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*  Nonribosomal peptide
Due to these structural and mechanistic similarities, some nonribosomal peptide synthetases contain polyketide synthase modules ... Each nonribosomal peptide synthetase can synthesize only one type of peptide. Nonribosomal peptides often have cyclic and/or ... Nonribosomal peptides (NRP) are a class of peptide secondary metabolites, usually produced by microorganisms like bacteria and ... Nonribosomal peptides are synthesized by one or more specialized nonribosomal peptide-synthetase (NRPS) enzymes. The NRPS genes ...
*  Alpha-Aminobutyric acid
It is used by nonribosomal peptide synthases. One example of a nonribosomal peptide containing homoalanine is ophthalmic acid, ...
*  Holo-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase
"Post-translational modification of polyketide and nonribosomal peptide synthases". Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 1 (3): 309-15. doi: ... holo-ACP synthase, PPTase, AcpS, ACPS, acyl carrier protein synthase, P-pant transferase, and CoA:apo-[acyl-carrier-protein] ... In enzymology, a holo-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase (EC 2.7.8.7) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction: CoA-[4'- ...
*  Microcystin
Chemically they are cyclic heptapeptides produced through nonribosomal peptide synthases. Microcystins can be produced in large ...
*  Cyanopeptolin
The production of cyanopeptolins occurs through nonribosomal peptides synthases (NRPS). Increased water temperatures, because ... CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Martin Welker and Hans Von Döhren (2006). "Cyanobacterial peptides - Nature's own ...
*  Cereulide
... is produced by a dedicated non-ribosomal peptide synthase system in B. cereus. In addition to its cytotoxicity, ...
*  Vancomycin
Figure 2). The organization of CepA, CepB, and Cep C closely resembles other peptide synthases such as those for surfactin ( ... A set of multienzymes (peptide synthase CepA, CepB, and CepC) are responsible for assembling the heptapeptide. ( ... Each peptide synthase activates codes for various amino acids to activate each domain. CepA codes for modules 1, 2, and 3. CepB ... The three peptide synthases are located at the start of the region of the bacterial genome linked with antibiotic biosynthesis ...
*  Antimycin A
Antimycins are synthesised by a hybrid polyketide synthase (PKS)/non-ribosomal peptide synthase (NRPS). Lethal Doses in Fish ... Antimycins are produced by a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS)/polyketide synthase (PKS) assembly complex which acts as ... The production of ATP is subsequently inhibited, as protons are unable to flow through the ATP synthase complex in the absence ...
*  Acyl carrier protein
The ACPs are related in structure and mechanism to the peptidyl carrier proteins (PCP) from nonribosomal peptide synthases. ... ACPs of polyketide synthases, and peptidyl carrier proteins (PCP) and aryl carrier proteins (ArCP) of nonribosomal peptide ... First, the intermediates remain covalently linked to the synthases (or synthetases) in an energy-rich linkage. Second, the ... be post-translationally attached to a conserved serine residue on the ACP by the action of holo-acyl carrier protein synthase ( ...
*  Apratoxin A
The mixed peptide-polyketide natural product comes from a polyketide synthase/non-ribosomal peptide synthase pathway (PKS/NRPS ... The Apratoxin biosynthetic pathway is an organization of type I modular mixed polyketide synthase/non-ribosomal peptide ... Keto Synthase AT - Acyl Transferase KR - Keto Reductase ER - Enoyl Reductase ACP - Acyl Carrier Protein HCS - HMG-CoA Synthase ... The non-ribosomal peptides are synthesized by multiple specialized NRPS enzymes. Due to the structural and mechanistic ...
*  Oligopeptide
... classes are produced by nonribosomal peptides synthases (NRPS), except cyclamides and microviridins are ... The peptide is located in the Fd fragment of the gamma-globulin molecule. Oligoester Oligomer Oligopeptidase Peptide synthesis ... Peptide T - N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine ... These peptides are important in the study of transcription. Alpha-amanitin is the main toxin from the species Amanita ...
*  Ergocryptine
On the path to ergocryptine, an ergopeptine, the tripeptide is installed by a Non-Ribosomal Peptide Synthase (NRPS). It has ... D-lysergyl peptide synthases (LPS) 1 and 2, which are responsible for the tripeptide connection to lysergic acid. The timing of ... This reaction is catalyzed by a prenyltransferase enzyme (Prenyltransferase 4-dimethylallyltryptophan synthase) named FgaPT2 in ...
*  Photorhabdus
Another important sequence identified is the gene encoding polyketide and nonribosomal peptide synthases which produce ...
*  Diphthine-ammonia ligase
... peptide synthases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is diphthine:ammonia ligase (ADP-forming). Other names in common ... In enzymology, a diphthine-ammonia ligase (EC 6.3.1.14, diphthamide synthase, diphthamide synthetase) is an enzyme that ... use include diphthamide synthase, and diphthamide synthetase. Moehring JM, Moehring TJ (1988). "The post-translational ...
*  Carnosine synthase
... peptide synthases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is 'L-histidine:beta-alanine ligase (AMP-forming)' (incorrect on ... Carnosine synthase (EC 6.3.2.11) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-histidine + beta-alanine ⇌ {\ ... "Carnosine Synthase 1". KALYANKAR GD, MEISTER A (1959). "Enzymatic synthesis of carnosine and related beta-alanyl and gamma- ... The gene encoding the Carnosine synthase is ATPGD1, a member of the "ATP-grasp family" of ligases. Because of its involvement ...
*  Tetrahydrofolate synthase
... peptide synthases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is tetrahydropteroyl-gamma-polyglutamate:L-glutamate gamma-ligase ... folylpoly-gamma-glutamate synthase, folylpolyglutamyl synthetase, folylpoly(gamma-glutamate) synthase, folylpolyglutamate ... In enzymology, a tetrahydrofolate synthase (EC 6.3.2.17) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + ... ADP-forming). Other names in common use include folylpolyglutamate synthase, folate polyglutamate synthetase, ...
*  Ubiquitin-calmodulin ligase
... peptide synthases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is calmodulin:ubiquitin ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in ... common use include ubiquityl-calmodulin synthase, ubiquitin-calmodulin synthetase, ubiquityl-calmodulin synthetase, and uCaM- ...
*  Homoglutathione synthase
... peptide synthases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine:beta-alanine ligase (ADP-forming). ... In enzymology, a homoglutathione synthase (EC 6.3.2.23) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + gamma-L- ...
*  Aerobactin synthase
... peptide synthases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is citrate:N6-acetyl-N6-hydroxy-L-lysine ligase (ADP-forming). ... In enzymology, an aerobactin synthase (EC 6.3.2.39) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 4 ATP + citrate + 2 N6- ... Challis GL (2005). "A widely distributed bacterial pathway for siderophore biosynthesis independent of nonribosomal peptide ...
*  Tyrosine-arginine ligase
... peptide synthases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-tyrosine:L-arginine ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in ... common use include tyrosyl-arginine synthase, kyotorphin synthase, kyotorphin-synthesizing enzyme, and kyotorphin synthetase. ...
*  Glutathione synthase
... peptide synthases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine:glycine ligase (ADP-forming). Other ... In enzymology, a glutathione synthase (EC 6.3.2.3) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + gamma-L-glutamyl-L- ...
*  Dihydrofolate synthase
... peptide synthases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is 7,8-dihydropteroate:L-glutamate ligase (ADP-forming). Other ... In enzymology, a dihydrofolate synthase (EC 6.3.2.12) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + 7,8- ... synthetase-dihydrofolate synthase, FHFS, FHFS/FPGS, dihydropteroate:L-glutamate ligase (ADP-forming), and DHFS. This enzyme ...
*  Gamma-glutamylhistamine synthase
... peptide synthases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-glutamate:histamine ligase. Other names in common use include ... In enzymology, a gamma-glutamylhistamine synthase (EC 6.3.2.18) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L- ...
*  2,3-dihydroxybenzoate-serine ligase
... peptide synthases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate:L-serine ligase. Other names in common ...
*  UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine-D-glutamate ligase
... peptide synthases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine:D-glutamate ligase (ADP-forming ... Ito, E; Strominger JL (1962). "Enzymatic synthesis of the peptide in bacterial uridine nucleotides I. Enzymatic addition of L- ...
*  Metabolism
Fatty acids are made by fatty acid synthases that polymerize and then reduce acetyl-CoA units. The acyl chains in the fatty ... Amino acids are made into proteins by being joined together in a chain of peptide bonds. Each different protein has a unique ... Proteins are made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain joined together by peptide bonds. Many proteins are enzymes that ... This force drives protons back into the mitochondrion through the base of an enzyme called ATP synthase. The flow of protons ...
*  D-alanine-alanyl-poly(glycerolphosphate) ligase
... peptide synthases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is D-alanine:alanyl-poly(glycerolphosphate) ligase (ADP-forming). ...