Loading...
*  Beta-lactam
Bacterial resistance occurs as a result of the expression of one of many genes for the production of β-lactamases, a class of ... The β-lactam ring is part of the core structure of several antibiotic families, the principal ones being the penicillins, ... Flynn, E.H. (1972). Cephalosporins and Penicillins : Chemistry and Biology. New York and London: Academic Press. Woodward, R.B ... β-lactam derived antibiotics can be considered as one of the most important antibiotic classes but prone to clinical resistance ...
*  Industrial enzymes
"A breakthrough in enzyme technology to fight penicillin resistance-industrial application of penicillin amidase". Applied ...
*  Staphylococcus lugdunensis
It is generally susceptible to antistaphylococcal antibiotics, but increasing penicillin resistance has been reported. Acute ... "Small Changes in Environmental Parameters Lead to Alterations in Antibiotic Resistance, Cell Morphology and Membrane Fatty Acid ...
*  Mary Barber (bacteriologist)
She was one of the pioneers in this field, documenting the phenomenon of penicillin resistance early on. Barber was born on 3 ... In 1947, she published her best-known work, on penicillin resistance in staphylocci, proving that the bacteria were becoming ... She found that this was because bacteria with mutations that caused them to synthesize a penicillin-destroying enzyme were ... The policies implemented as a result of her work caused antibiotic resistance observed in the hospital to drop dramatically. ...
*  Linezolid
... is also an acceptable second-line treatment for community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia when penicillin resistance ... although resistance in enterococci has been reported. Some authors have predicted that resistance in E. faecium will increase ... Resistance has remained stable and extremely low-less than one-half of one percent of isolates overall, and less than one-tenth ... Emergence of resistance has been limited ... It is still uncertain whether the occurrences of such isolates are becoming more ...
*  Neisseria flavescens
"Recruitment of a penicillin-binding protein gene from Neisseria flavescens during the emergence of penicillin resistance in ... The increasing selective pressure from penicillin treatment has led to N. meningitidis' uptake of an altered penicillin-binding ... This modified penicillin-binding protein, also known as mecA, inhibits Neisseria meningitidis' transpeptidases from binding to ... In addition, studies implicate that this species plays a role in penicillin-resistant strains of Neisseria meningitidis. ...
*  Discovery and development of cephalosporins
Since MRSA and penicillin resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae have resistance dedicated to new types of PBP, PBP2a and PBP2x ... Hartman, BJ; Tomasz, A (May 1984). "Low-affinity penicillin-binding protein associated with β-lactam resistance in ... Spratt, Brian G. (10 March 1988). "Hybrid penicillin-binding proteins in penicillin-resistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae ... "Transition from resistance to hypersusceptibility to β-lactam antibiotics associated with loss of a low-affinity penicillin- ...
*  Pneumococcal infection
Peterson LR (2006). "Penicillins for treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia: does in vitro resistance really matter?". Clin Infect ... Tleyjeh IM, Tlaygeh HM, Hejal R, Montori VM, Baddour LM (2006). "The impact of penicillin resistance on short-term mortality in ... but more recently there has been an increasing prevalence of penicillin resistance especially in areas of high antibiotic use. ... Penicillin-resistant strains are more likely to be resistant to other antibiotics. Most isolates remain susceptible to ...
*  Vancomycin
The rapid development of penicillin resistance by staphylococci led to its being fast-tracked for approval by the Food and Drug ... One mechanism of resistance to vancomycin involves the alteration to the terminal amino acid residues of the NAM/NAG-peptide ... Three main resistance variants have been characterised to date among resistant Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis populations ... Vancomycin resistance evolved in more common pathogenic organisms during the 1990s and 2000s, including vancomycin-intermediate ...
*  Beta-lactamase
... that provide multi-resistance to β-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins, cephalosporins, cephamycins, and carbapenems ( ... Some confer resistance predominantly to ceftazidime, but OXA-17 confers greater resistance to cefotaxime and cefepime than it ... which confer resistance to penicillins but not to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins. In the mid-1980s, a new group of enzymes, ... Also responsible for the ampicillin and penicillin resistance that is seen in H. influenzae and N. gonorrhoeae in increasing ...
*  List of antibiotic resistant bacteria
... all strains remain uniformly susceptible to penicillin. Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to penicillin and other beta- ... It was one of the earlier bacteria in which penicillin resistance was found-in 1947, just four years after the drug started ... Resistance to polymyxins first appear in 2011. An easier way for this resistance to spread, a plasmid known as MCR-1 was ... The major mechanism of resistance involves the introduction of mutations in genes encoding penicillin-binding proteins. ...
*  Group A streptococcal infection
No instance of penicillin resistance has been reported to date, although since 1985, many reports of penicillin tolerance have ... The reason for the failure of penicillin to treat S. pyogenes is most commonly patient noncompliance, but in cases where ... Antibiotic therapy (using injected penicillin) has been shown to reduce the risk of acute rheumatic fever. In individuals with ... Kim KS, Kaplan EL (1985). "Association of penicillin tolerance with failure to eradicate group A streptococci from patients ...
*  Antistaphylococcal penicillins
Penicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus appeared very soon after penicillin entered general clinical use in 1943, and ... Modification of the penicillin molecule so that it was resistant to being broken down by β-lactamase was able to temporarily ... Antistaphylococcal penicillins are a class of Beta lactam antibiotics used to treat infections caused by bacteria. ... The range of these penicillins available in each country is very different, and the reasons for this are historical. ...
*  Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
... which is responsible for penicillin resistance. The DNA sequences bound by MecI and BlaI are identical; therefore, BlaI can ... Resistance to other antibiotics was documented in some strains of S. aureus. In 1996, vancomycin resistance was reported in ... mecA encodes penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a), which differs from other penicillin-binding proteins as its active site ... Antimicrobial resistance is genetically based; resistance is mediated by the acquisition of extrachromosomal genetic elements ...
*  Bacteroides fragilis
The bacteria have inherent high-level resistance to penicillin. Production of beta lactamase appears to be the main mechanism ... "Penicillin-binding proteins of Bacteroides fragilis and their role in the resistance to imipenem of clinical isolates". Journal ... Clindamycin is no longer recommended as the first-line agent for B. fragilis due to emerging high-level resistance (>30% in ... These organisms are resistant to penicillin by virtue of production of beta-lactamase, and by other unknown factors. This group ...
*  Staphylococcus aureus
Because of the high level of resistance to penicillins and because of the potential for MRSA to develop resistance to ... Antibiotic resistance in S. aureus was uncommon when penicillin was first introduced in 1943. Indeed, the original Petri dish ... Staphylococcal resistance to penicillin is mediated by penicillinase (a form of β-lactamase) production: an enzyme that cleaves ... In most countries, however, penicillin resistance is extremely common, and first-line therapy is most commonly a penicillinase- ...
*  Drug of last resort
... or vancomycin intermediate-resistance S. aureus (VISA)) often coinciding with methicillin/penicillin resistance, prompting the ... Drug resistance, such as antimicrobial resistance or antineoplastic resistance, may make the first-line drug ineffective, ... aureus due to resistance to non-penicillin antibiotics that some strains of S. aureus have shown to exhibit). In cases ... Recently, resistance to even vancomycin has been shown in some strains of S. aureus (sometimes referred to as vancomycin ...
*  Rollin Hotchkiss
In 1951, Hotchkiss showed that purified bacterial DNA could be used to transfer penicillin resistance from one strain of ...
*  Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Antibiotic resistance in gonorrhea has been noted beginning in the 1940s. Gonorrhea was treated with penicillin, but doses had ... Due to resistance to penicillins, standard treatment is with the third generation cephalosporin ceftriaxone. Antibiotic ... By the 1970s, penicillin- and tetracycline-resistant gonorrhea emerged in the Pacific Basin. These resistant strains then ... Within N. gonorrhoeae, there are genes that confer resistance to every single antibiotic used to cure gonorrhea, but thus far ...
*  Antibiotic resistance in gonorrhea
Overuse of penicillin contributed to Neisseria gonorrhoeae developing high resistance to penicillin through two main mechanisms ... Resistance to penicillin has developed through two mechanisms: chromasomally mediated resistance (CMRNG) and penicillinase- ... chromosomally mediated resistance (CMRNG) and penicillinase-mediated resistance (PPNG). Chromosomally mediated resistance ... The mechanism of resistance is still unknown. N. gonorrhoeae has also shown resistance to the aminoglycoside class of ...
*  Penicillin binding proteins
Chambers HF (1999). "Penicillin-binding protein-mediated resistance in pneumococci and staphylococci". J Infect Dis. 179 Suppl ... Presence of the protein penicillin binding protein 2A (PBP2A) is responsible for the antibiotic resistance seen in methicillin- ... "Isolation of the membrane-bound 26 000-Mr penicillin-binding protein of Streptomyces strain K15 in the form of a penicillin- ... wherein altering the side-chains on the original penicillin molecule has increased the affinity of PBPs for penicillin, and, ...
*  Enterobacter virus CC31
Beta-lactamase (blaCMY-2) is an enzyme responsible for providing antibiotic resistance to penicillins, cephalosporins, and ... The antibiotic resistance of Salmonella makes it difficult to treat these infections if they were to inflict humans. The ... E. coli local to the human's GI tract have acquired this same antibiotic resistance using the blaCMY-2 enzyme. The sequence ... Hydrolysis of the antibiotics by blaCMY-2 results in the resistance. This enzyme is present and expressed in Salmonella ...
*  Β-Lactamase inhibitor
In contrast, most beta-lactam resistance in gram-positive bacteria is due to variations in penicillin-binding proteins that ... Georgopapadakou NH (1993). "Penicillin-binding proteins and bacterial resistance to beta-lactams". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother ... Zapun A, Contreras-Martel C, Vernet T (2008). "Penicillin-binding proteins and beta-lactam resistance". FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 32 ... in approximate order of intrinsic resistance to cleavage by β-lactamases) penicillins (especially aminopenicillins and ...
*  Ralph Batchelor
2000), Post Penicillin Antibiotics: From acceptance to resistance?, Wellcome Witnesses to Contemporary Medicine, History of ... Batchelor, F. R.; Doyle, F. P.; Nayler, J. H. C.; Rolinson, G. N. (1959). "Syntheses of penicillin: 6-aminopenicillanic acid in ... he was part of the team at Betchworth that discovered and synthesised new penicillins. A Royal Society of Chemistry blue plaque ... celebrating a family of new penicillins". Royal Society of Chemistry. 15 June 2016. Retrieved 7 June 2017. Sneader, Walter ( ...
*  Cephalosporin
2000), Post Penicillin Antibiotics: From acceptance to resistance?, Wellcome Witnesses to Contemporary Medicine, History of ... Resistance to cephalosporin antibiotics can involve either reduced affinity of existing PBP components or the acquisition of a ... "Cephalosporin spectrum of resistance". Retrieved 1 July 2012. "Case Based Pediatrics Chapter". Weiss, Rick (4 March 2007). "FDA ... Cephalosporins are bactericidal and have the same mode of action as other β-lactam antibiotics (such as penicillins), but are ...
*  List of Puerto Rican scientists and inventors
Lissette Martínez is an Electrical Engineer and Rocket Scientist. Martinez is the lead electrical engineer for the Space ... penicillin) as well as their dangers, such as poisoning or infection. Published in Florence, this seminal work laid the ... He received a BS degree in Electrical Engineering (Magna Cum Laude) from the University of Puerto Rico - Mayagüez, and an MS ... This type of fiber showed a better resistance and performance than other fibers. Tangüis cotton grows in Canete's valley (south ...
*  Peter Doyle (chemist)
2000), Post Penicillin Antibiotics: From acceptance to resistance?, Wellcome Witnesses to Contemporary Medicine, History of ... he was part of the team at Betchworth that discovered and synthesised new penicillins. A Royal Society of Chemistry blue plaque ... celebrating a family of new penicillins". Royal Society of Chemistry. 15 June 2016. Retrieved 7 June 2017. Sneader, Walter ( ...