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*  Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript
... peptide fragments". Peptides. 28 (10): 1945-53. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2007.07.022. PMID 17766010. cocaine- and amphetamine- ... "The activity of CART peptide fragments". Peptides. 27 (8): 1926-33. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2005.10.025. PMID 16730858. ... Peptides. 27 (6): 1328-34. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2005.10.016. PMID 16309793. Wierup N, Kuhar M, Nilsson BO, Mulder H, Ekblad E ... The peptide is found in several areas, among them the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the brain. When CART is injected into rat ...
*  Major facilitator superfamily
These range from small oxyanions to large peptide fragments. Other MFS transporters are notable for a lack of selectivity, ... "Structural basis for dynamic mechanism of proton-coupled symport by the peptide transporter POT". Proceedings of the National ...
*  Protein domain
"Folding of peptide fragments comprising the complete sequence of proteins. Models for initiation of protein folding. II. ... Since the peptide bonds themselves are polar they are neutralised by hydrogen bonding with each other when in the hydrophobic ... Zehfus, M. H (1997). "Identification of compact, hydrophobically stabilized domains and modules containing multiple peptide ...
*  HLA-A*02
Some HLAs bind pathogenic peptide fragments with very high affinity. This in essence "supercharges" their immune system in ... Thus any alteration to the HLA that induces decreased binding to a certain peptide or increased binding to a certain peptide, ... If HLAs bind none of the peptides produced by a pathogen, then there is no way for the immune system to tell that a cell is ... This is a significant decrease and is almost certainly a result of the abnormally efficient binding of HLA-A*02 to peptides ...
*  Lipotropin
β-Lipotropin can be cleaved into smaller peptides. In humans, γ-lipotropin, β-MSH, and β-endorphin, are all possible fragments ... γ-lipotropin is the amino-terminal peptide fragment of β-lipotropin. In humans, it has 56 amino acids. Gamma lipotropin is ... Peptides Direct information page, accessed 26 August 2013 AFL Statement of Charges against James Hird and Essendon Football ... β-Lipotropin is a 90-amino acid polypeptide that is the carboxy-terminal fragment of POMC. It was initially reported to ...
*  Chromogranin A
A peptide fragment of ChgA located in the Vasostatin-1, namely ChgA29-42 has been identified as the antigenic epitope ... Chromogranin A is cleaved by an endogenous prohormone convertase to produce several peptide fragments. See chromogranin A ... These peptides negatively modulate the neuroendocrine function of the releasing cell (autocrine) or nearby cells (paracrine). ... Iacangelo AL, Eiden LE (August 1995). "Chromogranin A: current status as a precursor for bioactive peptides and a granulogenic/ ...
*  Hydrogen-deuterium exchange
Individual peptides are then analyzed for overall deuteration of each peptide fragment. Using this technique the resolution of ... For example, the location and relative amount of deuterium exchange along the peptide backbone can be determined roughly by ... It was soon discovered that CID causes "scrambling" of the deuterium position within the peptides. However, fragmentation ... "Electron capture dissociation proceeds with a low degree of intramolecular migration of peptide amide hydrogens". Journal of ...
*  Protein mass spectrometry
It is the process of assigning amino acids from peptide fragment masses of a protein. De novo sequencing has proven successful ... Collision-induced dissociation is used in mainstream applications to generate a set of fragments from a specific peptide ion. ... An intermediate "middle-down" approach in which larger peptide fragments are analyzed may also sometimes be used. The ... Peptide mass fingerprinting uses the masses of proteolytic peptides as input to a search of a database of predicted masses that ...
*  Hemorphin-4
"Peptide fragments derived from the beta-chain of hemoglobin (hemorphins) are centrally active in vivo". Peptides. 10 (4): 747- ... Casomorphin Brantl V, Gramsch C, Lottspeich F, Mertz R, Jaeger KH, Herz A (June 1986). "Novel opioid peptides derived from ... Hemorphin-4 is an endogenous opioid peptide of the hemorphin family which possesses antinociceptive properties and is derived ... Peptides. 13 (4): 623-31. doi:10.1016/0196-9781(92)90165-Y. PMID 1359507. Lantz I, Glämsta EL, Talbäck L, Nyberg F (August 1991 ...
*  Hemorphin
"Peptide fragments derived from the beta-chain of hemoglobin (hemorphins) are centrally active in vivo". Peptides. 10 (4): 747- ... Casomorphin Brantl V, Gramsch C, Lottspeich F, Mertz R, Jaeger KH, Herz A (June 1986). "Novel opioid peptides derived from ... Hemorphins are a class of naturally occurring, endogenous opioid peptides which are found in the bloodstream, and are derived ...
*  ANKS1A
Mercurio FA, Di Natale C, Pirone L, Scognamiglio PL, Marasco D, Pedone EM, Saviano M, Leone M (July 2015). "Peptide Fragments ...
*  CALM2
Martoglio B, Graf R, Dobberstein B (1997). "Signal peptide fragments of preprolactin and HIV-1 p-gp160 interact with calmodulin ... "Identification of a calmodulin-binding and inhibitory peptide domain in the HIV-1 transmembrane glycoprotein". AIDS Res. Hum. ...
*  Peptide-mass fingerprint
... a fragmented peptide sample is loaded onto a matrix and ionized through the use of a high energy laser. The fragmented ions are ... In bio-informatics, a peptide-mass fingerprint or peptide-mass map is a mass spectrum of a mixture of peptides that comes from ... This spectrum shows the masses and relative abundances of the peptide fragments present in the sample. In reading a spectrum ... Cottrell, J. S. (1994-06-01). "Protein identification by peptide mass fingerprinting". Peptide Research. 7 (3): 115-124. ISSN ...
*  Peptide mass fingerprinting
The mass of these peptide fragments is then calculated and compared to the peak list of measured peptide masses. The results ... The advantage of this method is that only the masses of the peptides have to be known. Time-consuming de novo peptide ... They then compare the masses of the peptides of the unknown protein to the theoretical peptide masses of each protein encoded ... The matrix molecules are required for the desorption of the peptide molecules. Matrix and peptide molecules co-crystallize on ...
*  Genome-based peptide fingerprint scanning
"Identifying proteins from two-dimensional gels by molecular mass searching of peptide fragments in protein sequence databases ... Genome-based Peptide Fingerprint Scanning (GFS) Documentation Facebook link to "Genome-based Peptide Fingerprint Scanning" ... peptide molecular weights, tandem mass spectrometry from one or more peptide, and combination mass data with amino acid ... They applied peptide fingerprint scanning and MASCOT to the protein data to find regions that may not have been previously ...
*  Digestive enzyme
Pepsin breaks down the protein in the food into smaller particles, such as peptide fragments and amino acids. Protein digestion ... Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP): This peptide decreases gastric motility and is produced by duodenal mucosal cells. motilin: ... Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) is produced by the mucosal duodenal cells in response to chyme containing high amounts of ... Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a unique peptide released by the duodenal "I cells" in response to chyme containing high fat or ...
*  HLA-A
Some HLAs bind pathogenic peptide fragments with very high affinity. This in essence "supercharges" their immune system in ... This changes the peptides produced via proteolysis, which changes the peptides able to be presented to the immune system by the ... This increases the likelihood that the peptide will find the groove. If the peptide's affinity for the HLA-A protein is great ... TAP then binds to the peptide loading complex along with another protein, called tapasin. At this point the peptide loading ...
*  P3 peptide
... resulting the peptides p3 and Aβ respectively and releasing in both cases a cytoplasmic peptide fragment known as the APP ... p3 peptide also known as amyloid β- peptide (Aβ)17-40/42 is the peptide resulting from the α- and γ-secretase cleavage from the ... Szczepanik AM, Rampe D, Ringheim GE (2008). "Amyloid-β peptide fragments p3 and p4 induce pro-inflammatory cytokine and ... However, p3 peptide's role in these diseases is not truly known yet. There is little information related to the p3 peptides ...
*  MHC class I
Their function is to display peptide fragments of non-self proteins from within the cell to cytotoxic T cells; this will ... The α1 and α2 domains fold to make up a groove for peptides to bind. MHC class I molecules bind peptides that are 8-10 amino ... The MHC class I molecule is then, in turn, loaded with peptides in the lumen of the ER. The peptide-loading process involves ... The two subunits form a peptide binding site and two ATP binding sites that face the cytosol. TAP binds peptides on the ...
*  Growth hormone-releasing hormone
Sermorelin, a functional peptide fragment of GHRH, has been used in the diagnosis of deficiencies in growth hormone secretion. ... It is a 44-amino acid peptide hormone produced in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. GHRH first appears in the human ...
*  Antigen processing
The endogenous pathway is used to present cellular peptide fragments on the cell surface on MHC class I molecules. If a virus ... there are instances where extracellular-derived peptides are presented in the context of MHC class I and cytosolic peptides are ... to prevent it from binding cellular peptides or peptides from the endogenous pathway. The invariant chain also facilitates MHC ... "Class II-associated invariant chain peptide" (CLIP) which still blocks the peptide binding cleft. An MHC class II-like ...
*  Peptide synthesis
Another method is fragment condensation, in which peptide fragments are coupled. Although the former can elongate the peptide ... Fragment condensation is better than stepwise elongation for synthesizing sophisticated long peptides, but its use must be ... The biosynthesis of peptides or proteins (long peptides) in living organisms occurs in the opposite direction, and is known as ... In peptide synthesis, microwave irradiation has been used to complete long peptide sequences with high degrees of yield and low ...
*  Tetrapeptide
It is the smallest peptide fragment of gastrin which has the same physiological and pharmacological activity as gastrin. ... A tetrapeptide is a peptide, classified as an oligopeptide, since it only consists of four amino acids joined by peptide bonds ... Gluten exorphines A4 (H-Gly-Tyr-Tyr-Pro-OH) and B4 (H-Tyr-Gly-Gly-Trp-OH) are peptides isolated from gluten. Tyrosine-MIF-1 (H- ... Endomorphin-1 (H-Tyr-Pro-Trp-Phe-NH2) and endomorphin-2 (H-Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH2) are peptide amides with the highest known ...
*  Proteomics
Due to the lack of specific protein identification, past researchers were forced to decipher the peptide fragments themselves. ... These methods offer various advantages, for instance they are often able to determine the sequence of a protein or peptide, ... One of the earliest method for protein analysis has been Edman degradation (introduced in 1967) where a single peptide is ... Here, the proteins within a complex mixture are labeled first isotopically, and then digested to yield labeled peptides. The ...
*  N-Terminal peptide of proopiomelanocortin
The N-terminal peptide/fragment of proopiomelanocortin (NPP; N-POMC), also known as pro-γ-MSH, is a naturally occurring, ...
*  Phage display
Peptides are usually fused to the N-terminus of pVIII. Usually peptides that can be fused to pVIII are 6-8 amino acids long. ... Multiple cloning sites are sometimes used to ensure that the fragments are inserted in all three possible reading frames so ... Castillo J, Goodson B, Winter J (November 2001). "T7 displayed peptides as targets for selecting peptide specific scFvs from ... when he demonstrated the display of peptides on filamentous phage by fusing the peptide of interest onto gene III of ...