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*  Brain natriuretic peptide
... cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) dependent phosphorylation of ENaC. Its natriuretic effect is affected by dopamine and dopamine ... Other terms for BNP include B-type natriuretic peptide, ventricular natriuretic peptide and natriuretic peptide B') C-type ... 1992). "Receptor selectivity of natriuretic peptide family, atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, and C-type ... Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), also known as B-type natriuretic peptide, is a hormone secreted by cardiomyocytes in the heart ...
*  Protein primary structure
Peptides can be synthesised chemically via a range of laboratory methods. Chemical methods typically synthesise peptides in the ... pyroglutamate An N-terminal glutamine can attack itself, forming a cyclic pyroglutamate group. myristoylation − C ( = O ) − ( C ... Some organisms can also make short peptides by non-ribosomal peptide synthesis, which often use amino acids other than the ... Peptides can also be synthesized in the laboratory[citation needed]. Protein primary structures can be directly sequenced, or ...
*  Cyclic peptide
Cyclic peptides can be classified according to the types of bonds that comprise the ring. Homodetic cyclic peptides, such as ... Other bicyclic peptides include echinomycin, triostin A, and Celogentin C. There are a number of cyclic peptide hormones which ... Cyclic peptides tend to be extremely resistant to the process of digestion, enabling them to survive in the human digestive ... Cyclic peptides are polypeptide chains which contain a circular sequence of bonds. This can be through a connection between the ...
*  Cyclotide
Antimicrobial peptides Cyclic peptides Craik DJ, Daly NL, Bond T, Waine C (December 1999). "Plant cyclotides: A unique family ... One of the interesting features of cyclic peptides is that knowledge of the peptide sequence does not reveal the ancestral head ... Plants are a rich source of cyclic peptides, with the vast majority of these molecules being produced via non-ribosomal ... Cyclotides have a well-defined three-dimensional structure as a result of their interlocking disulfide bonds and cyclic peptide ...
*  Amanin
... is a cyclic peptide. It is one of the amatoxins, all of which are found in several members of the Amanita genus of ...
*  Amanullin
... is a cyclic peptide. It is an amatoxin, all of which are found in several members of the Amanita genus of mushrooms. ...
*  Mycobacillin
... is an antifungal cyclic peptide. It was first isolated in 1958 from the bacteria Bacillus subtilis. Banerjee, A. B ...
*  Cyclochlorotine
Chemically, it is a dichlorinated cyclic peptide. Zhou, ZH; Komiyama, M; Terao, K; Shimada, Y (1994). "Effects of ... Chlorinated Cyclic Peptides from Penicillium islandicum". J. Nat. Prod. 71 (7): 1297-1300. doi:10.1021/np800150m. PMID 18558744 ...
*  Tetrapeptide
Present in nature are both linear and cyclic tetrapeptides, tetrapeptides may be cyclized by a fourth peptide bond or other ... Dipeptide Tripeptide Pentapeptide Decapeptide cyclic peptide "Elamipretide". AdisInsight. Retrieved 24 April 2017. Kloner, RA; ... A tetrapeptide is a peptide, classified as an oligopeptide, since it only consists of four amino acids joined by peptide bonds ... Gluten exorphines A4 (H-Gly-Tyr-Tyr-Pro-OH) and B4 (H-Tyr-Gly-Gly-Trp-OH) are peptides isolated from gluten. Tyrosine-MIF-1 (H- ...
*  Epsilon-Amanitin
... or ε-amanitin is a Cyclic peptide. It is an amatoxin, all of which are found in several members of the Amanita ...
*  Virotoxins
Faulstich, H; Buku, A; Bodenmüller, H; Wieland, T (8 July 1980). "Virotoxins: actin-binding cyclic peptides of Amanita virosa ... Virotoxins are monocyclic peptides formed by at least five different compounds: alaviroidin, viroisin, deoxoviroisin, viroidin ... by Abba J. (2013). The handbook of biologically active peptides Chapter 25-Fungal toxins (2. ed.). Amsterdam [u.a.]: Elsevier, ... ISBN 978-012385095-9. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) LORANGER, A (December 1985). "Toxicity of peptides of Amanita ...
*  Patellamide A
In, Y.; Doi, M.; Inoue, M.; Ishida, T. (1994). "Patellamide A, a cytotoxic cyclic peptide from the ascidian Lissoclinum patella ... Degnan, B.; Hawkins, C.; Lavin, M.; Mccaffrey, E.; Parry, D.; Vandenbrenk, A.; Watters D. (1989). "New cyclic peptides with ... Patellamide A is one of many didemnid peptides. Other closely related peptides include patellamides B, C, and D and trunkamide ... forming the two cyclic peptides, patellamides A and C. Although all the amino acids used in the production of patellamide A are ...
*  OPLS
Energy Minimizations for Crystals of Cyclic Peptides and Crambin". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 110 (6): 1657-1666. doi:10.1021/ ...
*  Pristinamycin IA
... (Mikamycin B) is an antibiotic cyclic peptide. It is a member of the streptogramin B group of antibiotics and ...
*  Vancomycin
Kohli RM, Walsh CT, Burkart MD (August 2002). "Biomimetic synthesis and optimization of cyclic peptide antibiotics". Nature. ... The D-alanyl-D-serine variation causes a six-fold loss of affinity between vancomycin and the peptide, likely due to steric ... CepA codes for modules 1, 2, and 3. CepB codes for modules 4, 5, and 6, and CepC codes for module 7. The three peptide ... Samel SA, Marahiel MA, Essen LO (May 2008). "How to tailor non-ribosomal peptide products-new clues about the structures and ...
*  Tyrocidine
Kohli RM, Walsh CT, Burkart MD (August 2002). "Biomimetic synthesis and optimization of cyclic peptide antibiotics". Nature. ... providing a powerful route to new cyclic compounds. In order for this macrocyclization to occur, the peptide chain must be ... Use of solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) allowed the incorporation of a diverse array of monomers into the peptide chain. ... Elongation of the peptide chain is achieved through condensation of the upstream PCP onto an adjacent downstream PCP-bound ...
*  Yunnanin A
... is a biologically active cyclic peptide. Poojary, B. & Belagali, S. L. (2005). "Synthesis, characterization and ... biological evaluation of cyclic peptides: Viscumamide, yunnanin A and evolidine". Zeitschrift für Naturforschung B. 60 (12): ...
*  Nodularin
Microcystins Nonribosomal peptides Cyclic peptides Sivonen K, Kononen K, Carmichael WW, Dahlem AM, Rinehart KL, Kiviranta J, ... Nodularins are cyclic nonribosomal pentapeptides and contain several unusual non-proteinogenic amino acids such as N-methyl- ... Synthesis is conducted by multienzyme complexes, such as peptide synthetases, polypetide synthases, and tailoring enzymes. The ... of the nodularin and a free D-glutamyl carboxyl group off a cyclic structure of the phosphatase is the source of toxicity. The ...
*  Xenortide
Lang, Gerhard; Kalvelage, Tim; Peters, Arne; Wiese, Jutta; Imhoff, Johannes F. (2008-06-01). "Linear and Cyclic Peptides from ... The biosynthesis of xenortides A-D consists of two non-ribosomal peptide synthases (NRPS) coded by genes XndA and XndB, as well ... The xenortides (A-D) are a class of linear peptides isolated from the bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila, a symbiont of the ... as well as the final condensation of the enzyme-bound peptide with either decarboxylated phenylalanine (xenortides A and C) or ...
*  Mixed-mode chromatography
"Hydrophilic interaction/cation-exchange chromatography for separation of cyclic peptides". Journal of Chromatography A. 816 (1 ... D.R. Nau, in: M.T.W. Hearn (Ed.), HPLC of Proteins, Peptides and Polynucleotides: Contemporary Topics and Applications, VCH ... in the analysis of peptides, which became one of the most efficient technique in proteomics afterwards. In 2009, Geng's group ... stronger separation power and wider range of applications compared to RPLC for peptide separations. Hydrophobic interactions in ...
*  Viscumamide
... is a cyclic peptide isolated from endophytic fungi of mangrove. Guo, ZY; Huang, ZJ; Wen, L; Wan, Q; Liu, F; She, ZG ... Lin, YC; Zhou, SN (2007). "The metabolites of cyclic peptides from three endophytic mangrove fungi". Zhong yao cai = ...
*  Aciculitin
... s are antifungal cyclic peptides isolated from a marine sponge. There are 3 Aciculitins that are isolated from the ... Cytotoxic and Antifungal Cyclic Peptides from the Lithistid Sponge Aciculites orientalis". Journal of the American Chemical ... Antimicrobial peptides from marine invertebrates as a new frontier for microbial infection control Bewley, Carole A; He, Haiyin ...
*  Alpha-Amanitin
... is formed by the normal peptide bond of the carboxyl terminus to the amino terminus of the peptide chain. Unlike most cyclic ... alpha-Amanitin or α-amanitin is a cyclic peptide of eight amino acids. It is possibly the most deadly of all the amatoxins, ... peptides, amatoxins (and phallotoxins) are synthesized on ribosomes. The genes encoding the proprotein for α-amanitin belongs ...
*  Phalloidin
"Ribosomal biosynthesis of the cyclic peptide toxins of Amanita mushrooms". Peptide Science. 94 (5): 659-664. doi:10.1002/bip. ... Phalloidin was one of the first cyclic peptides to be discovered. It was isolated from the death cap mushroom and crystallized ... After translation, the peptide must be proteolyticly excised, cyclized, hydroxylated, Trp-Cys cross-linked to form ... Essentially, it follows typical small peptide synthesis, using hydroxyl-proline. The major difficulty in synthesis is the ...
*  Jean Thomas (biochemist)
"Hydroxyl-carbonyl interaction in cyclic peptides and depsipeptides / Jean Olwen Thomas". Swansea University Library Catalogue. ... in Chemistry for her thesis titled Hydroxyl-carbonyl interaction in cyclic peptides and depsipeptides. Upon receiving her Ph.D ...
*  Metabolism
Amino acids are made into proteins by being joined together in a chain of peptide bonds. Each different protein has a unique ... Munekage Y, Hashimoto M, Miyake C, Tomizawa K, Endo T, Tasaka M, Shikanai T (2004). "Cyclic electron flow around photosystem I ... Proteins are made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain joined together by peptide bonds. Many proteins are enzymes that ...
*  Xenorhabdus bovienii
"Structure elucidation and biosynthesis of lysine-rich cyclic peptides in Xenorhabdus nematophila". Organic & Biomolecular ...