Micellization and phase transitions[edit]. An important characteristic of poloxamer solutions is their temperature dependent ... The phase transitions can also be largely influenced by the use of additives such as salts and alcohols. The interactions with ... Different phase diagrams characterizing all these transitions have been constructed for most poloxamers using a great variety ... The transitions that occur in these systems depend on the polymer composition (molecular weight and hydrophilic/hydrophobic ...
... strong container might reach an equilibrium where both phases coexist. For the opposite transition from solid to liquid, see ... Unlike the transition to gas, there is no equilibrium at this transition under constant pressure,[citation needed] so unless ... A typical phase diagram. The dotted line gives the anomalous behaviour of water. The green lines show how the freezing point ... The phase diagram explains why liquids do not exist in space or any other vacuum. Since the pressure is zero (except on ...
Phase transitions[edit]. At some critical set of conditions, for example 0 °C for water at 1 atm, a new arrangement of atoms or ... If the transition produces another crystalline phase, one set of lines will suddenly be replaced by another set. In some cases ... second order phase transition. In such cases the symmetry may change because the existing structure is distorted rather than ... leading to a phase transition. At this point new diffraction peaks will appear or old ones disappear according to the symmetry ...
For the opposite transition from solid to liquid, see melting. Liquids in space. The phase diagram explains why liquids do not ... Unlike the transition to gas, there is no equilibrium at this transition under constant pressure, so unless supercooling occurs ... A typical phase diagram. The dotted line gives the anomalous behaviour of water. The green lines show how the freezing point ... At the liquid's boiling point, all of the heat energy is used to cause the phase change from a liquid to a gas, without an ...
Liquid-solid-phase transitions[edit]. Hysteresis manifests itself in state transitions when melting temperature and freezing ... but with a phase lag φ. : X. (. t. ). =. X. 0. sin. ⁡. ω. t. Y. (. t. ). =. Y. 0. sin. ⁡. (. ω. t. −. ϕ. ). .. {\displaystyle ... In natural systems it is often associated with irreversible thermodynamic change such as phase transitions and with internal ... The phase lag depends on the frequency of the input, and goes to zero as the frequency decreases.[2] ...
Lin Biao phase. Transition of power. The Ninth Party Congress was held on April 1969 and served as a means to "revitalize" the ... After the most violent phase of the 1960s ended, the attack on traditional culture continued in 1973 with the Anti-Lin Biao, ... Mao officially ended the Cultural Revolution in 1969, but its active phase lasted until at least 1971, when Lin Biao fled and ... the army took control of some provinces and locales that were deemed incapable of sorting out their own power transitions.[59] ...
Transition (Phase II)[edit]. The O2 is rapidly degraded by the existing microbial populations. The decreasing O2 leads to less ... Methane fermentation (Phase IV)[edit]. The acid formation phase intermediary products (e.g. acetic, propionic, and butyric ... This is the longest decomposition phase. Final maturation and stabilization (Phase V)[edit]. The rate of microbiological ... The H2 generation phase is relatively short because it is complete by the end of the acid formation phase. The increase in the ...
... and the gaseous phase, water vapor or steam. The addition or removal of heat can cause phase transitions: freezing (water to ... 2O;[10] it is also the liquid phase of H. 2O.[11] The other two common states of matter of water are the solid phase, ice, ... Phase transitions. At a pressure of one atmosphere (atm), ice melts or water freezes at 0 °C (32 °F) and water boils or vapor ... Phases of ice and water. The normal form of ice on the surface of Earth is Ice Ih, a phase that forms crystals with hexagonal ...
HII phase transition". Biochemistry. 25 (14): 4141-7. doi:10.1021/bi00362a023. PMID 3741846. Holopainen, Juha M.; Lehtonen, ... Since PE has a small headgroup and readily forms inverted micelle phases it should, according to the stalk model, promote the ... lipid mixtures have been shown to only support fusion when raised above the transition temperature of these inverted phases. ... hexagonal or more exotic extended phase. The situation is further complicated when considering fusion in vivo since biological ...
... see phase transition. For example, at the standard atmospheric pressure, T c {\displaystyle T_{c}} is 100 °C = 212 °F. The ... The solid-liquid transition also happens around a specific transition temperature called the melting point. For most substances ... For example, in the case of liquid-gas transition, at each pressure there is a special "transition temperature" T c {\ ... The phase of water (i.e., whether it assumes the form of a solid, liquid, or gas) is determined by its temperature and pressure ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Avilla Bergin:My journey so far…". The Transition Phase. 20 July 2020. Retrieved 3 ...
Transition phase[edit]. This phase is used to facilitate psychological rest, relaxation and biological regeneration as well as ... The competitive phase ends with the taper and the competition. The transition phase is important for psychological reasons, a ... Preparatory phase[edit]. This phase consists of the general preparation and specific preparation. Usually which can be ... Competitive phase[edit]. This phase may contain a few main competitions each containing a pre-competitive and a main ...
Pal, Arijeet; Huse, David A. (2010). "Many-body localization phase transition". Physical Review B. 82 (17): 174411. arXiv: ... Serbyn, Maksym; Papić, Z.; Abanin, D. A. (2014). "Quantum quenches in the many-body localized phase". Physical Review B. 90 (17 ... Fleishman, L.; Anderson, P. W. (1980). "Interactions and the Anderson transition". Physical Review B. 21 (6): 2366-2377. doi: ... Basko, D.M.; Aleiner, I.L.; Altshuler, B.L. (2006). "Metal-insulator transition in a weakly interacting many-electron system ...
... but many distinct phases may exist within a single state of matter. phase transition 1. A transformation of a chemical ... vaporization The phase transition of a substance from a liquid to a gas. viscosity A measure of the resistance of a liquid to ... melting The phase transition of a substance from a solid to a liquid. melting point The temperature at which a substance ... condensation The phase transition of a substance from a gas to a liquid. condosity A comparative measurement of the electrical ...
... for either the first or second order phase transitions) gives: P. s. =. 1. 2. α. 111. [. −. α. 11. +. α. 11. 2. −. 4. α. 0. α. ... for a second order phase transition. The spontaneous polarization, Ps of a ferroelectric for a cubic to tetragonal phase ... For ferroelectrics with a first order phase transition, α. 11. ,. 0. {\displaystyle \alpha _{11},0}. , whereas α. 11. ,. 0. {\ ... Julio A. Gonzalo (2006). Effective Field Approach to Phase Transitions and Some Applications to Ferroelectrics. World ...
cuprate phase transitions.[7] The ground state of such transitions is characterized by the presence of a sharp Fermi surface, ... Another example of such behaviour is observed at quantum critical points of certain second-order phase transitions, such as ... Electronic phases. Electronic band structure · Plasma · Insulator · Mott insulator · Semiconductor · Semimetal · Conductor · ... Magnetic phases. Diamagnet · Superdiamagnet. Paramagnet · Superparamagnet. Ferromagnet · Antiferromagnet. Metamagnet · Spin ...
In the latter case, however, minesweeper exhibits a phase transition analogous to k-SAT: when more than 25% squares are mined, ... Dempsey, Ross; Guinn, Charles (2020). "A Phase Transition in Minesweeper". arXiv:2008.04116 [cs.AI]. Kaye, Richard (31 May 2007 ...
B. J. Alder and T. E. Wainwright (1957). "Phase Transition for a Hard Sphere System". J. Chem. Phys. 27 (5): 1208-1209. Bibcode ... B. J. Alder and T. E. Wainwright (1962). "Phase Transition in Elastic Disks". Phys. Rev. 127 (2): 359-361. Bibcode:1962PhRv.. ... including the liquid-solid phase transition for hard sphere and the velocity autocorrelations function decay in liquids. Alder ... of Technology to study under John Gamble Kirkwood for his PhD in 1948 and worked for the investigation of phase transitions in ...
Phases and phase transitions are only sharply defined for macroscopic systems in the thermodynamic limit, and statistical ... MBL systems can undergo a dynamical phase transition to a thermalizing phase as parameters such as the disorder or interaction ... properties at the transition between the localized SG and PM phases translates into a sharp dynamical phase transition which is ... Strong enough interactions destroy MBL and the system transitions to a thermalizing phase. The fate of the MBL PM to MBL SG ...
In three as in two dimensions, Peierl's argument shows that there is a phase transition. This phase transition is rigorously ... A sign of a phase transition is a non-analytic free energy, so the one-dimensional model does not have a phase transition. To ... the Hamiltonian undergoes a transition at J = h. In the ferromagnetic case there is a phase transition. At low temperature, the ... thus creating the possibility of different structural phases. The model allows the identification of phase transitions, as a ...
Alder, B. J.; Wainwright, T. E. (1957). "Phase Transition for a Hard Sphere System". J. Chem. Phys. 27 (5): 1208. Bibcode: ... Alder, B. J.; Wainwright, T. E. (1962). "Phase Transition in Elastic Disks". Phys. Rev. 127 (2): 359-361. Bibcode:1962PhRv..127 ...
Beysens, D.; Steyer, A.; Guenoun, P.; Fritter, D.; Knobler, C. M. (1991). "How does dew form?". Phase Transitions. 31 (1-4): ...
... and structural phase transitions. Phase equilibrium has been considered within the context of their physical similarities, with ... Equilibrium phase transitions (e.g. order/disorder), an equation of state, and the kinetics of colloidal crystallization have ... Applications include photonics, materials processing, and the study of self-assembly and phase transitions. IUPAC definition ... of an equilibrium hexatic phase as well as a strongly first-order liquid-to-hexatic and hexatic-to-solid phase transition. ...
Brout, Robert (1965). Phase Transitions. New York, Amsterdam: W. A. Benjamin, Inc. Rau, C.; Jin, C.; Robert, M. (1988). " ... This is similar to the Curie temperature as above the Néel Temperature the material undergoes a phase transition and becomes ... The Ising model is mathematically based and can analyse the critical points of phase transitions in ferromagnetic order due to ... Below the Curie temperature, the intrinsic structure has undergone a phase transition, the atoms are ordered and the material ...
Pb and Mn impurities on the ferroelectric phase transition in GeTe studied by EXAFS". Phase Transitions. 60 (2): 67. doi: ... phase; α phase being most phase for pure GeTe below the ferroelectric Curie temperature of approximately 670 K. Doped germanium ... The phase transitions of GeTe can be fast, reversible and repeatable, with drastic property changes, making GeTe a promising ... Researches on mechanisms that relate the phase transition and radio frequency (RF) switching is underway, with promising future ...
So for example the phase transition in diammonium dicadmium sulfate can occur between 89 and 95 K. Under pressure the highest ... Sutera, A.; Nassau, K.; Abrahams, S. C. (1981). "Phase-transition variation with composition in solid solutions of K₂Cd₂(SO₄)₃ ... Where the crystals change phase there is a discontinuity in the heat capacity. The transitions may show thermal hysteresis. ... Speer, D.; Salje, E. (1986). "Phase transitions in langbeinites I: Crystal chemistry and structures of K-double sulfates of the ...
S. Ranganathan, K. Chattopadhyay (1989). "Decagonal quasicrystals". Phase Transitions. 16 (1-4): 67-83. doi:10.1080/ ... "Phase formation and stability of alloy phases in free nanoparticles: some insights". RSC Advances. 5 (4): 35541-35550. doi: ... He is also credited with wider studies in synthesis of nanocomposites, phase transformations, large superheating phenomenon ... "Phase Separating Bulk Metallic Glass: A Hierarchical Composite". Physical Review Letters. 96 (245503): 245503. Bibcode: ...
Kumar, Sandeep (2008). "Rufigallol-based self-assembled supramolecular architectures". Phase Transitions. 81: 113-128. doi: ...
There is a phase transition from perovskite to post-perovskite from the down welling slab(s) that causes an exothermic reaction ... Post-Perovskite: The Last Mantle Phase Transition; Volume 174 in AGU Geophysical Monographs (PDF). American Geophysical Union. ... Aided by the phase transformation, the temperature would partially melt the slabs, to form a dense heavy melt that pools and ... WR Peltier (2007). "Mantle dynamics and the D layer implications of the post-perovskite phase". In Kei Hirose; John Brodholt; ...
Phase transition[upraviť , upraviť zdroj]. Bližšie informácie v hlavnom článku: Phase transition ... In particular, quantum phase transitions refer to transitions where the temperature is set to zero, and the phases of the ... KADANOFF, Leo, P.. Phases of Matter and Phase Transitions; From Mean Field Theory to Critical Phenomena. [s.l.] : The ... 1869, Irish chemist Thomas Andrews studied the phase transition from a liquid to a gas and coined the s phases,[15] and Dutch ...
"Understand LNG Rapid Phase Transitions (RPT)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 August 2013. Retrieved 17 April ... One of the risks of LNG is a rapid phase transition explosion (RPT), which occurs when cold LNG comes into contact with water.[ ... "Implications of Residual Fuel Oil Phase Out" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 April 2017. Retrieved 17 March 2017. ... Corbeau, Anne-Sophie (2016). LNG Markets in Transition: The Great Reconfiguration. Oxford University Press. pp. 380-381. ISBN ...
The Miocene is of particular interest to geologists and palaeoclimatologists as major phases of the geology of the Himalaya ... when global temperatures took a sharp drop-the Middle Miocene Climate Transition (MMCT). By 8 million years ago, temperatures ... Zhisheng, An; Kutzbach, John E.; Prell, Warren L.; Porter, Stephen C. (3 May 2001). "Evolution of Asian monsoons and phased ...
The role of catenin in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (or EMT) has also received a lot of recent attention for its ... impact on survival in a Gynecologic Oncology Group phase II endometrial cancer trial". Gynecol. Oncol. 123 (2): 320-8. doi: ... may help stimulate epithelial-mesenchymal transition (or EMT) Mutations or aberrant regulation of catenins may also associate ... "Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 activation mediates epithelial to mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular ...
Transition and Beyond: Essays in Honour of Mario Nuti. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. hlm. 22. ISBN 978-0-230-54697-4. In the ... "Socialism during its "mature phase"". Science Encyclopedia. 2013.. *^ Socialism and the Market: The Socialist Calculation ... These three phases of opposition to Liberty are met in almost every sphere of thought and human activity. Good representatives ... These three phases of opposition to Liberty are met in almost every sphere of thought and human activity. Good representatives ...
The generation and modulation of eupnea and the transition between the inspiratory and expiratory phases have also been ... the respiratory network responds by transitioning into an augmentation followed by a depression phase, controlled in the pre- ... During the depression phase, the inspiratory burst changes from an augmenting bell-shaped burst to a decrementing burst, a ... Blocking this inhibition from Glycine or GABA causes it's neurons to be incapable of switching from the active phase to the ...
The Paleolithic is followed in Europe by the Mesolithic, although the date of the transition varies geographically by several ... This was a lunar calendar that was used to document the phases of the moon. Genuine solar calendars did not appear until the ...
2 Phase one: death squads of Operation Barbarossa *2.1 Bezirk Bialystok and Reichskommissariat Ostland ... The Vileyka massacres by Einsatzkommando 9 at the end of July marked the transition to genocide.[p.60] Entire Jewish population ... Phase two: deportations to extermination camps. Nazi extermination camps marked with black and white skulls. General Government ... Phase one: death squads of Operation Barbarossa. Main articles: Einsatzgruppen, Einsatzgruppen reports, and Order Police ...
... an abbreviation for transition frequency-the frequency of transition is the frequency at which the transistor yields unity ... The ASEA Brown Boveri (ABB) 5SNA2400E170100 ,[82] intended for three-phase power supplies, houses three n-p-n IGBTs in a case ... and an instantaneous transition between the two states. Parameters are chosen such that the "off" output is limited to leakage ... and the transition between the two states is fast enough not to have a detrimental effect.[71] ...
Jutta Pohl, Dieter Pohl, Gunadi Adiwidjaja (1992). "Phase Transition in Rubidium Nitrate at 346 K and Structure at 296, 372, ...
232] [233] A fire detection malfunction obviously caused the testing phase to be aborted prematurely.[234] Christoph Schaefer ... "Turkish Airlines confirms AnadoluJet network transition from late-March 2020". Routesonline. Retrieved 14 January 2020.. ... During much of the planning and construction phase the new airport was known as Berlin Brandenburg International Airport, ... This phase also saw the acceptance tests of various airport systems. It became clear on 8 May 2012 that the building could not ...
... having originally intended to phase out the remaining 747s in 2024. The airline stated that their decision to bring forward the ... A Boeing 747-100 in BOAC-British Airways transition livery (1976). Proposals to establish a joint British airline, combining ...
As a part of the Affordable Care Act, Medicaid Expansion will phase out the Healthy Way LA program. As a result, 252,379 ... Healthy Way LA members will automatically be transitioned into Medi-Cal on January 1, 2014. ...
BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. ISBN 0-309-09156-X.. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list ( ... "transition of nerve energy" to define scope of practice; others, such as New Jersey, specify a severely narrowed scope.[64] US ...
Various phases are known, such as LiB10, NaB6, NaB15, and KB6.[111][112] Under high pressure the boron-boron bonding in the ... Transition metals to the left of group 11 experience interactions between s electrons and the partially filled d subshell that ... Okamoto, H. (2009). "Cs-O (Cesium-Oxygen)". Journal of Phase Equilibria and Diffusion. 31: 86-87. doi:10.1007/s11669-009-9636-5 ... The group 11 metals (or coinage metals), copper, silver, and gold, are typically categorised as transition metals given they ...
The free gold supply in stream beds would become depleted somewhat quickly, and the initial phase would be followed by ... Within each mining rush there is typically a transition through progressively higher capital expenditures, larger organizations ...
This occurs because the phase accumulated in the layer relative to the phase of the light immediately reflected decreases as ... thus accumulating more phase of their own) to arrive at the interface. The net effect is that the relative phase is actually ... This is counterintuitive, since the ray experiences a greater total phase shift in the layer than for normal incidence. This ... since they are exactly out of phase. Therefore, there is no reflection from the surface, and all the energy of the beam must be ...
Phases · Phase transition · QCP. States of matter. Solid · Liquid · Gas · Plasma · Bose-Einstein condensate · Bose gas · ... Transition from ordinary conductivity (left) to superconductivity (right). At the transition, the superconductor expels the ... Electronic phases. Electronic band structure · Plasma · Insulator · Mott insulator · Semiconductor · Semimetal · Conductor · ... Magnetic phases. Diamagnet · Superdiamagnet. Paramagnet · Superparamagnet. Ferromagnet · Antiferromagnet. Metamagnet · Spin ...
... but the Bronze D Riegsee-phase already contains cremations. As the transition from the middle Bronze Age to the Urnfield ... As can be seen by the arbitrary 100-year ranges, the dating of the phases is highly schematic. The phases are based on ... In the earliest phases of the Urnfield period, man-shaped graves were dug, sometimes provided with a stone lined floor, in ... The Urnfield culture grew from the preceding tumulus culture.[1] The transition is gradual, in the pottery as well as the ...
Each cycle evolves in two phases: The phase of production of new mental units in the first half and their alignment in the ... Pascual-Leone, J. (1970). A mathematical model for the transition rule in Piaget's developmental stages. Acta Psychologica, 32 ... The knowledge available at each phase defines the kind of self-regulation that can be achieved. Thus, self-regulation becomes ... This, in turn, enhances the capacity of working memory, thereby facilitating transition across the stages of cognitive ...
... the transition from the "possible" to the "actual," is absolutely necessary here and cannot be omitted from the interpretation ...
These high temperature phases would last for two days or more and would repeat several times in any given experiment once they ... a process involving nuclear transitions in a solid. Its discovery 30 years earlier had also been unexpected, though it was ... The calculated power leaving the cell was significantly higher than the input power during these high temperature phases. ... Eventually the high temperature phases would no longer occur within a particular cell.[27] ...
These techniques rely on metal halide and boron halide precursors (such as TiCl4 and BCl3) in the gaseous phase and use H2 as a ... Broadly speaking, UHTCs are borides, carbides, nitrides, and oxides of early transition metals. Current efforts have focused on ... 2010). "Microstructure and Phase Composition of Composite Coatings Formed by Plasma Spraying of ZrO2 and B4C Powders". Journal ... 2006). "Densification and properties of transition metal borides-based cermets via spark plasma sintering". Journal of the ...
Here, FeCl3 is proposed to act as the transition-metal catalyst and Cs2CO3 as the base, thus theoretically proceeding through a ... Altinicline has undergone Phase II clinical trials. Castro-Stephens coupling Heck reaction Stille reaction Suzuki reaction ... attempts to incorporate the various transition metals mentioned above as less expensive alternatives to palladium catalysts ...
Music is useful in the recovery of motor skills.[38] In a study on stroke patients in the recovery phase, music therapy was ... Music therapists work with active duty military personnel, veterans, service members in transition, and their families. Music ... Music therapy programs have a large outreach because they exist for all phases of military life: pre-mobilization, deployment, ... therapy on pediatric pain: phase 1. The Journal of Music Therapy, 44(3), 217-41. ...
Vicsek, T.; Czirok, A.; Ben-Jacob, E.;; Cohen, I.; Shochet, O. (1995). "Novel type of phase transition in a system of self- ... "Hydrodynamics and phases of flocks" (PDF). Annals of Physics. 318: 170-244. Bibcode:2005AnPhy.318..170T. doi:10.1016/j.aop. ... within the swarm intelligence's two infamous phases of exploration and exploitation. ...
... where it came to describe not a transition to a higher phase of communism but a vision of communist revolution itself. Thus the ... anarchists criticise most Marxists for advocating a transitional phase under which the state is used to achieve this aim. ...
Given the clue of "hand-writing" that terminates the "oral phase" one expects "printing" to terminate the manuscript phase and ... The transition from this oral culture takes place when the child is taught to read and write. Then the child enters the world ... So, unless aware of this dynamic, we shall at once move into a phase of panic terrors, exactly befitting a small world of ... the hand-writing terminates the oral phase, the printing and the electricity revolutionizes afterwards culture and society.[14] ...
The 1990 announcement also indicated that "during a transition phase, some functions, including consular services for Berlin ... transition phase' would turn into what is seemingly a permanent presence in the Clay compound for some of the Embassy's ...
Lin HR, Ting NS, Qin J, Lee WH (Sep 2003). "M phase-specific phosphorylation of BRCA2 by Polo-like kinase 1 correlates with the ... negative regulation of G0 to G1 transition. Sources:Amigo / QuickGO. Orthologs. Species. Human. Mouse. ... "MicroRNAs down-regulate homologous recombination in the G1 phase of cycling cells to maintain genomic stability". Elife. 3 ...
The armed conflict escalated during the final phase of the World War II, when the Irgun declared a revolt in February 1944, ... The British also refused to cooperate with the UN commission that was sent to monitor the transition; when the commission's six ...