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*  Nonribosomal peptide
The biosynthesis of nonribosomal peptides shares characteristics with the polyketide and fatty acid biosynthesis. Due to these ... Each nonribosomal peptide synthetase can synthesize only one type of peptide. Nonribosomal peptides often have cyclic and/or ... Nonribosomal peptides (NRP) are a class of peptide secondary metabolites, usually produced by microorganisms like bacteria and ... Nonribosomal peptides are synthesized by one or more specialized nonribosomal peptide-synthetase (NRPS) enzymes. The NRPS genes ...
*  Protein primary structure
Protein biosynthesis is most commonly performed by ribosomes in cells. Peptides can also be synthesized in the laboratory[ ... Peptides can be synthesised chemically via a range of laboratory methods. Chemical methods typically synthesise peptides in the ... Some organisms can also make short peptides by non-ribosomal peptide synthesis, which often use amino acids other than the ... Finally, the peptide side chains can also be modified covalently, e.g., phosphorylation Aside from cleavage, phosphorylation is ...
*  Corticotropin-like intermediate peptide
Lloyd D. Fricker (24 July 1991). Peptide biosynthesis and processing. CRC Press. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-8493-8852-1. Retrieved 25 ... Peptides. 14 (6): 1221-4. doi:10.1016/0196-9781(93)90179-K. PMID 8134304. Corticotropin-Like Intermediate Lobe Peptide at the ... Chastrette N, Cespuglio R, Lin YL, Jouvet M (February 1990). "Proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides and sleep in the rat ... Marshall JB, Kapcala LP, Manning LD, McCullough AJ (November 1984). "Effect of corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide on ...
*  Condensation domain
This domain catalyses a condensation reaction to form peptide bonds in non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis. It is usually found ... Stachelhaus T, Mootz HD, Bergendahl V, Marahiel MA (August 1998). "Peptide bond formation in nonribosomal peptide biosynthesis ... In molecular biology, the condensation domain is a protein domain found in many multi-domain enzymes which synthesise peptide ...
*  Met-enkephalin
Costa E, Mocchetti I, Supattapone S, Snyder SH (July 1987). "Opioid peptide biosynthesis: enzymatic selectivity and regulatory ... Vats ID, Chaudhary S, Karar J, Nath M, Pasha Q, Pasha S (October 2009). "Endogenous peptide: Met-enkephalin-Arg-Phe, ... endogenous opioid peptide that has opioid effects of a relatively short duration. It is one of the two forms of enkephalin, the ... its cleavage generates four copies of met-enkephalin peptides at once. In addition, anabolism of proenkephalin A results in the ...
*  Tyrocidine
Kopp F, Marahiel MA (August 2007). "Macrocyclization strategies in polyketide and nonribosomal peptide biosynthesis". Nat Prod ... Its biosynthesis is via an enzymatic assembly consisting of 3 peptide synthetase proteins, TycA, TycB, and TycC, which contain ... Use of solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) allowed the incorporation of a diverse array of monomers into the peptide chain. ... Elongation of the peptide chain is achieved through condensation of the upstream PCP onto an adjacent downstream PCP-bound ...
*  Polymyxin
Kopp F, Marahiel MA (2007). "Macrocyclization strategies in polyketide and nonribosomal peptide biosynthesis". Nat Prod Rep. 24 ... They are part of a broader class of molecules called nonribosomal peptides. They are produced in nature by Gram-positive ... August 2005). "Resistance to the antimicrobial peptide polymyxin requires myristoylation of Escherichia coli and Salmonella ... April 2003). "Isolation, structural characterization, and properties of mattacin (polymyxin M), a cyclic peptide antibiotic ...
*  Chemical biology
"Crosslinking studies of protein-protein interactions in nonribosomal peptide biosynthesis". Chem. Biol. 16 (4): 372-81. doi: ... 100 years of peptide synthesis': ligation methods for peptide and protein synthesis with applications to beta-peptide ... While chemists have been making peptides for over 100 years, the ability to efficiently and quickly synthesize short peptides ... The development and "optimization" of SPPS took peptide synthesis from the hands of the specialized peptide synthesis community ...
*  Vancomycin
June 1996). "The multiple carrier model of nonribosomal peptide biosynthesis at modular multienzymatic templates". The Journal ... The three peptide synthases are located at the start of the region of the bacterial genome linked with antibiotic biosynthesis ... The D-alanyl-D-serine variation causes a six-fold loss of affinity between vancomycin and the peptide, likely due to steric ... Samel SA, Marahiel MA, Essen LO (May 2008). "How to tailor non-ribosomal peptide products-new clues about the structures and ...
*  Colistin
Elongation of non ribosomal peptide biosynthesis begins by a loading module and then the addition of each subsequent amino acid ... The biosynthesis of colistin requires the use of three amino acids threonine, leucine, and 2,4-diaminobutryic acid. It is ... This continues with each amino acid until the linear peptide chain is completed. The last module will have a thioesterase to ... Colistin is a polycationic peptide and has both hydrophilic and lipophilic moieties.[citation needed] These cationic regions ...
*  List of MeSH codes (G06)
... peptide biosynthesis, nucleic acid-independent MeSH G06.535.770.871 --- protein biosynthesis MeSH G06.535.770.871.200 --- ... peptide chain initiation, translational MeSH G06.535.770.871.720 --- peptide chain termination, translational MeSH G06.535. ... peptide library MeSH G06.184.603.060.670 --- protein sorting signals MeSH G06.184.603.060.670.600 --- nuclear export signals ... frameshifting, ribosomal MeSH G06.535.770.871.640 --- peptide chain elongation, translational MeSH G06.535.770.871.650 --- ...
*  Proprotein convertase
Peptide Biosynthesis: Prohormone Convertases 1/3 and 2, by A. Hoshino and I. Lindberg, Morgan Claypool Publishers, 2012, ISBN ... PC1/3 and PC2 do not directly produce most neuropeptides and peptide hormones, but instead generate intermediates that contain ... The phenomenon of prohormone conversion was discovered by Donald F. Steiner while examining the biosynthesis of insulin in 1967 ... The two proprotein convertases that specialize in the processing of the precursors of peptide hormones and neuropeptides are ...
*  Phytotoxin
Pseudomonas syringae phytotoxins: mode of action, regulation, and biosynthesis by peptide and polyketide synthetases. ... Variation in conservation of the cluster for biosynthesis of the phytotoxin phaseolotoxin in Pseudomonas syringae suggests at ... Additionally, phaseolotoxin inhibits the enzyme ornithine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.17), which is involved in the biosynthesis of ...
*  Haloterrigena turkmenica
Other genes coding for biosynthesis of peptides and secondary metabolites were also detected. Historically the phylogeny of the ...
*  Vitamin C
Eipper BA, Stoffers DA, Mains RE (1992). "The biosynthesis of neuropeptides: peptide alpha-amidation". Annual Review of ... Cui J, Yuan X, Wang L, Jones G, Zhang S (Nov 2011). "Recent loss of vitamin C biosynthesis ability in bats". PloS One. 6 (11): ... During biosynthesis ascorbate acts as a reducing agent, donating electrons and preventing oxidation to keep iron and copper ... This process follows a diurnal rhythm, so that enzyme expression peaks in the morning to support biosynthesis later on when mid ...
*  Oligopeptide
"Cyanobacterial peptides - Nature's own combinatorial biosynthesis". FEMS Microbiology Reviews. 30: 530-563. doi:10.1111/j.1574- ... The peptide is located in the Fd fragment of the gamma-globulin molecule. Oligoester Oligomer Oligopeptidase Peptide synthesis ... Peptide T - N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine ... These peptides are important in the study of transcription. Alpha-amanitin is the main toxin from the species Amanita ...
*  Cyanopeptolin
CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Martin Welker and Hans Von Döhren (2006). "Cyanobacterial peptides - Nature's own ... combinatorial biosynthesis". FEMS Microbiology Reviews. 30: 530-563. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6976.2006.00022.x. CS1 maint: Uses ... The production of cyanopeptolins occurs through nonribosomal peptides synthases (NRPS). Increased water temperatures, because ...
*  Peptide
Du L, Shen B; Shen (March 2001). "Biosynthesis of hybrid peptide-polyketide natural products". Current Opinion in Drug ... Argireline Beefy meaty peptide Bis-peptide CLE peptide Epidermal growth factor Journal of Peptide Science Lactotripeptides ... Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide; PHM27) PACAP Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Peptide Peptide PHI 27 (Peptide Histidine ... All peptides except cyclic peptides have an N-terminal and C-terminal residue at the end of the peptide (as shown for the ...
*  Phalloidin
"Ribosomal biosynthesis of the cyclic peptide toxins of Amanita mushrooms". Peptide Science. 94 (5): 659-664. doi:10.1002/bip. ... Phalloidin was one of the first cyclic peptides to be discovered. It was isolated from the death cap mushroom and crystallized ... After translation, the peptide must be proteolyticly excised, cyclized, hydroxylated, Trp-Cys cross-linked to form ... Essentially, it follows typical small peptide synthesis, using hydroxyl-proline. The major difficulty in synthesis is the ...
*  Streptomyces actuosus
"Biosynthesis of the modified peptide antibiotic nosiheptide in Streptomyces actuosus". Journal of the American Chemical Society ... a sulfur-containing peptide antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces actuosus 40037". Experientia. 36 (4): 414-6. doi:10.1007/ ...
*  Carboxypeptidase
For example, the biosynthesis of neuroendocrine peptides such as insulin requires a carboxypeptidase. Carboxypeptidases also ... end of a protein or peptide. (Contrast with an aminopeptidase, which cleaves peptide bonds at the other end of the protein.) ... A carboxypeptidase (EC number 3.4.16 - 3.4.18) is a protease enzyme that hydrolyzes (cleaves) a peptide bond at the carboxy- ... Xaa is any amino acid on the C-terminus of a peptide) is called "prolyl carboxypeptidase". Some, but not all, carboxypeptidases ...
*  Echinomycin
August 2006). "Total biosynthesis of antitumor nonribosomal peptides in Escherichia coli". Nature Chemical Biology. 2 (8): 423- ... The biosynthesis of echinomycin starts with molecule QC. L-tryptophan is the precursor for QC and its biosynthesis parallels ... Echinomycin is a bis-intercalator peptide and is biosynthesized by a unique nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS). Echinomycin ... Echinomycin is a peptide antibiotic. It intercalates into DNA at two specific sites, thereby blocking the binding of hypoxia ...
*  Nosiheptide
... biosynthesis begins with the translation of a 50 amino acid precursor peptide consisting of a 37 amino acid leader ... 1993). "Biosynthesis of the Modified Peptide Antibiotic Nosiheptide in Streptomyces actuosus". Journal of the American Chemical ... 2009). "Nosiheptide Biosynthesis Featuring a Unique Indole Side Ring Formation on the Characteristic Thiopeptide Framework". ... The translation and modification of the precursor peptide is undertaken by several enzymes encoded in a localized gene cluster ...
*  CPA5
Carboxypeptidases have functions ranging from digestion of food to selective biosynthesis of neuroendocrine peptides. Members ...
*  Andrew Lees (vaccinologist)
Sequential biosynthesis of the peptide chains of hemoglobin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 48, 1822-1830. "Alumni Association ... lab centered on the Immunon model of the immune cell signaling around the synthesis of multivalent peptide constructs. He ...
*  Vargula hilgendorfii
The luciferase enzyme consists of a 555-amino acid-long peptide with a molecular mass of 61627 u, while the luciferine vargulin ... has only a mass of 405.5 u. A suggested biosynthesis for vargulin divides the molecule into a tryptophan, an arginine and an ...
*  Andrew Holding
"Studies on the biosynthesis of non-ribosomal peptides / Andrew N. Holding". University of Cambridge. 2013-10-09. Retrieved 2015 ... He has previously published research on antibiotic biosynthesis and DNA replication. He is a Fellow of Downing College, ...