Unpaired penis as ancestral form[edit]. This theory proposes that the single unpaired penis is the ancestral state for amniotes ... Unlike squamata, however, their singular penis is four-headed. Many marsupials also exhibit bifurcated penises like squamata, ... Brennan, P.; Prum, R. (2011). "The erection mechanism of the ratite penis". Journal of Zoology. 286 (2): 140-144. doi:10.1111/j ... Among vertebrates, penises can be found in a variety of shapes, sizes and structures, such as the lymphatic erection mechanism ...
Mentula and verpa: the penis[edit]. Mentula[edit]. Mentula is the basic Latin word for penis. It is used 48 times in Martial, ... Verpa is also a basic Latin obscenity for "penis", in particular for a penis in an erect state with the glans bare,[10] as in ... "to excite the penis"), assuming an otherwise unattested meaning of "penis" for mās ("male"). The supporters of this view cite ... A third word for "penis" was mūtō, mūtōnis (or muttō, muttōnis). This is very rare and found only in one line of Horace and a ...
Penis[edit]. Main article: Human penis. The penis is the male intromittent organ. It has a long shaft and an enlarged bulbous- ... The penis is supplied by the pudendal artery. Scrotum[edit]. The scrotum is a pouch-like structure that hangs behind the penis ... Erection occurs because sinuses within the erectile tissue of the penis become filled with blood. The arteries of the penis are ... The main male sex organs are the penis and the testicles which produce semen and sperm, which, as part of sexual intercourse, ...
Allogeneic HSCT involves two people: the (healthy) donor and the (patient) recipient. Allogeneic HSC donors must have a tissue (HLA) type that matches the recipient. Matching is performed on the basis of variability at three or more loci of the HLA gene, and a perfect match at these loci is preferred. Even if there is a good match at these critical alleles, the recipient will require immunosuppressive medications to mitigate graft-versus-host disease. Allogeneic transplant donors may be related (usually a closely HLA matched sibling), syngeneic (a monozygotic or 'identical' twin of the patient - necessarily extremely rare since few patients have an identical twin, but offering a source of perfectly HLA matched stem cells) or unrelated (donor who is not related and found to have very close degree of HLA matching). Unrelated donors may be found through a registry of bone marrow donors such as the National Marrow Donor Program. People who would like to be tested for a specific family member or ...
A hand transplant was performed in Ecuador in 1964, but the patient suffered from transplant rejection after only two weeks due to the primitive nature of the immune-suppressing medications at that time. The first short-term success in human hand transplant occurred with New Zealander Clint Hallam who had lost his hand in an accident while in prison. The operation was performed on September 23, 1998 in Lyon, France by a team assembled from different countries around the world led by French Professor Jean-Michel Dubernard, including Prof Nadey Hakim, who represented the UK. A microsurgeon on the team, Earl Owen from Australia, was privy to the detailed basic research, much of it unpublished, that had been carefully gathered by the team[who?] in Louisville. After the operation, Hallam wasn't comfortable with the idea of his transplanted hand and failed to follow the prescribed post-operative drug and physiotherapy regime. His inaccurate expectations became a vivid example of the necessity of a ...
Xenozoonosis, also known as zoonosis or xenosis, is the transmission of infectious agents between species via xenograft. Animal to human infection is normally rare, but has occurred in the past. An example of such is the avian influenza, when an influenza A virus was passed from birds to humans.[33] Xenotransplantation may increase the chance of disease transmission for 3 reasons: (1) implantation breaches the physical barrier that normally helps to prevent disease transmission, (2) the recipient of the transplant will be severely immunosuppressed, and (3) human complement regulators (CD46, CD55, and CD59) expressed in transgenic pigs have been shown to serve as virus receptors, and may also help to protect viruses from attack by the complement system.[34] Examples of viruses carried by pigs include porcine herpesvirus, rotavirus, parvovirus, and circovirus. Porcine herpesviruses and rotaviruses can be eliminated from the donor pool by screening, however others (such as parvovirus and ...
Starzl was named one of the most important people of the Millennium, ranking No. 213, according to the authors of "1,000 Years, 1,000 People: Ranking the Men and Women Who Shaped the Millennium " (Kodansha America, 332 pp.)[1]. Starzl has also received honorary degrees from 26 universities in the United States and abroad, which include 12 in Science, 11 in Medicine, 2 in Humane Letters, and 1 in Law.[citation needed]. In 2006, at a celebration for his 80th birthday, the University of Pittsburgh renamed one of its newest medical research buildings the Thomas E. Starzl Biomedical Science Tower in recognition of his achievements and contributions to the field.[20] On October 15, 2007, the Western Pennsylvania American Liver Foundation and the City of Pittsburgh honored Starzl by dedicating Lothrop Street, near his office and the biomedical research tower bearing his name, as "Thomas E. Starzl Way".[21]. ...
One of the first mentions of the possibility of heart transplantation was by American medical researcher Simon Flexner, who declared in a reading of his paper on "Tendencies in Pathology" in the University of Chicago in 1907 that it would be possible in the then-future for diseased human organs substitution for healthy ones by surgery - including arteries, stomach, kidneys and heart.[4] Not having a human donor heart available, James D. Hardy of the University of Mississippi Medical Center transplanted the heart of a chimpanzee into the chest of a dying Boyd Rush in the early morning of Jan. 24, 1964. Hardy used a defibrillator to shock the heart to restart beating. This heart did beat in Rush's chest for 60 to 90 minutes (sources differ), and then Rush died without regaining consciousness.[5][6][7] Although Hardy was a respected surgeon who had performed the world's first human-to-human lung transplant a year earlier,[8][9] author Donald McRae states that Hardy could feel the "icy disdain" from ...
Heterologous polyclonal antibodies are obtained from the serum of animals (e.g., rabbit, horse), and injected with the patient's thymocytes or lymphocytes. The antilymphocyte (ALG) and antithymocyte antigens (ATG) are being used. They are part of the steroid-resistant acute rejection reaction and grave aplastic anemia treatment. However, they are added primarily to other immunosuppressives to diminish their dosage and toxicity. They also allow transition to cyclosporin therapy. Polyclonal antibodies inhibit T lymphocytes and cause their lysis, which is both complement-mediated cytolysis and cell-mediated opsonization followed by removal of reticuloendothelial cells from the circulation in the spleen and liver. In this way, polyclonal antibodies inhibit cell-mediated immune reactions, including graft rejection, delayed hypersensitivity (i.e., tuberculin skin reaction), and the graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), but influence thymus-dependent antibody production. As of March 2005, there are two ...
Endothelial keratoplasty (EK) has been introduced by Melles et al. in 1998. Today there are three forms of EK. Deep Lamellar Endothelial Keratoplasty (DLEK) in which the posterior part of the recipient cornea is replaced by donor tissue. Descemet's Stripping (Automated) Endothelial Keratoplasty (DSEK/DSAEK) in which the diseased Descemet's membrane is removed and replaced by a healthy donor posterior transplant. The transplant tissue can be prepared by a surgeon's hand or ordered already prepared for surgery. Ocular Systems was the first organization to deliver prepared grafts for surgery in 2005.[20] DSEK/DSAEK uses only a small incision that is either self-sealing or may be closed with a few sutures. The small incision offers several benefits over traditional methods of corneal transplant such as Penetrating Keratoplasty. Because the procedure is less invasive, DSAEK leaves the eye much stronger and less prone to injury than full-thickness transplants. New medical devices such as the EndoSaver ...
The patient, a 44-year-old male, had sustained the loss of most of his penis in an accident. The transplanted penis came from a ... The first successful penis transplant procedure was performed in September 2006, at a military hospital in Guangzhou. ... "Man rejects first penis transplant". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 22 May 2010 ...
In the classical sense, acute graft-versus-host-disease is characterized by selective damage to the liver, skin (rash), mucosa, and the gastrointestinal tract. Newer research indicates that other graft-versus-host-disease target organs include the immune system (the hematopoietic system, e.g., the bone marrow and the thymus) itself, and the lungs in the form of immune-mediated pneumonitis[1]. Biomarkers can be used to identify specific causes of GvHD, such as elafin in the skin.[2] Chronic graft-versus-host-disease also attacks the above organs, but over its long-term course can also cause damage to the connective tissue and exocrine glands[3] . Acute GvHD of the GI tract can result in severe intestinal inflammation, sloughing of the mucosal membrane, severe diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting[4]. This is typically diagnosed via intestinal biopsy. Liver GvHD is measured by the bilirubin level in acute patients[5]. Skin GvHD results in a diffuse red maculopapular rash[6], sometimes in ...
Grafting refers to a surgical procedure to move tissue from one site to another on the body, or from another creature, without bringing its own blood supply with it. Instead, a new blood supply grows in after it is placed. A similar technique where tissue is transferred with the blood supply intact is called a flap. In some instances a graft can be an artificially manufactured device. Examples of this are a tube to carry blood flow across a defect or from an artery to a vein for use in hemodialysis. ...
The lung allocation score (LAS) is a numerical value used by the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) to assign relative priority for distributing donated lungs for transplantation within the United States. The lung allocation score takes into account various measures of a patient's health in order to direct donated organs towards the patients who would best benefit from a lung transplant. The LAS system replaces the older method within the United States of allocating donated lungs strictly on a first-come, first-served basis, according to blood type compatibility and distance from the donor hospital. The older method is still used for patients under the age of 12. The LAS system is still being evaluated and revised.[1] The reason for this continuing analysis is the need to balance on one hand the desire to help those patients in direct need, versus the statistical likelihood of the patient to survive the procedure, as well as the post-operative risks of infection and transplant rejection.[2] ...
In the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century, trends in xenotransplantation included the work of Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard.[10][11] In 1889, Brown-Séquard injected himself under the skin with extracts from ground-up dog and guinea pig testicles. These experiments failed to produce the desired results of increased hormonal effects to retard aging. Voronoff's experiments launched from this starting point. He believed glandular transplants would produce more sustained effects than mere injections. Voronoff's early experiments in this field included transplanting thyroid glands from chimpanzees to humans with thyroid deficiencies. He moved on to transplanting the testicles of executed criminals into millionaires, but, when demand outstripped supply, he turned to using monkey testicle tissue instead.[12] In 1917, Voronoff began being funded by Evelyn Bostwick, a wealthy American socialite and the daughter of Jabez Bostwick.[13] The money allowed him to begin transplantation ...
Allotransplant (allo- meaning "other" in Greek) is the transplantation of cells, tissues, or organs to a recipient from a genetically non-identical donor of the same species. [1]The transplant is called an allograft, allogeneic transplant, or homograft. Most human tissue and organ transplants are allografts. It is contrasted with autotransplantation (from one part of the body to another in the same person), syngeneic transplantation (grafts transplanted between two genetically identical individuals of the same species) and xenotransplantation (from other species). Allografts can be referred to as "homostatic" if they are biologically inert when transplanted, such as bone and cartilage.[2] An immune response against an allograft or xenograft is termed rejection. An allogenic bone marrow transplant can result in an immune attack, called graft-versus-host disease. ...
Cancer of the cervix, vulva, vagina, penis, anus, mouth or throat[1][2]. ... They found high-risk HPV on 60% of these men, primarily the penis. "The specimens were obtained using a vigorous motion of the ... A Brazilian study used the readily available Qiagen/Digene test mentioned above (off label) to test men's penis, scrotum and ... penis, anus, mouth, or throat.[1][2] Nearly all cervical cancer is due to HPV with two types, HPV16 and HPV18, accounting for ...
1 on the CMJ charts,[2] and its accompanying first single, "Detachable Penis," became a modest hit, reaching No. 25 on the ... "Detachable Penis." According to Hall, the band realized that its hit song had drawn in many casual fans who didn't care about ... Billboard Modern Rock Tracks chart.[6] Atlantic released videos for "Detachable Penis" and the subsequent singles "(Why Are We ...
... small penis; accessory and wide-spaced nipples; broad or clubbed fingers; and sacral dimple. Those with deletions inclusive of ...
In the male cat, the genitalia includes the penis, which is covered with small spines.[35][36] ...
שמעקל): a little penis, often ascribed to a baby boy. Diminutive of שמאָק shmok, "penis." ... schmuck: a contemptible or foolish person; a jerk; literally means "penis" (from Yiddish שמאָק shmok 'penis') ... putz: unclean penis; stupid 'dirty' person, a jerk (from Yiddish פּאָץ pots, probably from Romanian puță, "dick") ... schlong (Yiddish שלאַנג): In vulgar usage, "penis." (from German Schlange, "snake"). *schlub (Yid. זשלאָב‎ zshlab): a clumsy, ...
Penis (male). *Scrotum (male). *Hair, Feather Aves, Scale Reptilia, Hair Mammalia, Fur ...
wána "penis" xwílena "bow" The final class IV consists of mostly abstract and deverbal nouns. All nouns in this class only are ...
... (Sanskrit: अपद्रव्य) is the generic name used in Kama Sutra for prostheses to increase the size of penis during ... If the penis has been subincised or meatotomized, the piercing is called a halfadravya. ... Because it passes through the most sensitive part of the penis, the procedure is among the most painful of male genital ... and other penis inserts of proto-Malay origins.[3] Indeed, traditional palang design is simply a pin used to accommodate a ...
A tanned bull's penis, a smoked horse's penis. There were runty, shriveled penises of reindeer, foxes, minks and rats. There ... He began collecting penises after a friend heard the story of the bull's penis in 1974 and gave him four new ones, three of ... There was the Big Penis - a 3-foot-long blue whale penis (which could have been an oar for a canoe).[5] ... They were hanging on the walls, stuffed in jars, displayed with curatorial love - dried penises, penises embalmed in ...
the penis, within the prepuce, also known as the "sheath".[4][5] Stallions have a vascular penis. When non-erect, it is quite ... by the increasing tumescence of the erectile vascular tissue in the corpus cavernosum penis.[6] When not erect, the penis is ... The retractor muscle contracts to retract the penis into the sheath and relaxes to allow the penis to extend from the sheath. ... "Penis and prepuce." Equine surgery 2 (2006): 540-557. *^ Hayes, Captain M. Horace; Knightbridge, Roy (2002). Veterinary Notes ...
Within the Felidae, male felids can urinate backwards by curving the tip of the glans penis backward.[136][137] Urine marking ... In placental mammals, urine is drained through the urinary meatus, a urethral opening in the male penis or female vulval ... See also: Human penis § Urination. Most males prefer to urinate standing while others prefer to urinate sitting or squatting. ... Occasionally, if a male's penis is damaged or removed, or a female's genitals/urinary tract is damaged, other urination ...
... testicles and penis bone of the dog, and snake bile.[120] Some TCM textbooks still recommend preparations containing animal ... The deer penis is believed to have therapeutic benefits according to traditional Chinese medicine.[132] It is typically very ... Medicinal tiger parts from poached animals include tiger penis, believed to improve virility, and tiger eyes.[133] The illegal ...
Jelqing - penis enlargement. *Non-surgical elongation of organs by prolonged stretching using weights or spacing devices. Some ... Headsplitting - splitting of both the underside and the top of the glans penis[citation needed] ... Body parts that are commonly removed by those practicing body nullification are: penis, testicles, clitoris, labia and nipples ... Genital bisection - splitting of both the underside and the top of the penis, including genital inversion[9] ...
... is the construction or reconstruction of a penis, or the artificial modification of the penis by surgery. The term ... "Shortened penis post penile prosthesis". MDLinx. Retrieved 16 February 2016.. *^ "A Retrospective Evaluation of the Safety and ... One-Stage Reconstruction of the Penis with Composite Iliac Crest and Lateral Groin Skin Flap by Sun, Guang-ci M.D.; Huang, Jin- ... Good sensation in the reconstructed penis can help reduce the risk of the implant eventually eroding through the skin.[4] ...