reduced vasoconstriction.[citation needed] ...
... (1-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-5-yl)-N-methylpropan-2-amine) is a chemical compound which might be an entactogenic drug. It is structurally related to drugs like 5-APDB and 5-MAPB, which have similar effects to MDMA and have been used as recreational drugs. 5-MAPDB has been studied to determine its pharmacological activity, and was found to be a relatively selective serotonin releaser, though with weaker actions as a releaser of other monoamines and 5-HT2 receptor family agonist,[1] similar to older compounds such as 5-APDB.[2] ...
... is a derivative of hexedrone, in which the methyl group attached to the nitrogen atom is substituted by an ethyl group. It is structurally similar to pentedrone, and also α-pyrrolidinohexiophenone (A-PHP), from which it differs by the substitution of a pyrrolidine group with an N-ethyl group.[10] The compound is a molecule of the cathinone chemical class. The term "substituted cathinone" refers to a broad array of substances based on cathinone, the principally active constituent of the khat plant. Cathinone is principally constituted of a amphetamine core (a phenethylamine core with an alkyl group attached to the alpha carbon) and an oxygen group attached to the beta carbon. Cathinones are also known as the beta-ketone (βk) (double-bonded oxygen to the β-carbon) analogs of amphetamines. Notably, the cathinone backbone can be modified in three different places to create hundreds of possible compounds, which include substituents on the aromatic ring (R2-R5), the alpha carbon ...
... , also known as diethylpropion, is a stimulant drug of the phenethylamine, amphetamine, and cathinone classes that is used as an appetite suppressant.[2][3] It is used in the short-term management of obesity, along with dietary and lifestyle changes.[2] Amfepramone is most closely chemically related to the antidepressant and smoking cessation aid bupropion (previously called amfebutamone), which has also been developed as a weight-loss medicine when in a combination product with naltrexone.[4] ...
Drug discrimination studies showed that 5-methyl-MDA substitutes for MDA, MMAI, and LSD, but not amphetamine, suggesting that it produces a mix of entactogen and hallucinogenic effects without any stimulant effects.[2]. 5-Methyl-MDA acts as a selective serotonin releasing agent (SSRA) with IC50 values of 107nM, 11,600nM, and 1,494nM for serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine efflux.[1] It is over 5x more potent than MDA, with a suitable active dose possibly being around 15-25 mg.[1][2] Subsequent testing, however, has found that it is not as potent as once thought and is active at at least 100mg. 2-Methyl-MDA is also much more potent than MDA, but is not quite as potent as 5-methyl-MDA.[1] 6-methyl-MDMA (also known as Madam-6) is mostly inactive, likely due to steric hindrance.[1][3]. Recent research has used data on 2-methyl-MDA and 5-methyl-MDA to help guide computer modeling of the serotonin transporter complex.[4]. ...
... (6-Cl-MDMA, 2-Cl-4,5-MDMA) is a derivative of the amphetamine drug MDMA, which has been identified both in seized "Ecstasy" tablets and in urine samples from drug users.[1][2] It is thought most likely to be an impurity from synthesis and its pharmacological properties have not been established, however it has been banned in several countries. ...
... (INN), also known as 2-methylamphetamine, is a stimulant drug of the amphetamine class. In animal drug discrimination tests it substituted for dextroamphetamine more closely than either 3- or 4-methylamphetamine, although with only around 1/10 the potency of dextroamphetamine itself.[1] ...
Developed in 1962, it is the 4-chloro derivative of the better known appetite suppressant phentermine,[1] which is still in ...