Diet seems to have ranged dramatically with location. The East African P. robustus appears to have been a generalist omnivore, with a diet similar to contemporaneous Homo[14] and nearly identical to the later H. ergaster,[15] and subsisted on mainly C4 savanna plants and C3 forest plants, which could indicate either seasonal shifts in diet or seasonal migration from forest to savanna.[16] The South African P. boisei, on the other hand, was a specialist feeder on C4 grasses and sedges, much like modern geladas, likely competing with horses, pigs, hippos, and bovines for food in a very restricted wetland habitat.[17] Paranthropus likely did not use its enhanced jaw muscles for cracking open nuts and seeds as was previously thought,[18][19] and relied more on its molars than its incisors for eating compared to A. africanus.[20]. Paranthropus is associated with stone tools in both southern and eastern Africa, although these tools are generally attributed to early Homo.[21] However, hand fossils from ...
... may represent a common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees, though no consensus has been reached yet by the scientific community. The original placement of this species as a human ancestor but not a chimpanzee ancestor would complicate the picture of human phylogeny. In particular, if Toumaï is indeed a direct human ancestor, then its facial features bring into doubt the status of Australopithecus whose thickened brow ridges were reported to be similar to those of some later fossil hominins (notably Homo erectus), and where the brow ridge morphology of Sahelanthropus differs from that observed in all australopithecines, most fossil hominins and extant humans. Another possibility is that Toumaï is related to both humans and chimpanzees, but is the ancestor of neither. Brigitte Senut and Martin Pickford, the discoverers of Orrorin tugenensis, suggested that the features of S. tchadensis are consistent with a female proto-gorilla. Even if this claim is upheld the find would lose ...
Ti Aprika ket naikeddeng babaen dagiti kaaduan a paleoantropologo nga isu ti kaduogan a natagtagitao a teritorio iti Daga, a ti sebbangan ti tao ket nagtaud manipud iti daytoy a kontinente.[8][9] Idi las-ud ti tengnga ti maika-20 a siglo, Dagiti antropologo ket nakaduktalda kadagiti adu a posil ken ebidensia ti panagtaeng ti tao a mabalin a nasapsapa ngem 7 a riwriw a tawtawen ti napalabas. Dagiti tidda ti posil dagiti nadumaduma a sebbangan iti nasapa a kasla bakes a tattao ket naipagarup a nagbalin iti moderno a tao, kas ti Australopithecus afarensis (radiometriko a napetsaan iti agarup a 3.9-3.0 riwriw a tawtawen SK),[10] Ti Paranthropus boisei (c. 2.3-1.4 riwriw a tawtawen SK)[11] ken ti Homo ergaster (c. 1.9 riwriw-600,000 a tawtawen SK) ket naduktalanen.[2]. Kalpasan ti ebulosion ti homo sapiens sapiens idi agarup a 150,000 to 100,000 a tawtawen ti napalabas idiay Aprika, ti kontinente ket kangrunaan a natagtagitao babaen dagiti grupo ti agananup-agburburas.[12][13][14] Dagitoy nga immuna ...
... is an extinct family of pantodont mammals known from Early and Middle Paleocene of China. The bemalambdids are, along with Harpyodus and Alcidedorbignya, the most primitive pantodonts. Hypsilolambda is known only from a skull and teeth, but Bemalambda is known from complete cranial and postcranial specimens and the best preserved mammal from Shanghuan. It was dog-sized (a large animal for its era) and omnivorous. Both genera have dilambdodont upper premolars (W-shaped crests on the crowns), one of the characteristics of pantodonts, but their upper molars, unlike in later pantodonts, are almost zalambdodont (V-shaped crests) and transversely elongated with the paracone and metacone (cusp) appressed or connated. On p3-M3, there is a large buccal platform on the crowns, the stylar shelf. An exterior indentation on the buccal side, the ectoflexus, is very deep. The lower cheek teeth are easily recognizable as pantodont. The bemalambdids had a low and short skull with a very small ...
While Scrat inadvertently causes the break up of Pangaea, Manny and Ellie are forced to deal with the trials and tribulations of their teenage daughter Peaches, who has trouble fitting in with her peers. Ellie tries to support her daughter, but Manny becomes exceedingly overprotective. Meanwhile, Sid's family returns, but only to drop off the elderly Granny before abandoning them both. Shortly after, a sudden continental break-up separates Manny from The Herd. Trapped on a moving chunk of ice with Sid, Granny, and Diego, Manny has no choice but to ride out the current. Meanwhile, a giant land shift encroaches on Ellie, Peaches, and those remaining on land, causing them to make their way towards a land bridge. Meanwhile, Scrat, in a subplot, finds an acorn that has a treasure map on it that directs him towards an island. After violent weather pushes them further away from land, Manny's group is captured by a band of pirates sailing on a floating iceberg led by a Gigantopithecus, Captain Gutt, who ...
Bipedalism is the basic adaptation of the hominid and is considered the main cause behind a suite of skeletal changes shared by all bipedal hominids. The earliest hominin, of presumably primitive bipedalism, is considered to be either Sahelanthropus[11] or Orrorin, both of which arose some 6 to 7 million years ago. The non-bipedal knuckle-walkers, the gorillas and chimpanzees, diverged from the hominin line over a period covering the same time, so either Sahelanthropus or Orrorin may be our last shared ancestor. Ardipithecus, a full biped, arose approximately 5.6 million years ago.[12]. The early bipeds eventually evolved into the australopithecines and still later into the genus Homo. There are several theories of the adaptation value of bipedalism. It is possible that bipedalism was favored because it freed the hands for reaching and carrying food, saved energy during locomotion,[13] enabled long distance running and hunting, provided an enhanced field of vision, and helped avoid hyperthermia ...
... tugenensis is a postulated early species of Homininae, estimated at 6.1 to 5.7 million years (Ma) and discovered in 2000. It is not confirmed how Orrorin is related to modern humans. Its discovery was an argument against the hypothesis that australopithecines are human ancestors, as much as it still remains the most prevalent hypothesis of human evolution as of 2012. The name of genus Orrorin (plural Orroriek) means "original man" in Tugen, and the name of the only classified species, O. tugenensis, derives from Tugen Hills in Kenya, where the first fossil was found in 2000. As of 2007, 20 fossils of the species have been found. The 20 specimens found as of 2007 include: the posterior part of a mandible in two pieces; a symphysis and several isolated teeth; three fragments of femora; a partial humerus; a proximal phalanx; and a distal thumb phalanx. Orrorin had small teeth relative to its body size. Its dentition differs from that found in Australopithecus in that its cheek teeth are ...
Llwyth o fewn isdeulu'r Homininae yw Hominini. Mae gan y llwyth hwn dri is-lwyth: Hominina, a'i genws Homo; Australopithecina, sy'n cynnwys sawl genera darfodedig; a Panina (neu Tsimpansî), a'i un genws, sef y Pan.[1][2] Gelwir aelodau cytras bodau dynol (yr Hominini), gan gynnwys Homo a'r rhywogaethau australopithecines hynny a ffurfiwyd ar ôl hollti oddi wrth y tsimpansî yn hominins; cf. Hominidae; termau "hominids" a hominins). Cangen "dynol" yw'r is-lwyth Hominina; hynny yw, mae'n cynnwys y genws Homo'n unig. Cynnigiodd anthropolegwyr y term tacson Hominini ar sail y dylai'r rhywogaeth lleiaf tebygol gael ei wahanu oddi wrth y ddau arall. Y tsimpansî cyffredin a bonobo'r genws Pan yw perthnasau agosaf bodau dynol, o ran esblygiad. Maen nhw'n rhannu yr un hynafiad a bodau dynol, hynafiad a drigai ar y Ddaear 4-7 miliwn o flynyddoedd yn ôl (CP).[3] Mae ymchwil a wnaed yn 1973 gan Mary-Claire King yn dangos fod 99% o'r DNA yn gyffredin rhwng y tsimpansî a bod dynol.[4] Addaswyd y ffigwr ...
The i3 of Dermotherium chimaera is an elongate tooth bearing six tines (narrow, high "fingers" as in a comb) arranged from front to back. The frontmost is larger, the next four are about equal in size, and the sixth is smaller.[16] The number of tines resembles that seen in the Sunda colugo, which has four to seven; the Philippine colugo has three to five.[17] The c1 is also an elongate, narrow tooth; at the front, it is slightly curved towards the midline of the jaw. On the buccal (outer) side of this tooth are six cusps, of which the third (counting from the front) is the largest.[18] The p3 is similarly elongate and rounded at the front, but it is broader at the back, forming a talonid (a "heel" of cusps at the back of a tribosphenic tooth). There are six cusps on the narrow anterior part of the tooth, and the fifth (identified as the protoconid) is by far the largest. On the buccal side of the talonid is a strong cusp, the hypoconid, with a crest, the cristid obliqua, descending from it ...
O astudio'r esgyrn, credir fod H. antecessor a H. heidelbergensis yn tarddu o linach yr Homo ergaster o Affrica. Mae'r ffaith fod gan H. heidelbergensis ymennydd gyda chyfaint o1100-1400 cm³ (o'i gymharu gyda'r ymennyd modern: 1350 cm³) yn peri i baleoanthropolegion gredu fod ganddo allu i drin offer llaw ac ymddygiad cymdeithasol eitha datblygedig. Oherwydd hyn, rhoddwyd iddo ddosbarthiad tacsonomegol ei hun: rhywogaeth unigryw ei hun. Roedd taldra gwryw y rhywogaeth Homo heidelbergensis oddeutu 1.75 m (5 tr 9 modf) a phwysent 62 kg (136 pwys); taldra cymharol y fenyw oedd 1.57 m (5 tr 2 modf) a 51 kg (112 pwys).[6] Roeddent felly ychydig talach na'r dyn Neanderthal.[7] Yn ôl Lee R. Berger roedd rhai ohonynt cyn daled a 2.13 m (7 tr) - sef yr Homo heidelbergensis a drigai yn Ne Affrica rhwng 500,000 a 300,000 CP.[8][9] ...
Homo habilis (also known as "handy man") is one of the early ancestors of modern man who used primitive stone tools.[1] Their remains have been found in the Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania.[1] They are believed to be about 2 million years old. The flat face and large molars of the Homo habilis resemble the Australopithecus lineage. The brain size of the Homo habilis is about 700 cc (larger than the Australopithecus). An "apelike" (long arms and a small body) body structure was characteristic of the Homo habilis. They are believed to have been about 1.3 metres tall, and weigh about 37 kilograms.[2] There is still a lot of argument between scientists about the species.[1] They can not all agree on the characteristics, or whether it is even a separate species at all.. ...
Sir Alister Hardy předpokládal, že stadium „vodní opice" probíhalo v miocénu, zhruba v době mezi výskytem vyhynulých rodů Proconsul a Australopithecus (asi před 4 - 14 miliony let), což bylo v 60. letech 20. století velmi málo známé období.[2] Jiní autoři kladou toto stadium až do pozdního pliocénu či brzkého pleistocénu před 2 miliony lety.[7][8] K přesunu do vody mohla vést příliš velká potravní konkurence na souši. Část tehdy žijících hominidů tak začala využívat mělké pobřežní vody, kde jako zdroj potravy sloužily ryby i bezobratlí. V teplém tropickém podnebí nebyl problém pobývat ve vodě delší dobu, takže se postupně vyvinuly četné adaptace, které umožnily hominidům pohybovat se dál od břehu, potápět se za potravou na dně a chytat ryby.[2] Na břeh se přitom předkové lidí mohli vracet ke spánku a zřejmě zde trávili i poměrně velké množství času. Ve vodě bylo jednodušší zůstávat v klidu ve svislé ...
İnsanın əcdadı ilə əlaqədar çalışmalar daha çox Homo cinsi ətrafında cəmləşsə də, sıxlıqla Australopithecus kimi digər hominid və homininləri də əhatə edir. Fosil qeydlərinə görə anatomik olaraq müasir insan tərifinə uyğun olan ən qədim fosillər 195.000 il öncəsinə aiddir [8] və Afrikada tapılmışlardır. Müasir tipdə Homo sapiens altnövünün ilk irqi olan kromanyon insanı isə günümüzdən 50 min il öncə ortaya çıxmışdır. İnsanın təkamülünə dair qəbul görən başlıca iki fərziyyə vardır. Bunların birincisi müasir insanın Afrikada ortaya çıxıb dünyaya yayıldığını önə sürən "tək mənşə" fərziyyəsi, digəri isə fərqli bölgələrdə təkamül edərək müasir insana çevrildiyini önə sürən "çoxlu bölgə " fərziyyəsidir. Müasir insanın və digər insanabənzər meymunların ilk ortaq əcdadı qəbul edilən iki ayaq üzərində dura bilən və gözləri irəli baxan canlının bundan təxminən 6.5 ...