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*  Efraim Racker
This discovery of the first enzyme of oxidative phosphorylation was identified and purified in 1960. The factor that binds F1 ... The complex making this restoration possible was named Factor 1 or F1 as it is a necessary coupling factor for ATPase activity ... This discovery had the added benefit of silencing any critics of the role of F1 in oxidative phosphorylation because it ... Racker and his co-workers concluded that oxidative phosphorylation could be restored by addition of the supernatant from the ...
*  Rate-of-living theory
Animals also vary in the degree of coupling between oxidative phosphorylation and ATP production, the amount of saturated fat ... in mitochondrial membranes, the amount of DNA repair, and many other factors that affect maximum life span. Furthermore, a ...
*  Basal metabolic rate
Animals also vary in the degree of coupling between oxidative phosphorylation and ATP production, the amount of saturated fat ... These factors are combined in a power law, an elaboration on Kleiber's law relating MR to W and MPLS, that appears as MR = W^ ( ... The oxidative system (aerobic) is the primary source of ATP supplied to the body at rest and during low intensity activities ... It is influenced by several factors. BMR typically declines by 1-2% per decade after age 20, mostly due to loss of fat-free ...
*  ATP5J
ATP synthase-coupling factor 6, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ATP5J gene. Mitochondrial ATP ... utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. It is composed of ... "Plasma concentration of coupling factor 6 and cardiovascular events in patients with end-stage renal disease". Kidney ... "Molecular cloning of cDNA for the import precursor of human coupling factor 6 of H(+)-ATP synthase in mitochondria". ...
*  Lacritin
... also restores oxidative phosphorylation and other metabolic events to rescue cells from stress. Lacritin stimulated ... Lacritin also promotes coupling of FOXO1 (that becomes acetylated with stress) with autophagic mediator ATG7. In the absence of ... Lacritin is an LFU prosecretory mitogen and survival factor with a biphasic dose response that is optimal at 1 - 10 nM for ... Syndecan-1 binds many growth factors through its long heparan sulfate side-chains. Yet, long heparan sulfate chains interfere ...
*  Voltage-dependent anion channel
In particular, the binding of hexokinase is presumed to play a key role in coupling glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation. ... A more important factor is that release of cyt c. is also regulated by the Bcl-2 protein family: Bax interacts directly with ... c plays an essential role in oxidative phosphorylation within the mitochondrion, in the cytosol it activates proteolytic ... The precise mechanism for coupling voltage changes to conformational changes within the protein has not yet been worked out, ...
*  HK2
Its role in coupling ATP from oxidative phosphorylation to the rate-limiting step of glycolysis may help drive the tumor cells ... "Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 and dysregulated c-Myc cooperatively induce vascular endothelial growth factor and metabolic ... its localization and attachment to the OMM promotes the coupling of glycolysis to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, ... One possible cause is decreased phosphorylation of glucose due to a defect in HK2, which was confirmed in further experiments. ...
*  Cellular respiration
NADH can be used by the electron transport chain to create further ATP as part of oxidative phosphorylation. To fully oxidize ... Other factors may also dissipate the proton gradient creating an apparently leaky mitochondria. An uncoupling protein known as ... When this protein is active in the inner membrane it short circuits the coupling between the electron transport chain and ATP ... In eukaryotes, oxidative phosphorylation occurs in the mitochondrial cristae. It comprises the electron transport chain that ...
*  HK1
... its localization and attachment to the OMM promotes the coupling of glycolysis to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, ... Activation of Akt kinase is mediated by HK1-VDAC1 coupling as part of the growth factor-mediated phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase ... glycolysis from mitochondrial oxidative, phosphorylation. In the case of SCHZ, decreasing HK1 attachment to the OMM in the ... Robey RB, Hay N (Aug 2006). "Mitochondrial hexokinases, novel mediators of the antiapoptotic effects of growth factors and Akt ...
*  Skeletal muscle
... directly controls the phosphorylation state of the transcription factor NFAT, allowing for its translocation to the nucleus and ... Mice that harbor an activated form of PPARd display an "endurance" phenotype, with a coordinated increase in oxidative enzymes ... coupling excitation and transcription regulation to promote the nerve-dependent induction of the slow program in regenerating ... For example, physical force inside a muscle fiber may release the transcription factor serum response factor (SRF) from the ...
*  ADP/ATP translocase
... transports ATP synthesized from oxidative phosphorylation into the cytoplasm, where it can be used as the ... I. Some factors affecting net interconversions of adenine nucleotides". J. Biol. Chem. 232 (2): 967-978. PMID 13549480. Bruni A ... Saks, V; Lipina N; Smirnov V; Chazov E (1 March 1976). "Studies of energy transport in heart cells The functional coupling ... Free ADP is transported from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial matrix, while ATP produced from oxidative phosphorylation is ...
*  Metabolic pathway
For instance, the citric acid cycle, electron transport chain, and oxidative phosphorylation all take place in the ... an input of chemical energy through a coupling with an exergonic reaction is necessary. The coupled reaction of the catabolic ... by compartmentalization within organelles or separated biochemically by the requirement of different enzymes and co-factors. ... most organisms can perform more efficient aerobic respiration through the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. ...
*  Robert K. Crane
"Factors affecting the fixation of C1402 by animal tissues". Journal of Biological Chemistry 188, 1951, pp. 819-832. Robert K. ... 1960). The key point here was 'flux coupling', the cotransport of sodium and glucose in the apical membrane of the small ... "Dinitrocresol and phosphate stimulation of the oxygen consumption of a cell-free oxidative system obtained from sea urchin eggs ... "The effect of arsenate on aerobic phosphorylation". Journal of Biological Chemistry 201, 1953, pp. 235-243. Robert K. Crane and ...
*  Metabolism
A related problem for aerobic organisms is oxidative stress. Here, processes including oxidative phosphorylation and the ... These signals are usually in the form of soluble messengers such as hormones and growth factors and are detected by specific ... The metabolism of a cell achieves this by coupling the spontaneous processes of catabolism to the non-spontaneous processes of ... In many organisms the capture of solar energy is similar in principle to oxidative phosphorylation, as it involves the storage ...
*  ATP5S
1984). "Evidence for the involvement of coupling factor B in the H+ channel of the mitochondrial H+-ATPase". Proc. Natl. Acad. ... utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is ... This gene encodes the subunit s, also known as factor B, of the proton channel. This subunit is necessary for the energy ... "Entrez Gene: ATP5S ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F0 complex, subunit s (factor B)". Human ATP5S genome location ...
*  PDK2
... to regulate glycolysis/carbodydrate oxidation and producing metabolites for oxidative phosphorylation and the electron ... Klyuyeva A, Tuganova A, Popov KM (Aug 2008). "Allosteric coupling in pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2". Biochemistry. 47 (32): ... the pyruvate dehydrogenase family is tightly regulated itself by a myriad of factors. PDK2 activity is modulated by low levels ... Within the complex, there are three serine residues on the E1 component that are sites for phosphorylation; this ...
*  Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase
Meanwhile, conditions like oxidative stress impair GAPDH function, leading to cellular aging and death. Moreover, depletion of ... For example, the transcription factor MZF-1 has been shown to regulate the GAPDH gene. Therefore, the use of GAPDH as loading ... GAPDH is activated via tyrosine phosphorylation by Src. GAPDH, like many other enzymes, has multiple functions. In addition to ... Energy coupling here is made possible by GAPDH. GAPDH uses covalent catalysis and general base catalysis to decrease the very ...
*  Adenosine triphosphate
In oxidative phosphorylation, the key control point is the reaction catalyzed by cytochrome c oxidase, which is regulated by ... The coupling reaction proceeds in two steps: aa + ATP --> aa-AMP + PPi aa-AMP + tRNA --> aa-tRNA + AMP The amino acid is ... Nucleotide exchange factor Phosphagen Photophosphorylation Knowles, J. R. (1980). "Enzyme-catalyzed phosphoryl transfer ... In oxidative phosphorylation, the passage of electrons from NADH and FADH2 through the electron transport chain pumps protons ...
*  Boris Kholodenko
Kholodenko, B.N. (1984). "Control of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation". J. Theor. Biol. 107: 179-188. doi:10.1016/s0022- ... doi:10.1016/0014-5793(89)80141-3. Kholodenko, B.N. (1991). "Kinetic models of coupling between proton translocation and ATP ... Philadelphia where his group was behind the development of the first model of Epidermal growth factor receptor. Boris ... "The role of long-chain acyl-CoA in the damage of oxidative phosphorylation of heart mitochondria". FEBS Lett. 243: 264-266. ...
*  Oxidative stress
Hardin, SC; Larue, CT; Oh, MH; Jain, V; Huber, SC (2009). "Coupling oxidative signals to protein phosphorylation via methionine ... Evans MD, Cooke MS (May 2004). "Factors contributing to the outcome of oxidative damage to nucleic acids". BioEssays. 26 (5): ... Oxidative stress from oxidative metabolism causes base damage, as well as strand breaks in DNA. Base damage is mostly indirect ... Oxidative stress is likely to be involved in age-related development of cancer. The reactive species produced in oxidative ...
*  ATP synthase alpha/beta subunits
... using the proton gradient generated by oxidative phosphorylation (mitochondria) or photosynthesis (chloroplasts). V-ATPases ( ... as well as flagellar ATPase and the termination factor Rho. The F-ATPases (or F1Fo ATPases), V-ATPases (or V1Vo ATPases) and A- ... reversals in function and changes in the H+/ATP coupling ratio". FEBS Lett. 576 (1): 1-4. doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2004.08.065. ...
*  ATP synthase
"Partial resolution of the enzymes catalyzing oxidative phosphorylation. 8. Properties of a factor conferring oligomycin ... reversals in function and changes in the H+/ATP coupling ratio". FEBS Letters. 576 (1-2): 1-4. doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2004.08. ... The overall process of creating energy in this fashion is termed oxidative phosphorylation. The same process takes place in the ... Chloroplast Electron transfer chain Flavoprotein Mitochondrion Oxidative phosphorylation P-ATPase Proton pump Rotating ...
*  Bioenergetics
... the cell must synthesize ATP via oxidative phosphorylation. Living organisms produce ATP from energy sources via oxidative ... Peter Mitchell (1961). "Coupling of phosphorylation to electron and hydrogen transfer by a chemi-osmotic type of mechanism". ... FAO, Calculation of the Energy Content of Foods-Energy Conversion Factors Schmidt-Rohr K (2015). "Why Combustions Are Always ... Oxidative phosphorylation and the electron transport chain is the process where reducing equivalents such as NADPH, FADH2 and ...
*  Transient receptor potential channel
... a key factor mediating chemical coupling between PLC and TRP/TRPL channels remained a mystery until recently. It was found that ... inflammation and oxidative stress. TRPM5 is involved in taste signaling of sweet, bitter and umami tastes by modulating the ... are activated and regulated by a wide variety of stimuli including many post-transcriptional mechanisms like phosphorylation, G ... receptor coupling, ligand-gating, and ubiquitination. The receptors are found in almost all cell types and largely localized in ...
*  Chemical biology
Historically, phosphorylation events have been studied by mutating an identified phosphorylation site (serine, threonine or ... The coupling of an optical probe to a molecule of interest must occur within a reasonably short time frame; therefore, the ... The conventional use of feeder cells and various exogenous growth factors in the culture of ESCs presents a problem in that the ... Misfolding occurs more often in aged individuals or in cells exposed to a high degree of oxidative stress, but a fraction of ...
*  Unfolded protein response
IRE-1α also recruits tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2). This kinase cascade that is dependent on IRE-1 ... A downstream effect of the ER stress is a significant decrease in insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of tyrosine residues of ... "Coupling of stress in the ER to activation of JNK protein kinases by transmembrane protein kinase IRE1". Science. 287 (5453): ... as well as to induce a switch of skeletal fibers to slow oxidative muscle fibers, as these are fatigue-resistant. Therefore, ...